Pier Paolo Pasolini


Pier Paolo Pasolini

Infobox Writer
name = Pier Paolo Pasolini


caption =
pseudonym =
birthdate = birth date|1922|3|5
birthplace = Bologna, Italy
deathdate = death date and age|1975|11|2|1922|3|5
deathplace = Ostia, Rome, Italy
occupation = Novelist, poet, intellectual, film director, journalist, linguist, philosopher
genre =
movement =
notableworks ="Accattone"
influences =
influenced =

Pier Paolo Pasolini (March 5, 1922November 2, 1975) was an Italian poet, intellectual, film director, and writer.

Pasolini distinguished himself as a journalist, philosopher, linguist, novelist, playwright, filmmaker, newspaper and magazine columnist, actor, painter and political figure. He demonstrated a unique and extraordinary cultural versatility, in the process becoming a highly controversial figure.

Biography

Early years

Pasolini was born in Bologna, traditionally one of the most leftist of Italian cities. He was the son of a lieutenant of the Italian Army, Carlo Alberto (1892 – Rome, December 19, 1958), who had become famous for saving Mussolini's life, and an elementary school teacher, married in 1921, Susanna Colussi (Casarsa, 1891 –), and was named after his paternal uncle. His grandfather was Argobasto dei Conti Pasolini Dall'Onda, born in Ravena in 1870. His family moved to Conegliano in 1923 and, two years later, to Belluno, where another son, Guidalberto, was born. In 1926, however, Pasolini's father was arrested for gambling debts, and his mother moved to her family's house in Casarsa della Delizia, in the Friuli region.

Pasolini began writing poems at the age of seven, inspired by the natural beauty of Casarsa. One of his early influences was the work of Arthur Rimbaud. In 1933 his father was transferred to Cremona, and later to Scandiano and Reggio Emilia. Pasolini found it difficult to adapt to all these moves, though in the meantime he enlarged his poetry and literature readings (Dostoevsky, Tolstoy, Shakespeare, Coleridge, Novalis) and left behind the religious fervor of his early years. In the Reggio Emilia high school he met his first true friend, Luciano Serra. The two met again in Bologna, where Pasolini spent seven years while completing the high school: here he cultivated new passions, including football. With other friends, including Ermes Parini, Franco Farolfi, Elio Meli, he formed a group dedicated to literary discussions.

In 1939 he graduated and subsequently entered the Literature College of the University of Bologna, discovering new themes like philology and aesthetics of figurative arts. He also frequented the local cinema club. Pasolini always showed his friends a virile and strong exterior, totally hiding his interior travail: he even took part in the Fascist government's culture and sports competitions. In 1941, together with Francesco Leonetti, Roberto Roversi and others, he attempted to publish a poetry magazine, but the attempt failed due to paper shortages. Pasolini's poems of this period started to include fragments in Friulian language, which he had learnt at his mother's side.

First poetical works

After the summer in Casarsa, in 1941 Pasolini published at his own expense a collection of poems in Friulian, "Versi a Casarsa". The work was noted and appreciated by intellectuals and critics like Gianfranco Contini, Alfonso Gatto and Antonio Russi. His pictures had also been well received. Pasolini was chief editor of the "Il Setaccio" ("The Sieve") magazine, but was fired after conflicts with the director, who was aligned with the Fascist regime. A trip to Germany helped him also to discover the "provincial" status of Italian culture in that era. These experiences led Pasolini to rethink his opinion about the cultural politics of Fascism, and to switch gradually to a Communist position.

In 1942, the family took shelter in Casarsa, considered a more tranquil place to wait for the conclusion of the war, a decision common among Italian military families. Here, for the first time, Pasolini had to face the erotic disquiet he had suppressed during his adolescent years. He wrote: "A continuous perturbation without images or words beats at my temples and obscures me".

In the weeks before the 8 September armistice, he was drafted in World War II, and subsequently imprisoned by the Germans. However, he managed to escape disguised as a peasant, and found his way to Casarsa. Here he joined a group of other young fans of the Friulian language who aimed to give Casarsa Friulian a status equal to that of the official dialect of the region, Udine. Starting from May 1944 they issued a magazine entitled "Stroligùt di cà da l'aga". In the meantime, Casarsa suffered Allied bombardments and forced enrollments by the Italian Social Republic, as well as partisan activity. Pasolini tried to remain apart from these events, teaching, along with his mother, those students whom war rendered unable to reach the schools in Pordenone or Udine. He experienced his first homosexual love for one of his students, just when a Slovenian schoolgirl, Pina Kalč, was falling in love with Pasolini himself. This complicated emotional situation turned into a tragic one on February 12, 1945, when his brother Guido was killed in an ambush. Six days later the Friulian Language Academy ("Academiuta di lenga furlana") was founded. In the same year Pasolini joined also the Association for the Autonomy of Friuli, and graduated with a final thesis about Giovanni Pascoli's works.

