Tulip


Tulip
Tulip
Cultivated tulip – Floriade 2005, Canberra
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
Order: Liliales
Family: Liliaceae
Subfamily: Lilioideae
Genus: Tulipa
Species

See text

The tulip is a perennial, bulbous plant with showy flowers in the genus Tulipa, which comprises 109 species[1] and belongs to the family Liliaceae.[2] The genus's native range extends from as far west as Southern Europe, North Africa, Anatolia, and Iran to the Northwest of China. The tulip's centre of diversity is in the Pamir, Hindu Kush, and Tien Shan mountains.[3] A number of species and many hybrid cultivars are grown in gardens, as potted plants, or to display as fresh-cut flowers. Most cultivars of tulip are derived from Tulipa gesneriana.

Contents

Description

A view inside some tulips, showing the stamens and stigmas

Tulips are spring-blooming perennials that grow from bulbs. Depending on the species, tulip plants can grow as short as 4 inches (10 cm) or as high as 28 inches (71 cm). The tulip's large flowers usually bloom on scapes or subscapose[further explanation needed] stems that lack bracts. Most tulips produce only one flower per stem, but a few species bear multiple flowers on their scapes (e.g. Tulipa turkestanica). The showy, generally cup- or star-shaped tulip flower has three petals and three sepals, which are often termed tepals because they are nearly identical. These six tepals are often marked near the bases with darker colorings. Tulip flowers come in a wide variety of colors, except pure blue (several tulips with "blue" in the name have a faint violet hue).[4][5]

Tip of a tulip stamen. Note the grains of pollen

The flowers have six distinct, basifixed stamens with filaments shorter than the tepals. Each stigma of the flower has three distinct lobes, and the ovaries are superior, with three chambers.[further explanation needed] The tulip's fruit is a capsule with a leathery covering and an ellipsoid to subglobose shape.[further explanation needed] Each capsule contains numerous flat, disc-shaped seeds in two rows per chamber.[6] These light to dark brown seeds have very thin seed coats and endosperm that does not normally fill the entire seed.[7]

Tulip stems have few leaves, with larger species tending to have multiple leaves. Plants typically have 2 to 6 leaves, with some species having up to 12. The tulip's leaf is strap-shaped, with a waxy coating, and leaves are alternately arranged on the stem. These fleshy blades are often bluish green in color.

Origin of the name

Although tulips are often associated with The Netherlands, commercial cultivation of the flower began in the Ottoman Empire. The tulip, or lale (from Persian لاله, lâleh) as it is also called in Iran and Turkey, is a flower indigenous to a vast area encompassing arid parts of Africa, Asia, and Europe. The word tulip, which earlier appeared in English in forms such as tulipa or tulipant, entered the language by way of French tulipe and its obsolete form tulipan or by way of Modern Latin tulīpa, from Ottoman Turkish tülbend ("muslin" or "gauze"), and is ultimately derived from Persian dulband ("round").

On this illustration on the right is shown a tulip's fruit.

Cultivation

Tulips are indigenous to mountainous areas with temperate climates and need a period of cool dormancy, known as vernalization. They thrive in climates with long, cool springs and dry summers. Although perennials, tulip bulbs are often imported to warm-winter areas of the world from cold-winter areas, and are planted in the fall to be treated as annuals.

Tulip bulbs are typically planted around late summer and fall, in well-drained soils, normally from 4 inches (10 cm) to 8 inches (20 cm) deep, depending on the type planted. In parts of the world that do not have long cool springs and dry summers, the bulbs are often planted up to 12 inches (300 mm) deep. This provides some insulation from the heat of summer, and tends to encourage the plants to regenerate one large, floriferous bulb each year, instead of many smaller, non-blooming ones. This can extend the life of a tulip plant in warmer-winter areas by a few years, but it does not stave off degradation in bulb size and the eventual death of the plant due to the lack of vernalization.

Propagation

Tulips can be propagated through bulb offsets, seeds or micropropagation.[8] Offsets and tissue culture methods are means of asexual propagation for producing genetic clones of the parent plant, which maintains cultivar genetic integrity. Seed-raised plants show greater genetic variation, and seeds are most often used to propagate species and subspecies or to create new hybrids. Many tulip species can cross-pollinate with each other, and when wild tulip populations overlap geographically with other tulip species or subspecies, they often hybridize and create genetically mixed populations. On the other hand, most commercial tulip cultivars are complex hybrids, and actually sterile. Those hybrid plants that do produce seeds most often have offspring dissimilar to the parents.

