Jacques Charles


Jacques Charles

Infobox Scientist
name = PAGENAME
box_width =


image_size =200px
caption =Jacques Alexandre César Charles, 1820
birth_date = November 12, 1746
birth_place = Beaugency
death_date = April 7, 1823
death_place = Paris
residence = |citizenship =
nationality = France
ethnicity =
field = physics Mathematics Balloonist
work_institutions = Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers
alma_mater =
doctoral_advisor =
doctoral_students =
known_for =
author_abbrev_bot =|author_abbrev_zoo =
influences =
influenced =
prizes =
religion = |footnotes = |

Jacques Alexandre César Charles (November 12, 1746April 7, 1823) was a French inventor, scientist, mathematician, and balloonist.Charles was born in Beaugency-sur-Loire, and made the first flight of a hydrogen balloon on August 271783.This balloon was destroyed by terrified peasants when it landed outside of Paris. On December 1 1783, a mere ten days after the manned flight of the Montgolfier hot-air balloon, Charles with Ainé Roberts, ascended to a height of about 1,800 feet (550 m) in his balloon "La Charlière".

"Montgolfier's principal scientific collaborator was M. Charles, ... who had been the first to propose the gas produced by vitriol instead of the burning, dampened straw and wood that he had used in earlier flights. Charles himself was also eager to ascend but had run into a firm veto from the King, who from the earliest reports had been observing the progress of the flights with keen attentiveness. Anxious about the perils of a maiden flight, the King had then proposed that two criminals be sent up in a basket, at which Charles and his colleagues became indignant." [S. Schama (1989), Citizens, p. 125-6.]

Inventions

He developed several useful inventions, including a valve to let hydrogen out of the balloon and other devices, such as the hydrometer and reflecting goniometer, and improved the Gravesand heliostat and Fahrenheit's aerometer. In addition he confirmed Benjamin Franklin's electrical experiments. Around 1787 he discovered Charles' Law, which states that under constant pressure, an ideal gas' volume is proportional to its absolute temperature. The volume of a gas at constant pressure increases linearly with the absolute temperature of the gas. The formula he created was V1/T1=V2/T2. His discovery anticipated Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac's published law of the expansion of gases with heat of 1802.

Career

Charles was elected to the Académie des Sciences, in 1793, and subsequently became professor of physics at the Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers. He was married to a creole wife. He died in Paris on April 71823.

ee also

*Timeline of hydrogen technologies

References

* [http://www.centennialofflight.gov/essay/Dictionary/Charles/DI16.htm Jacques Alexandre César Charles.] U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission. Accessed February 23, 2007.


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Jacques Charles — Jacques Alexandre César Charles (* 12. November 1746 in Beaugency; † 7. April 1823 in Paris) war ein französischer Physiker. Wirken Charles beschäftigte sich mit der …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Jacques Charles — Jacques Charles …   Wikipedia Español

  • Jacques Charles — Jacques Alexandre César Charles Pour les articles homonymes, voir Charles. Jacques Charles. Lithographie de …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Jacques Charles — noun French physicist and author of Charles s law which anticipated Gay Lussac s law (1746 1823) • Syn: ↑Charles, ↑Jacques Alexandre Cesar Charles • Instance Hypernyms: ↑physicist …   Useful english dictionary

  • Jacques Charles François Sturm — Born September 29, 1803 …   Wikipedia

  • Jacques Charles Dupont De L'Eure — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Dupont ou Dupond (homonymie). Jacques Charles Dupont de l Eure …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Jacques charles dupont de l'eure — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Dupont ou Dupond (homonymie). Jacques Charles Dupont de l Eure …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Jacques Charles François Sturm — Nacimiento 29 de septiembre de 1803 …   Wikipedia Español

  • Jacques-Charles Delahaye — (* 17. Juni 1928 Paris, Frankreich; † Mai 2010 in Frankreich) war ein französischer Bildhauer. Er gehörte zu den bedeutenden Vertretern der Abstrakten Kunst nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg. Leben Jacques Charles Delahaye war einer der wichtigen… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Jacques Charles Delahaye — (* 17. Juni 1928 Paris, Frankreich; lebt in Offranville (Haute Normandie), Frankreich) ist ein französischer Bildhauer. Er gehört zu den bedeutenden Vertretern der Abstrakten Kunst nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg. Jacques Charles Delahaye ist einer… …   Deutsch Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.