In 1946 a small poetry collection of Pasolini's, "I Diarii" ("The Diaries") was published by The Academiuta. In October he made a voyage to Rome, and the following May he began the so-called "Quaderni Rossi", handwritten in old school exercise-books with red covers. In Italian he completed a drama, "Il Cappellano", and another poetry collection, "I Pianti" ("The cries"), again published by the Academiuta.

Adherence to the Italian Communist Party

On January 26, 1947, Pasolini wrote a controversial declaration for the front page of the newspaper "Libertà": "In our opinion, we think that currently only Communism is able to provide a new culture". The controversy was partially due to the fact he was still not a member of the Italian Communist Party (PCI).

He was also planning to extend the work of the Academiuta to other Romance language literatures and knew the exiled Catalan poet, Carles Cardó. After his adherence to the PCI, he took part in several demonstrations and, in May 1949, attended the Peace Congress in Paris. Observing the struggles of workers and peasants, and watching the clashes of protesters with Italian police, he began to create his first novel.

However, in October of the same year, Pasolini was charged with the corruption of minors and obscene acts in public places. As a result, he was expelled by the Udine section of the Communist Party and lost the teaching job he had obtained the previous year in Valvasone. Living a difficult situation, in January 1950 Pasolini moved to Rome with his mother.

He later described this period of his life as a very difficult one. "I came to Rome from the Friulian countryside. Unemployed for many years; ignored by everybody; riven by the fear to be not as life needed to be". Instead of asking for help from other writers, Pasolini preferred to go his own way. He found a job as a worker in the Cinecittà studios, and sold his books in the 'bancarelle' ("sidewalk shops") of Rome. Finally, through the help of the Abruzzese-language poet Vittorio Clemente, he found a job as a teacher in Ciampino, a suburb of the capital.

In these years Pasolini transferred his Friulian countryside inspiration to Rome's suburbs, the infamous "borgate" where poor proletarian immigrants lived in often horrendous sanitary and social conditions.

Success and charges

In 1954, Pasolini, who now worked for the literature section of the Italian state radio, left his teaching job and moved to the Monteverde quarter, publishing "La meglio gioventù", his first important collection of dialect poems. His first novel, "Ragazzi di vita" (English: "Boys of Life"), was published in 1955. The work had great success, but was poorly received by the PCI establishment and, most importantly, by the Italian government, which even initiated a lawsuit against Pasolini and his editor, Garzanti.

Though totally exculpated of any charge, Pasolini became a favourite victim of insinuations, especially by the tabloid press.

In 1957, together with Sergio Citti, Pasolini collaborated on Federico Fellini's film "Le Notti di Cabiria", writing dialogue for the Roman dialect parts. In 1960, he made his debut as an actor in "Il gobbo", and co-wrote "Long Night in 1943".

His first film as director and screenwriter is "Accattone" of 1961, again set in Rome's marginal quarters. The movie again aroused controversy and scandal. In 1963, the episode "La ricotta", included in the collective movie "RoGoPaG", was censored, and Pasolini was tried for offence to the Italian state.

During this period, Pasolini was frequently abroad: in 1961, with Elsa Morante and Alberto Moravia in India (where he went again seven years later); in 1962 in Sudan and Kenya; in 1963, in Ghana, Nigeria, Guinea, Jordan, and Palestine (where he shot the documentary, "Sopralluoghi in Palestina"). In 1970, he traveled again to Africa to shoot the documentary, "Appunti per un'Orestiade africana".

The late 1960s and early 1970s were the era of the so-called "student movement." Pasolini, though acknowledging the ideological motivations of the students, thought them "anthropologically middle-class" and, therefore destined to fail in their attempts at revolutionary change. He went so far as to state, regarding the Battle of Valle Giulia, which took place in Rome in March, 1968, that he sympathized with the police, as they were "children of the poor", while the young militants were exponents of what he called "left-wing fascism." His film of that year, "Teorema", was shown at the annual Venice Film Festival in a hot political climate, as Pasolini had proclaimed that the festival would be managed by the directors themselves (see also Works section).

In 1970, Pasolini bought an old castle near Viterbo, several kilometers north of Rome, where he began to write his last novel, "Petrolio," which was never finished. In 1972, he started to collaborate with the extreme-left association Lotta Continua, producing a documentary, "12 dicembre" concerning the Piazza Fontana bombing. The following year, he began a collaboration for Italy's most renowned newspaper, "Il Corriere della Sera".

