- Edward James
Edward William Frank James (1907–1984) was a British
poetknown for his patronageof the surrealist art movement.
Early life and marriage
Edward James was born
August 16, 1907, the only son of William James, an American railroad magnate who moved to England and married Evelyn Forbes, a Scots socialite, who was reputedly fathered by the Prince of Wales(later Edward VII). He had four older sisters: Audrey, Millicent, Xandra, and Silvia. James was educated briefly at Eton, and then at Le Rosey in Switzerland, then at Christ Church, Oxford, where he was a contemporary of Evelyn Waughand Harold Acton. In 1912 he inherited the convert|8000|acre|km2|sing=on West Dean Housein Sussex, on the death of his father.
James' first sponsorship of note was in publishing
John Betjeman's first book of poems when at Oxford. He worked with Brian Howard on the Glass Omnibus. After Oxford, James had a brief career as a trainee diplomat at the embassy in Rome. He was asked to send a coded message to London that the Italians had laid the keels for three destroyers, but got the code wrong; the message said "300 destroyers". Shortly after this he was sent "on indefinite leave".
In the early 1930s, James married
Tilly Losch, an Austrian dancer choreographer, actress and painter. He had several productions created expressly for her, the most notable of which was "Les Ballets 1933", which included Kurt Weill, Lotte Lenyaand George Balanchine. He and Boris Kochnocommissioned that year Brecht and Weill's last collaboration, " The Seven Deadly Sins", which Balanchine produced, directed and choreographed.
James divorced Losch in 1934, accusing her of adultery with Prince Serge Obolensky, an American hotel executive; her countersuit, in which she made it clear that James was homosexual, failed. [Coleby, Nicola, "A Surreal Life: Edward James, 1907-1984", Exhibition Catalogue, Royal Pavilion (Brighton, 1998).] After the divorce, James joined a social set in England which included the
Mitford sistersand the composer Lord Berners.
James is best known as a passionate and early supporter of
Surrealism, a movement that was born from the political uncertainty and upheaval between the wars. Rejecting the bourgeois' dominating rationality, surrealists escaped into a world of fantasy and irrationality. He sponsored Salvador Dalífor the whole of 1938 and his collection of paintings and art objects that subsequently came to be accepted as the finest collection of surrealist work in private hands. He also provided practical help, supporting Dalífor about two years and allowing Magritteto stay in his London house to do some paintings.
James appeared in three famous surrealist paintings:
*"Swans Reflecting Elephants" by Dalí [http://www.artinthepicture.com/artists/Salvador_Dali/swans.jpeg]
*"La Reproduction Interdite" by
*"The Pleasure Principle: Portrait of Edward James" also by
René Magritte[ [http://www.abcgallery.com/M/magritte/magritte59.html The Pleasure Principle (Portrait of Edward James)] , by René Magritte. 1937. Oil on canvas. 79 x 63.5 cm. Edward James Foundation, Chichester, UK.]
Each suggests an alienated person. In the first, James looks away from the centre; in the second he looks into a mirror which shows the back of his head; in the third James's head is a fireball.
As well as Dalí and Magritte, his art collection included works by Bosch,
De Chirico, Paul Klee, Leonora Carrington, Pavel Tchelitchew, Pablo Picasso, Giacometti, Max Ernstand Paul Delvaux, amongst others. [Margaret Hooks, [http://www.margarethooksbooks.com/index.htm "Surreal Eden: Edward James & Las Pozas"] , Princeton Architectural Press, New York, 2006, ISBN 978-1568986128, p.167] Most were sold at a well-publicized sale at Christiestwo years after his death.
His intellectual interest in surrealism is demonstrated by his sponsorship of
Minotaure, a lavish Surrealist magazine published in Paris. His refurbishment of Monkton House, in a part of the West Dean Estate, was a Surrealist dream, including the large sofa to which Dalí gave the form and colour of Mae West's lips, and his Lobster Telephone. His most fantastic surrealist creation was realised in the Mexican rain forest, a surrealist Sculpture garden, "Las Pozas" (see below).
In 1940, James showed up in
Taos, New Mexico, United States, as a guest of Mabel Dodge Luhan, where he was known for his amusing, clever eccentricity and effeminate manner. In Taos, he met the Hon. Dorothy Brett, an impoverished British aristocrat and painter, who in 1941 sold him nine paintings for $580. He later invited the 70 year-old Brett (as she was known) to return to England and reside at West Dean, but she declined. [Sean Hignett and Franklin Watts,"Brett: From Bloomsbury to New Mexico," New York, 1983, ISBN 978-0531097755]
Los Pozas ("the Pools") is a sculpture garden built by James, more than convert|2000|ft|m above sea level, in a tropical rain forest in the mountains of
Mexico. It includes more than 80 acres of natural waterfalls and pools interlaced with towering Surrealist sculptures in concrete. [http://www.nytimes.com/indexes/2008/03/30/style/t/index.html#pageName=30laspozas "Dream Works: Can a Legendary Surrealist Garden in Mexico Bloom Again?"] , "New York Times Style Magazine", March 30, 2008]
Las Pozas is near the village of
Xilitla, San Luis Potosí, a seven-hour drive north of Mexico City. In the early 1940s, James went to Los Angeles, and then decided that he "wanted a Garden of Eden set up . . . and I saw that Mexico was far more romantic” and had "far more room than there is in crowded Southern California.” In Cuernavaca, he hired Plutarco Gastelum, then a young manager of a telegraph office, as a guide. The two found Xilitla in November 1945.