Growing salable tulips from offsets requires a year or more of growth before plants are large enough to flower. Tulips grown from seeds often need five to eight years of growth before plants are flowering size. Commercial growers usually harvest the tulip bulbs in late summer and grade them into sizes; bulbs large enough to flower are sorted and sold, while smaller bulbs are sorted into sizes and replanted, for sale in the future. Holland is the world's main producer of commercially sold tulip plants, producing as many as 3 billion bulbs annually, the majority for export.[9]

Introduction to Western Europe

Tulip cultivation in The Netherlands

Although it is unknown who first brought the tulip to Northwestern Europe, the most widely accepted story is that it was Oghier Ghislain de Busbecq, an ambassador for Ferdinand I of Germany to Suleyman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Empire. He remarked in a letter that he saw "an abundance of flowers everywhere; Narcissus, hyacinths and those in Turkish called Lale, much to our astonishment because it was almost midwinter, a season unfriendly to flowers."[10] However, in 1559, an account by Conrad Gessner described tulips flowering in Augsburg, Bavaria in the garden of Councillor Herwart. Due to the nature of the tulip's growing cycle, tulip bulbs are generally removed from the ground in June and must be replanted by September to endure the winter. While possible, it is doubtful that Busbecq could successfully have had the tulip bulbs harvested, shipped to Germany, and replanted between his first sighting of them in March 1558 and Gessner's description the following year. As a result, Busbecq's account of the supposed first sighting of tulips by a European is possibly spurious.

Carolus Clusius planted tulips at the Imperial Botanical Gardens of Vienna in 1573 and later at the Leiden University's newly established Hortus Botanicus, where he was appointed director. There he planted some of his tulip bulbs in late 1593. As a result, 1594 is considered the official date of the tulip's first flowering in The Netherlands, despite reports of the flowers being cultivated in private gardens in Antwerp and Amsterdam two or three decades earlier. These tulips at Leiden would eventually lead to both Tulip mania and the commercial tulip industry in Holland.[11]

Another account of the origin of the tulip in Western Europe is of Lopo Vaz de Sampaio, governor of the Portuguese possessions in India. After attempting to usurp power from the rightful governor, Sampaio was forced to return to Portugal in disgrace.[clarification needed] Supposedly, he took tulip bulbs back to Portugal with him from Sri Lanka. This story does not hold up to scrutiny though because tulips do not occur in Sri Lanka and the island itself is far from the route Sampaio's ships would have likely taken.

Regardless of how the flower originally arrived in Europe, its popularity soared quickly. Carolus Clusius is largely responsible for the spread of tulip bulbs in the final years of the sixteenth century. He finished writing the first major work on tulips in 1592, and he made note of the variations in colour that help make the tulip so admired. While occupying a chair as a faculty member in the school of medicine at the University of Leiden, Clusius planted both a teaching garden and private plot of his ownwith tulip bulbs. In 1596 and 1598, Clusius suffered thefts from his garden, with over a hundred bulbs stolen in a single raid.

Between 1634 and 1637, the early enthusiasm for the new flowers triggered a speculative frenzy now known as the tulip mania. Tulips would become so expensive that they were treated as a form of currency. Around this time, the ceramic tulipiere was devised for the display of cut flowers stem by stem (bouquets displayed in vases were rare until the 19th century, although such vases and bouquets, usually including tulips, often appeared in Dutch still-life painting). To this day, tulips are associated with The Netherlands, and the cultivated forms of the tulip are often called "Dutch tulips." In addition to the tulip industry and tulip festivals, The Netherlands has the world's largest permanent display of tulips at Keukenhof, although the display is only open to the public seasonally.

