- Zhuangzi (book)
name = Zhuangzi
language = Chinese
followed_by = The Taoist book Zhuangzi (莊子) was named after its purported
author Zhuangzi, the philosopher. Since 742 CE, when Emperor Xuanzong of Tangmandated honorific titles for Taoist texts, it has also been known as the Nán huá zhēn jīng (南華眞經), literally meaning "True Classic of Southern (Cultural) Florescence," alluding to the tradition that Zhuangzi came from South China. Another explanation is that the place that Zhuangzi was born was placed within the administrative unit Nán huá (南華) County during the Tang dynasty.
The text is a composite of writings from various sources. The traditional view is that Zhuangzi himself wrote the first seven
chapters (the "inner chapters") and his students and related thinkers were responsible for the other parts (the "outer" and "miscellaneous" chapters). Strong proof of direct authorship by Zhuangzi of any of the text is difficult. The recension by Guo Xiang(circa 300 CE) is the basis for practically all extant editions of the "Zhuangzi".
The inner chapters have great grammatical and conceptual coherence and are believed to have been primarily written by one handFact|date=February 2008, even if not by Zhuangzi himself. Zhuangzi has been categorized as a "
Taoist" by the Chinese tradition, but especially in the inner chapters, he stands out from the rest. He also writes comparatively little about Tao in the inner chapters of the work, even less than Menciusand other prominent Confucians, prompting scholar A.C. Graham to note, "Zhuangzi never knew he was a Taoist".
* [http://chinese.dsturgeon.net/text.pl?node=2712&if=en Zhuangzi] Bilingual Chinese-English version (
James Legge's translation)
* [http://www.daoisopen.com/ZhuangziTranslation.html The Zhuangzi "Being Boundless"] , Complete translation of Zhuangzi by Nina Correa
* [http://www.religiousworlds.com/taoism/cz-text2.html The Chuang-tzu] , translated by
* [http://acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu/~phalsall/texts/chuangtz.html Selection from "The Zhuangzi"] , translated by Patricia Ebrey
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