In Xilitia, Plutarco married a local woman and had four children. They all lived with "Uncle Edward", as the children called James, in a house Plutarco had built, a mock-Gothic cement castle, now a hotel - La Posada El Castillo. James owned hundreds of birds and about 40 dogs, and once took his pet boa constrictors to the Hotel Francis in
Between 1949 and 1984, James built thirty-six concrete follies - palaces, temples and pagodas, including the House on Three Floors Which Will in Fact Have Five or Four or Six, the House with a Roof like a Whale, and the Staircase to Heaven. Gini Alhadeff, [http://www.travelandleisure.com/articles/concrete-jungle "Concrete Jungle"] , "Travel + Leisure", September 2003] There were also plantings and beds full of tropical plants, including orchids - there were, apparently, 29,000 at Las Pozas at one time - and a variety of small casas (homes), niches, and pens that held exotic birds and wild animals from the world over. Massive sculptures up to four stories tall punctuate the site. The many trails throughout the garden site are composed of steps, ramps, bridges and narrow, winding walkways that traverse the valley walls. [ [http://www.stepsandfalls.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=14&Itemid=28 "Los Pozas - steps and falls"] , virtual tour of the grounds of Las Pozas, DVD, published 2007; retrieved
March 30, 2008] Construction of Las Pozas cost more than $5 million. To pay for it, James sold his collection of Surrealist art at auction.
In the summer of 2007, the Fundación Pedro y Elena Hernández, the company
Cemex, and the government of San Luis Potosípaid about $2.2 million for Las Pozas and created [http://www.xilitla.org Fondo Xilitla] , a foundation that will oversee the preservation and restoration of the site. There are plans not only to restore the garden to its former glory, but to put it on the world art map. In November 2007, those behind the revival met at the garden to discuss the plans for restoration, and to celebrate the centenary of James's birth. Joanna Moorhead, [http://arts.guardian.co.uk/art/architecture/story/0,,2206530,00.html "The Magic Kingdom (James' Las Pozas, Mexico)"] , "The Guardian", 6 November 2007]
In 1964, James gave his English estate which included
West Dean Houseat West Dean to a charitable trust. The Edward James Foundation comprises West Dean College, a centre for the preservation of traditional arts and crafts, through short courses and full-time Diplomas and MAs. One of only two professional Tapestry Weaving studios in the UK, an Art Gallery are all housed on a convert|6400|acre|km2|sing=on estate which is open to the public through the West Dean Gardens. West Dean Collegeis part of the Edward James Foundation set up in 1971 in response to James' vision of establishing “an educational foundation where creative talents can be discovered and developed, and where one can spread culture through the teaching of crafts and the preservation of knowledge that might otherwise be destroyed or forgotten”.
Edward James is buried in the Arboretum at West Dean, with the simple inscription Edward James 1907 - 1984 Poet.
"I have seen such beauty as one man has seldom seen;
"therefore will I be grateful to die in this little room,"
"surrounded by the forests, the great green gloom"
"of trees my only gloom - and the sound, the sound of green."
"Here amid the warmth of the rain, what might have been"
"is resolved into the tenderness of a tall doom"
"who says: 'You did your best, rest - and after you the bloom"
"of what you loved and planted still will whisper what you mean."
"And the ghosts of the birds I loved, will attend me each a friend;"
"like them shall I have flown beyond the realm of words."
"You, through the trees, shall hear them, long after the end"
"calling me beyond the river. For the cries of birds"
"continue, as - defended by the coretege of their wings -"
"my soul among strange silences yet sings."
Edward James, Poet 1907 - 1984
* E. James, "The Bones of my Hand", privately printed, London 1930.
* E. James, "The Glass Omnibus," privately printed, London 1934.
* E. James, "The Gardener Who Saw God", 1937
* George Melly (ed), "Swans Reflecting Elephants, My Early Years", Autobiography of Edward James (Weidenfeld, London 1982).
* [http://www.westdean.org.uk/index.htm West Dean, the Edward James Foundation]
* [http://www.junglegossip.com/index.htm "Edward James, Builder of Dreams"] , documentary film by Avery Danziger
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
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