Infobox musical artist
Name = Sepultura

Img_capt = Sepultura live at Metalmania 2007
Img_size = 250
Landscape = Yes
Background = group_or_band
Origin = Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Years_active = 1984–present
Label = Cogumelo, Roadrunner, SPV, New Renaissance
Associated_acts = Sarcófago, Nailbomb, Soulfly, Cavalera Conspiracy
URL = [ Official website]
Current_members = Derrick Green Andreas Kisser Paulo Jr. Jean Dolabella
Past_members = Max Cavalera Igor Cavalera Wagner Lamounier Jairo Guedes

Sepultura (Portuguese: "Grave"Barcinski & Gomes 1999, page 17.] ) are a Brazilian heavy metal band from Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, formed in 1984.Barcinski & Gomes 1999, page 16.] The band was a major force in the death metal and thrash metal realms during the late 1980s and early 1990s, [cite web |url=|title= Sepultura: Chaos A.D.|author= Darzin, Daina|date= 1994-05-05|publisher= [ Rolling Stone] |accessdate= 2008-07-13] leading the Brazilian thrash metal scene, and their later experiments melding hardcore punk and indigenous Brazilian music with extreme metalcite web |url=|title= Sepultura|author= Haagsma, Robert|date= 1993|publisher= [ Aardschok] / [ Metal Hammer] |accessdate= 2008-05-03 Archived at [] ] [Barcinski & Gomes 1999, pages 89 & 90.] provided a blueprint for the groove metal genrecite web |url=|title= FOCUS ON CHAOS OF THE CARRION KIND|date= 2006-09-26|publisher= [ Roadrunner Records] |accessdate= 2008-07-13] and, to a lesser extent, metalcore and nu metal genres.Fact|date=July 2008

Sepultura gained multiple gold and platinum records across the globe, including in countries as diverse as France, [cite web |url=|title= Les certifications Albums - Année 1994|publisher= [ Musique sur Disque en France (SNEP)] |accessdate= 2008-07-08] [cite web |url=|title= Les certifications Albums - Année 1997|publisher= [ Musique sur Disque en France (SNEP)] |accessdate= 2008-07-08] Australia, [cite web|url=|title= ARIA Charts - Accreditations - 1997 Albums|publisher= [ Australian Recording Industry Association] |accessdate= 2008-07-08] Indonesia, [Barcinski & Gomes 1999, pages 109 & 143.] United States, [cite web|url=|title= GOLD AND PLATINUM - Searchable Database|publisher= [ RIAA] |accessdate= 2008-07-08] and their native Brazil.Barcinski & Gomes 1999, page 143.] The band have sold over 15 million units worldwide. [cite web|url=|title=Sepultura - Dados Históricos|work=Dicionário Cravo Albin de Música Popular Brasileira|publisher=Instituto Cultural Cravo Albin|language=Portuguese|accessdate=2008-08-07|quote=O grupo já vendeu 15 milhões de cópias de seus 11 discos, por todo o mundo.]

Sepultura have released ten studio albums so far, and another one has been announced to be released in 2008. Their most successful records are "Arise" (1991),cite web|url=|title= ((( Sepultura > Biography )))|author= Rivadavia, Ed|publisher= [] |accessdate= 2008-07-08] "Chaos A.D." (1993), and "Roots" (1996), [Harris 2000, page 14.] each of them having surpassed the one million mark worldwide.


Formation and "Morbid Visions" (1984–1986)

Sepultura was formed in 1984 at Belo Horizonte, the capital city of Minas Gerais, Brazil.Barcinski & Gomes 1999, page 16.] At the core of the band were brothers Max and Igor Cavalera, the impoverished sons of model Vânia and Graciliano, a well-to-do Italian diplomat whose fatal heart attack left his family in financial dire straits. [Barcinski & Gomes 1999, page 14.] Graciliano's death deeply affected his sons, providing them the impetus to start a band. [cite album-notes|title= Roots|albumlink= Roots (Sepultura album)|bandname= Sepultura|year= 2005|notestitle=The Roots of Sepultura|url=|first=Steffan|last=Chirazi|pages=p. 13|format=CD booklet|publisher= Roadrunner Records|location= New York, New York] They chose "Sepultura" as the group's name after Max Cavalera was translating the lyrics of the Motörhead song "Dancing on Your Grave".Barcinski & Gomes 1999, page 17.]

The brothers' early likes included several popular hard rock and heavy metal bands at the time such as Van Halen, Iron Maiden, Motörhead, AC/DC, Judas Priest and Ozzy Osbourne's solo career.Barcinski & Gomes 1999, page 16.] That changed on the day they first heard Venom. Igor said,

From then on the Cavaleras quickly graduated to listening to thrash metal bands such as Kreator, Sodom, Metallica, Exodus and Exciter. [Barcinski & Gomes 1999, page 26.]

After a revolving door of musicians, Sepultura established a temporary line-up of Max on guitar, Igor on drums, vocalist Wagner Lamounier, and bassist Paulo Jr.. [Barcinski & Gomes 1999, page 21.] Lamounier exited the band in March 1985 after an argument with the whole group, and went on to become the frontman of fellow Brazilian black metal pioneers Sarcófago. After his departure, Max took over the vocal duties. Jairo Guedes was invited to join the band as their lead guitarist, while Max played rhythm guitar. [Barcinski & Gomes 1999, page 28.]