Introduction to the United States

It is believed the first tulips in the United States were grown near Spring Pond at the Fay Estate in Lynn and Salem, Massachusetts. From 1847 to 1865, a historic land owner named Richard Sullivan Fay, Esq., one of Lynn's wealthiest men, would settle on 500 acres (2.0 km2) located partly in present-day Lynn and partly in present-day Salem. While there, Mr. Fay imported many different trees and plants from all parts of the world and planted them among the meadows of the Fay Estate.[12]

Diseases

Variegated colours produced by TBV or Tulip Breaking Virus

Botrytis tulipae is a major fungal disease affecting tulips, causing cell death and eventually the rotting of the plant.[13] Other pathogens include anthracnose, bacterial soft rot, blight caused by Sclerotium rolfsii, bulb nematodes, other rots including blue molds, black molds and mushy rot.[14]

Variegated varieties admired during the Dutch tulipomania gained their delicately feathered patterns from an infection with the tulip breaking virus, a mosaic virus that was carried by the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. These aphids were common in European gardens of the seventeenth century. While the virus produces fantastically colourful flowers, it also causes weakened plants prone to decline.

Today the virus is almost eradicated from tulip growers' fields. Tulips that are affected by mosaic virus are called "broken tulips"; while such tulips can occasionally revert to a plain or solid colouring, they will remain infected with the virus. While some modern varieties also display multicoloured patterns, the patterns result from breeding selection for a genetic mutation. In these tulips, natural variation in the upper and lower layers of pigment in the flower are responsible for the patterns.

In art and culture

During the Ottoman Empire, the tulip became very popular in Ottoman territories and was seen as a symbol of abundance and indulgence. In fact, the era during which the Ottoman Empire was wealthiest is often called the Tulip era or Lale Devri in Turkish.

In classic and modern Persian literature, special attention has been given to these beautiful flowers, and in recent times, tulips have featured in the poems of Simin Behbahani. However, the tulip was a topic for Persian poets as far back as the thirteenth century. Musharrifu'd-din Saadi,[clarification needed] in his poem Gulistan, described a visionary, garden paradise with 'The murmur of a cool stream / bird song, ripe fruit in plenty / bright multicoloured tulips and fragrant roses...'[15]

The Black Tulip is the title of a historical romance by the French author Alexandre Dumas, père. The story takes place in the Dutch city of Haarlem, where a reward is offered to the first grower who can produce a truly black tulip.

Today, Tulip festivals are held around the world, including in The Netherlands, Spalding, England. Every spring, there are several tulip festivals in North America, including the Tulip Time Festival in Holland, Michigan, the Skagit Valley Tulip Festival in Skagit Valley, Washington, the Tulip Time Festival in Orange City and Pella, Iowa, and the Canadian Tulip Festival in Ottawa, Canada. Tulips are now also popular in Australia and several festivals are held in September and October, during the Southern Hemisphere's spring.

Classification

Yonina tulips are a Division 6 cultivar
The reproductive organs of a tulip

In horticulture, tulips are divided up into fifteen groups (Divisions) mostly based on flower morphology and plant size.[16] [17]

  • Div. 1: Single early – with cup-shaped single flowers, no larger than 8 cm across (3 inches). They bloom early to mid season. Growing 15 to 45 cm tall.
  • Div. 2: Double early – with fully double flowers, bowl shaped to 8 cm across. Plants typically grow from 30–40 cm tall.
  • Div. 3: Triumph – single, cup shaped flowers up to 6 cm wide. Plants grow 35–60 cm tall and bloom mid to late season.
  • Div. 4: Darwin hybrid – single flowers are ovoid in shape and up to 8 cm wide. Plants grow 50–70 cm tall and bloom mid to late season. This group should not be confused with older Darwin tulips, which belong in the Single Late Group below.
  • Div. 5: Single late – cup or goblet-shaded flowers up to 8 cm wide, some plants produce multi-flowering stems. Plants grow 45–75 cm tall and bloom late season.
  • Div. 6: Lily-flowered
  • Div. 7: Fringed (Crispa)
  • Div. 8: Viridiflora
  • Div. 9: Rembrandt
  • Div. 10: Parrot
  • Div. 11: Double late
  • Div. 12: Kaufmanniana
  • Div. 13: Fosteriana (Emperor)
  • Div. 14: Griegii
  • Div. 15: Species (Botanical)
  • Div. 16: Multiflowering – not an official division, these tulips belong in the first 15 divisions but are often listed separately because they have multiple blooms per bulb.

