:"This article is about the photographic usage of the term "Bokeh". For other uses of the term, please refer to
"Bokeh" (derived from Japanese "boke" ぼけ, a noun form of "bokeru" ぼける, "become blurred or fuzzy") is a
photographicterm referring to the appearance of out-of-focus areas in an image produced by a cameralens using a shallow depth of field. [cite book | title = Dictionary of Photography and Digital Imaging: The Essential Reference for the Modern Photographer | author = Tom Ang | publisher = Watson–Guptill | isbn = 0817437894 | year = 2002 | url = http://books.google.com/books?id=fu3akyrFZEMC&pg=PA45&ots=7Lz2nPD45H&dq=bokeh+focus&sig=ujPC1GSlFHGO3ysHLY8oy-r2ILY ] Different lens bokeh produces different aesthetic qualities in out-of-focus backgrounds, which are often used to reduce distractions and emphasize the primary subject.
Mike Johnston, former editor of "Photo Techniques" magazine, claims to have coined the "bokeh" spelling to suggest the correct pronunciation to English speakers, [Johnston, Mike (2004) " [http://www.luminous-landscape.com/columns/sm-04-04-04.shtml The Sunday Morning Photographer, April 4, 2004: Bokeh in Pictures] ". [http://www.luminous-landscape.com/ The Luminous Landscape] . Retrieved on
November 19, 2005.] replacing the previous spelling "boke" that derived directly from the Japanese word for "fuzzy" and had been in use at least since 1996. It can be PronEng|ˈboʊke or IPAlink-en|ˈboʊkə (boke-aay [Merklinger, Harold (1996) " [http://www.luminous-landscape.com/essays/bokeh.shtml Understanding Boke] ". [http://www.luminous-landscape.com/ The Luminous Landscape] . Retrieved on November 19, 2005.] or boke-uh).
The term "bokeh" has appeared in photography books at least since 2000. [cite book | title = Hollywood Portraits: Classic Shots and how to Take Them | author = Christopher Nisperos, Roger Hicks | publisher = Amphoto Books | isbn = 0817440208 | year = 2000 | url = http://books.google.com/books?id=7GfsKp7StwcC&pg=PA132&ots=zdQ3XuVCMa&dq=bokeh+focus&sig=5Md_vFU5XPw5XBye-CiLm65Y47Q ]
Although difficult to quantify, some lenses enhance overall image quality by producing more subjectively pleasing out-of-focus areas, referred to as bokeh. Bokeh is especially important for large-aperture lenses, macro lenses, and long
telephoto lenses because they are typically used with a shallow depth of field. Bokeh is also important for medium telephoto "portrait lenses" (typically 85–150 mm on 35-mm format) because the photographer would typically select a shallow depth of field (wide aperture) to achieve an out-of-focus background and make the subject stand out
Bokeh characteristics may be quantified by examining the image's
circle of confusion. In out-of-focus areas, each point of light becomes a disc. Depending how a lens is corrected for spherical aberration, the disc may be uniformly illuminated, brighter near the edge, or brighter near the center. Lenses that are poorly corrected for spherical aberration will show one kind of disc for out-of-focus points in front of the plane of focus, and a different kind for points behind. This may actually be desirable, as blur circles that are dimmer near the edges produce less-defined shapes which blend smoothly with the surrounding image.Lens manufacturers including Nikon, Canon, and Minolta make lenses designed with specific controls to change the rendering of the out-of-focus areas.
The shape of the aperture has a great influence on the subjective quality of bokeh. When a lens is stopped down to something other than its maximum
aperturesize (minimum f-number), out-of-focus points are blurred into the polygonal shape of the aperture rather than perfect circles. This is most apparent when a lens produces undesirable, hard-edged bokeh, therefore some lenses have aperture blades with curved edges to make the aperture more closely approximate a circle rather than a polygon. Lens designers can also increase the number of blades to achieve the same effect. Traditional "Portrait" lenses, such as the "fast" 85mm focal length models for 35mm cameras often feature almost circular aperture diaphragms, as isthe case with Canon's EF 85mm f/1.2L II lens and Nikon's 85mm f/1.4D, and are generally considered exceptional performers.
Leica (formerly Leitz, "Leica" only referring to the camera body until more recently) lenses, especially vintage ones, are often claimed to excel in this respect, although Leica photographers have tended to make more use of maximum aperture due to the lenses' ability to maintain good sharpness at wide openings and the suitability of the Leica camera system for available-light theatre work and reportage. Consequently, more evidence is needed to determine whether Leica's lens designers deliberately set out to produce pleasing bokeh.
Bokeh can be simulated by convolving the image with a kernel corresponding to the image of an out-of-focus point source taken with a real camera.
Diffractionmay alter the effective shape of the blur. Some graphics editors have a filter to do this, usually called "Lens Blur", [cite web|url=http://livedocs.adobe.com/en_US/Photoshop/10.0/WSA75837E3-FE05-4f86-A9DF-3C0DD602CA63.html|author=Adobe Photoshop CS3 Livedocs|title=Add lens blur] though Gaussian bluris often used to save time or when realistic bokeh is not required.
Circle of confusion
Aberration in optical systems
Kim Kirkpatricka photographer known for his creative use of bokeh
* [http://www.screamyguy.net/iris/index.htm Aperture Simulator] Java iris and effect simulator
* [http://www.rickdenney.com/bokeh_test.htm How to evaluate bokeh]
* [http://www.dyxum.com/columns/articles/lenses/SAL-135F28/Sony-AF-135-STF-SAL-135F28_review.asp Sony 135mm STF designed exclusively for bokeh]
* [http://www.luminous-landscape.com/essays/bokeh.shtml Understanding Bokeh]
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Bokeh — in einem Foto mit Blende 1,2 Bokeh (von jap. ぼけ boke „unscharf, verschwommen“) ist ein in der Fotografie verwendeter Begriff, um die subjektive, ästhetische Qualität von unscharfen Gebieten in einer fotografischen Abbild … Deutsch Wikipedia
Bokeh — créé avec une focale de 85 mm et une ouverture à f/1.2. Un bokeh (se prononce comme « beau quai ») est un flou d arrière plan d une photographie permettant de détacher le sujet de son environnement. Sommaire … Wikipédia en Français
Bokeh — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Bokeh en una foto disparada con diafragma f/1.2 Bokeh, pronunciado boqué , es un concepto japonés (ぼけ boke) que significa desenfoque. En fotografía se utiliza este concepto para referirse a la calidad subjetiva de un … Wikipedia Español
Bokeh — hat sich als Begriff für die Eigenschaft eines Objektivs, unscharfe Bereiche wiederzugeben, durchgesetzt. Diese Eigenschaft wird stark von der Korrektur des Objektivs beeinflußt. Unscharfe Bereiche werden auf der Abbildung als Zerstreuungskreise… … Das Lexikon aus „Bernie's Foto-Programm"
bokeh — noun /bɒkɛ/ subjective aesthetic quality of out of focus areas of an image projected by a camera lens … Wiktionary
Bokeh — VP A background so out of focus that it appears to be soft and cloudlike. Very narrow depth of field to draw attention to the main subject. It is obtained when using a digital still camera for video or when using a neutral density filter … Audio and video glossary
bokeh — … Useful english dictionary
Bokeh (disambiguation) — Bokeh can refer to a variety of things, including:* Bokeh, the aesthetic quality of blur in photography * The name of a village near Tehran, Iran * A construction and engineering company in Tarzana, California, named [http://www.bokeh.us BOKEH… … Wikipedia
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