After about a year of performing, Sepultura signed to Cogumelo Records in 1985. Later that year, they released their debut, "Bestial Devastation", a split EP with fellow Brazilians Overdose. In 1986, the band released their debut full-length album, "Morbid Visions", which is widely considered as one of the first pure death metal albums. It was initially released in the United States on New Renaissance Records, a record label owned by Ann Boleyn.

New Renaissance Records was heavily criticized by the media for signing and promoting Sepultura. However, their song "Troops of Doom" eventually attracted radio airplay. After "Morbid Visions", Jairo Guedes left the band for another thrash metal venture and was replaced by São Paulo-based guitarist Andreas Kisser.

"Schizophrenia", "Beneath the Remains", and "Arise" (1987–1992)

The band's second studio album, "Schizophrenia", was released in 1987. It saw a stylisitc change towards a more thrash metal-oriented sound, while still keeping the death metal elements of "Morbid Visions". The album was a critical success,Fact|date=February 2008 which led them to being signed to Roadrunner Records. With Roadrunner distributing "Schizophrenia" worldwide, Sepultura reached new and more numerous audiences of metal fans.

This stylistic change and critical success was cemented by the band's third studio album, "Beneath the Remains", which was released in 1989. It was followed by a long European and American tour. Their first US show was held on October 31, 1989 at the Ritz in New York City, opening for Danish black metal band King Diamond. It is hailed by "Terrorizer" magazine as one of the all-time top 20 thrash metal albums ["Terrorizer" #109 (2003), page 35 (author unknown)] , as well as a gaining a place in their all-time top 40 death metal records.Hinchcliffe 2006, page 54]

Sepultura moved to Phoenix, Arizona in 1990, and began recording material for their fourth studio album, "Arise". By the time it was released in 1991, the band become one of the most critically-praised thrash/death metal bands of the time, in spite of a lack of mainstream success.Fact|date=February 2008 The album was also the first death metal albumFact|date=October 2008 to chart on the Billboard 200, reaching #119.

"Chaos A.D." and "Roots" (1993–1997)

Sepultura's fifth album, "Chaos A.D.", was released in 1993. It saw a departure from their pure death/thrash metal style, [Barcinski & Gomes 1999, page 131.] mixing it with industrial and hardcore punk elements.cite web |url=|title= Sepultura|author= Haagsma, Robert|date= 1993|publisher= [ Aardschok] / [ Metal Hammer] |accessdate= 2008-05-03 Archived at [] ] The album helped usher the groove metal genre,cite web |url=|title= FOCUS ON CHAOS OF THE CARRION KIND|date= 2006-09-26|publisher= [ Roadrunner Records] |accessdate= 2008-07-13] and saw the band achieve recognition beyond the thrash metal community.Fact|date=February 2008

In 1994, Max and Igor, aided by Alex Newport of Fudge Tunnel, released an even more industrial-oriented album, "Point Blank", in 1994 under the name Nailbomb. Nailbomb performed only one full live gig, and the performance was released as "Proud to Commit Commercial Suicide". The band also played selected tracks live on Sepultura's 1994 tour with Fudge Tunnel as guests.Fact|date=February 2008

Sepultura's death/thrash departure continued with their sixth album, "Roots", which was released in 1996. The band further innovated by experimenting with elements of the music of Brazil's indigenous peoples, with a slower, downtuned metal sound. The track "Roots Bloody Roots" off the album is probably the band's most well-known song,Fact|date=October 2008 and is often a staple at live shows.

Later that year, the band played on the Ozzfest main stage alongside Ozzy Osbourne, Slayer, Danzig, Biohazard, and Fear Factory. However, at the height of Sepultura's fame, a series of events broke the band apart. Just after the release of "Roots", Sepultura decided to fire their manager, Gloria, Max Cavalera's wife.

Internal tensions within the band occurred throughout the latter half of 1996,Fact|date=February 2008 and at the end of a successful tour of Britain, at Brixton Academy on December 16, 1996, the band told Max that they would not renew Gloria's management contract. He then left the band, and subsequently formed a new one, Soulfly. The other members announced that they would continue under the Sepultura name and were searching for a replacement.

"Against", "Nation" and "Roorback" (1998–2005)

Sepultura chose Derrick Green from Cleveland, Ohio to fill in as their frontman and vocalist. With the new line up, the band recorded their seventh album, "Against", which was released in 1998. The album was commercially less successful than its two predecessors.Fact|date=February 2008 Aided by Max's departure, the band saw a further change in their thrash metal elements.

The band's eighth album, "Nation", released in 2001, was slightly more successful than their previous album but sold poorly. This is probably in part due to having a more pure-thrash metal sound than its predecessors. It would be their last studio album released through Roadrunner Records.

A recording of Max's last live show with the band, "Under A Pale Grey Sky", was later released in 2002 by their former record label, against the wishes of the band.