They may also be classified by their flowering season: [18]

  • Early flowering: Single Early Tulips, Double Early Tulips, Greigii Tulips, Kaufmanniana Tulips, Fosteriana Tulips, Species Tulips
  • Mid-season flowering: Darwin Hybrid Tulips, Triumph Tulips, Parrot Tulips
  • Late season flowering: Single Late Tulips, Double Late Tulips, Viridiflora Tulips, Lily-flowering Tulips, Fringed Tulips, Rembrandt Tulips

Selected species

  • Tulipa acuminata (Horned Tulip)
  • Tulipa agenensis (Eyed Tulip)
  • Tulipa aleppensis (Aleppo Tulip)
  • Tulipa armena
  • Tulipa aucheriana
  • Tulipa batalinii
  • Tulipa bakeri
  • Tulipa biflora
  • Tulipa borszczowii
  • Tulipa botschantzevae (Botschantzeva's tulip)
  • Tulipa butkovii
  • Tulipa carinata
  • Tulipa celsiana
  • Tulipa clusiana (Lady Tulip)
  • Tulipa cretica
  • Tulipa cypria
  • Tulipa dasystemon
  • Tulipa didieri
  • Tulipa dubia
  • Tulipa edulis
  • Tulipa ferganica
  • Tulipa gesneriana
  • Tulipa goulimyi
  • Tulipa greigii
  • Tulipa grengiolensis
  • Tulipa heterophylla
  • Tulipa hoogiana
  • Tulipa humilis
  • Tulipa hungarica
  • Tulipa iliensis
  • Tulipa ingens
  • Tulipa julia
  • Tulipa kaufmanniana (Waterlily Tulip)
  • Tulipa kolpakowskiana
  • Tulipa korolkowii Regel
  • Tulipa kurdica
  • Tulipa kuschkensis
  • Tulipa lanata
  • Tulipa latifolia
  • Tulipa lehmanniana
  • Tulipa linifolia (Bokhara Tulip)
  • Tulipa marjolettii
  • Tulipa mauritania
  • Tulipa micheliana
  • Tulipa mongolica
  • Tulipa montana
  • Tulipa orphanidea (Orange Wild Tulip)
  • Tulipa ostrowskiana
  • Tulipa platystigma
  • Tulipa polychroma
  • Tulipa praecox
  • Tulipa praestans
  • Tulipa primulina
  • Tulipa pulchella
  • Tulipa retroflexa
  • Tulipa rhodopea
  • Tulipa saxatilis
  • Tulipa sharonensis
  • Tulipa splendens
  • Tulipa sprengeri Baker
  • Tulipa stapfii
  • Tulipa subpraestans
  • Tulipa sylvestris (Wild Tulip)
  • Tulipa systola
  • Tulipa taihangshanica
  • Tulipa tarda
  • Tulipa tetraphylla
  • Tulipa tschimganica
  • Tulipa tubergeniana
  • Tulipa turkestanica
  • Tulipa undulatifolia
  • Tulipa urumiensis
  • Tulipa urumoffii
  • Tulipa violacea
  • Tulipa whittalli
  • Tulipa zenaidae (Zenaida's tulip)

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ "WCSP". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/. Retrieved 2010. 
  2. ^ "Tulipa in Flora of North America @". Efloras.org. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=133974. Retrieved 2009-12-07. 
  3. ^ King, Michael (2005). Gardening with Tulips. Portland, OR: Timber Press. p. 16. ISBN 0-88192-744-9. 
  4. ^ King, p.164
  5. ^ Tenenbaum, Frances, ed (2003). Taylor's Encyclopedia of Garden Plants. Houghton Mifflin. p. 395. ISBN 0-618-22644-3. 
  6. ^ Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2002. Flora of North America. north of Mexico Vol. 26, orchidales. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195152085 26 Page 199
  7. ^ Botschantzeva, Z. P. (1982). Tulips: taxonomy, morphology, cytology, phytogeography and physiology. CRC Press. p. 120. ISBN 9061910293. http://books.google.com/?id=1S8aoPCftE0C&pg=PA120. 
  8. ^ Nishiuchi, Y. 1986. MULTIPLICATION OF TULIP BULB BY TISSUE CULTURE IN VITRO. Acta Hort. (ISHS) 177:279–284 http://www.actahort.org/books/177/177_40.htm
  9. ^ "Tulipa spp". Floridata. http://www.floridata.com/ref/T/tulip_spp.cfm. Retrieved 2009-12-07. 
  10. ^ Blunt, Wilfrid. Tulipomania. p. 7. 
  11. ^ "How A Turkish Blossom Enflamed the Dutch Landscape "
  12. ^ The Daily Item, Lynn, Ma Independent Newspaper, written January 24, 1952
  13. ^ A. Leon Reyes, T.P. Prins, J.-P. van Empel, J.M. van Tuyl ISHS Acta Horticulturae 673: IX International Symposium on Flower Bulbs. DIFFERENCES IN EPICUTICULAR WAX LAYER IN TULIP CAN INFLUENCE RESISTANCE TO BOTRYTIS TULIPAE
  14. ^ Westcott, Cynthia, and R. Kenneth Horst. 1979. Westcott's Plant disease handbook. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. ISBN 0442235437 page 709.
  15. ^ Pavord, Anna. 1999. The Tulip. Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. ISBN 1-58234-013-7 page 31.
  16. ^ Brickell, Christopher, and Judith D. Zuk. 1997. The American Horticultural Society A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. New York, N.Y.: DK Pub. ISBN 0789419432 page 1028.
  17. ^ The Plant Expert: Tulips
  18. ^ Iowa State University: Tulip Classes

Further reading

  • Blunt, Wilfrid. Tulipomania
  • Clusius, Carolus. A Treatise on Tulips
  • Dash, Mike. Tulipomania
  • King, Michael. Gardening with Tulips
  • Pavord, Anna. The Tulip
  • Pollan, Michael. The Botany of Desire

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • tulip — (n.) 1570s, via Du. or Ger. tulpe, Fr. tulipe a tulip, all ultimately from Turk. tülbent turban, also gauze, muslin, from Pers. dulband turban; so called from the fancied resemblance of the flower to a turban. Introduced from Turkey to Europe,… …   Etymology dictionary

  • Tulip — Tu lip, n. [F. tulipe, OF. also tulipan, It. tulipano, tulipa, from Turk. tulbend, dulbend, literally, a turban, Per. dulband; so called from the resemblance of the form of this flower to a turban. See {Turban}.] (Bot.) Any plant of the… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • tulip — ► NOUN ▪ a spring flowering plant with boldly coloured cup shaped flowers. ORIGIN French tulipe, from Persian, turban (from the shape of the flower) …   English terms dictionary

  • tulip — [to͞o′lip, tyo͞o′lip] n. [Fr tulipe (earlier tulipan) < Turk tülbend, TURBAN: from the flower s resemblance to a turban] 1. any of various bulb plants (genus Tulipa) of the lily family, mostly spring blooming, with long, broad, pointed leaves… …   English World dictionary

  • tulip — tu·lip (to͞o’lĭp, tyo͞o’ ) n. 1) Any of several bulbous plants of the genus Tulipa of the lily family, native chiefly to Asia and widely cultivated for their showy, variously colored, cup shaped flowers. 2) The flower of any of these plants. ╂… …   Word Histories

  • tulip — tuliplike, adj. /tooh lip, tyooh /, n. 1. any of various plants belonging to the genus Tulipa, of the lily family, cultivated in many varieties, and having lance shaped leaves and large, showy, usually erect, cup shaped or bell shaped flowers in… …   Universalium

  • tulip — n. 1 any bulbous spring flowering plant of the genus Tulipa, esp. one of the many cultivated forms with showy cup shaped flowers of various colours and markings. 2 a flower of this plant. Phrases and idioms: tulip root a disease of oats etc.… …   Useful english dictionary

  • Tulip — This rare and unusual surname is of Anglo Saxon origin, and is a locational name from some minor, unrecorded or now lost place, believed to have been situated in Northumberland, because of the large number of early recordings in that region. An… …   Surnames reference

  • tulip — noun ADJECTIVE ▪ dwarf ▪ early, late TULIP + NOUN ▪ bulb ▪ fields Tulip is used before these nouns: ↑ …   Collocations dictionary

  • tulip — UK [ˈtjuːlɪp] / US [ˈtulɪp] noun [countable] Word forms tulip : singular tulip plural tulips a colourful flower shaped like a cup that grows on a long stem in spring …   English dictionary


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