After recording "Revolusongs", an EP of covers in 2002, the band released their ninth studio album, "Roorback", in 2003, which garnered many positive reviews.Fact|date=February 2008 Despite having greater critical acclaim than its predecessors, sales remained low. It was their first album released through SPV Records.

In 2005, the band played in Dubai for the annual Dubai Desert Rock Festival. In November of that year, a live Double-DVD and Double-CD, "Live in São Paulo", was released. This was the first official live album from the band. The release of the album marked the first involvement of the new "Sepularmy" street team in promotion of Sepultura. The Sepularmy is unrelated to any of the band members or its record label, and its members are motivated purely by the desire to share the bands music and message around the world.

"Dante XXI" and "A-Lex" (2006–present)

Sepultura's tenth album, "Dante XXI", was released on March 14, 2006. It is a concept album based around Dante's "The Divine Comedy". The album has been considered to be the band's best effort with Derrick Green and continues in the pure thrash vein of "Roorback". Music videos for the songs "Convicted in Life" and "Ostia" were released, following on from the album's concept. In a recent interview in "Revolver Magazine", Max Cavalera stated that Igor and himself would reunite with the original lineup. There were also rumors that the new line up would play on the main stage at Ozzfest 2007. However, this was denied by Kisser and the proposed reunion did not occur. [cite web | url = |title=There Will Be No Sepultura Reunion In 2007|date= 2006-11-15|publisher= [ BLABBERMOUTH.NET] |accessdate = 2007-07-13]

Andreas also stated that the band is planning a new studio album release for 2008, being the first without any Cavalera member. [cite web | url = |title=Sepultura Guitarist Andreas Kisser: New Studio Album Planned For 2008|date= 2007-01-16|publisher= [ BLABBERMOUTH.NET] |accessdate= 2007-09-17] In January 2008 the band released a new music-video for the song "Ostia" from the "Dante XXI" album. As stated on their Myspace page, it will be another concept album, entitled "A-Lex", based on "A Clockwork Orange."


The Sepularmy was set up in 2005 by Sepultura fans to help promote the band. In the past, the band had suffered from poor promotion from various record labels. After the split from Roadrunner Records, the band suffered a loss in popularity, and as a result, got less exposure.Fact|date=February 2008 Their aim is to help spread the music and message of Sepultura, and to promote the band in various ways. Methods include producing flyers that fans can print out and distribute in local venues and music shops, and posting on Internet forums to help reach potential fans.Fact|date=February 2008


*"Morbid Visions" (1986)
*"Schizophrenia" (1987)
*"Beneath the Remains" (1989)
*"Arise" (1991)
*"Chaos A.D." (1993)
*"Roots" (1996)
*"Against" (1998)
*"Nation" (2001)
*"Roorback" (2003)
*"Dante XXI" (2006)
*"A-Lex" (2008)

In popular culture

*The music video for "Arise" appears in the 1994 movie, "Reality Bites"
*The songs "Desperate Cry" and "Inner Self" are featured in the soundtrack for ""
*A "Roots" poster appears in the 2000 movie "Meet the Parents" with Robert De Niro and Ben Stiller (on the wall in the room of Denny Byrnes)
*The international gaming clan Regnum-Irae, founded in 2000, took its name from a Sepultura song
*The song "The Waste" (remix of Kamaitachi featuring Mike Patton) is featured on the Freddy Vs Jason soundtrack
*Sepultura can be found scribbled on the walls throughout the shelter in ""
*An "Arise" poster appears in the movie "Airheads"
*The Sepultura version of "Polícia" from Titãs can be found in the movie Demon Knight
*"Chaos B.C" is featured on the album


*Anonymous (May 2003). "Beneath the Remains". In: "A Megaton Hit Parade: The All-Time Thrash Top 20". "Terrorizer" #109, page 35.
*Barcinski, André & Gomes, Silvio (1999). "Sepultura: Toda a História". São Paulo: Ed. 34. ISBN 85-7326156-0
*Harris, Keith (2000). "Roots?: The Relationship between the Global and the Local within the Extreme Metal Scene". Popular Music, 19(1): 13-30.
*Hinchcliffe, James (December 2006). "Beneath the Remains". In: "Death Metal|The DM Top 40". "Terrorizer" #151, page 54.
*Lemos, Anamaria (Setembro 1993). "Caos Desencanado". "Bizz" #98, pages 40-45.
*Schwarz, Paul (February 2005). "Morbid Visions". In: "The First Wave". "Terrorizer" #128, page 42.
*Sepultura (1996). "Roots." [CD] . New York, NY: Roadrunner Records. The 25th Anniversary Series (2-CD Reissue, 2005).


External links

* [ Official website]
* [ Official MySpace page]
* [ Artist page at] Allmusic
* [ Sepularmy Network]
* [ Sepultura's concert blog]
* [ "Heavy Metal Music in Postdictatorial Brazil: Sepultura and the Coding of Nationality in Sound"] , academic paper by Tulane University professor Idelber Avelar commenting the evolution of Sepultura's style up to "Roots" on the lights of a socio–historic analysis of postdictatorial Brazil.

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