At the beginning of 1975, Garzanti published a collection of critical essays, "Scritti corsari" ("Corsair Writings").

Death

Pasolini was brutally murdered by being run over several times with his own car, dying on November 2, 1975 on the beach at Ostia, near Rome, in a location typical of his novels. Giuseppe Pelosi, a seventeen-year-old hustler, was arrested and confessed to murdering Pasolini. However, on May 7, 2005, he retracted his confession, which he said was made under the threat of violence to his family, and claimed that three people "with southern a accent" had committed the murder, insulting Pasolini as a "dirty communist [cite web|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/film/4529877.stm|title=Pasolini death inquiry reopened |last=Cataldi |first=Benedetto |date=2005-05-05|publisher=bbc.co.uk]

Following Pelosi's retraction, the investigation into Pasolini's death was reopened, although the murder is still not completely explained. Contradictions in the declarations of Pelosi, a strange intervention by Italian secret services during the investigations, and some lack of coherence in related documents during the different parts of the judicial procedures brought some of Pasolini's friends (particularly actress Laura Betti, a close friend) to suspect that it had been a contract killing. The inefficiency of the investigations were exposed by his friend, Oriana Fallaci, writing in "Europeo" magazine. Many clues suggest that it was unlikely that Pelosi killed Pasolini alone.

In the months just before his death, Pasolini had met with a number of politicians, whom he made aware of his knowledge of certain important secrets.Fact|date=January 2008

Other evidence, uncovered in 2005, points to Pasolini having been murdered by an extortionist. Testimony by Pasolini's friend, Sergio Citti, indicates that some of the rolls of film from "Salò" had been stolen, and that Pasolini had been going to meet with the thieves after a visit to Stockholm, November 2, 1975.

Others report that, shortly before he was found dead in Ostia, outside Rome, he told them he knew he would be murdered by the mafia.Fact|date=January 2008 It has also been suggested that Pasolini not only knew he was going to die, but in fact wanted to be killed and staged his death. Proponents of this theory include Pasolini's lifelong friend, painter and writer Giuseppe Zigaina. Zigaina claims that "Pasolini himself was the 'organizer' of his own death, which, conceived as a form of expression, was intended to give meaning to his entire oeuvre." [ Zigaina, G.:P.P.P.: Pier Paolo Pasolini and Death, catalog of an exhibition at the Pinakothek der Moderne, Munich, edited by Bernhart Schwenk and Michael Semff. Ostfildern: Hatje Cantz, 2005] Zigaina argues that Pasolini had been planning his death for many years and planted in his works clandestine codes that revealed when and how it would happen. Another of Pasolini's close friends, Alberto Moravia, has also found striking similarities between his death and his work. In 1977, Moravia wrote a book about the murder and in it said that he recognized the murder scene in Ostia from Pasolini's descriptions of similar landscapes in his two novels, "Ragazzi di vita (The Ragazzi)" and "Una vita violenta (A Violent Life)", and in an image from his first film "Accattone". Pasolini had even shot footage of the site a year earlier, for use in his film "Il fiore delle mille e una notte (A Thousand and One Nights)". Unlike Zigaina, however, Moravia has written off these similarities as no more than poetic irony. [Rich, Nathaniel: "The Passion of Pasolini" "The New York Review of Books" September 27, 2007, Volume LIV, Number 14, p.77]

Despite the Roman police's reopening of the murder case following Pelosi's statement of May 2005, the judges charged with investigating it determined the new elements insufficient for them to continue the inquiry.

Pasolini was buried in Casarsa, in his beloved Friuli. In the grave, he wears the jersey of the Italian Showmen national team, a charity soccer team he founded, with others.Fact|date=January 2008

On the 30th anniversary of his death, a biographical cartoon, entitled "Pasolini requiem" (2005), was animated and directed by Mario Verger, with passages drawn from "Mamma Roma", "Uccellacci e uccellini", and "La Terra vista dalla Luna". It ends with a description of the Ostia murder.

Works

Pasolini's first novel, "Ragazzi di vita" (1955), dealt with the Roman lumpen proletariat. The resulting obscenity charges against him were the first of many instances where his art provoked legal problems, and again, with "Accattone" (1961), also about the Roman underworld, like-wise provoked moralistic conflict with conservatives, who demanded stricter censorship.

He then directed the black-and-white "The Gospel According To St. Matthew" (1964). This film is widely hailed the best cinematic adaptation of the life of Jesus (Enrique Irazoqui). Whilst filming it, Pasolini vowed to direct it from the "believer's point of view", but later, upon viewing the completed work, saw he had instead expressed his own beliefs.

In his 1966 film, "Uccellacci e uccellini" (literally "Bad Birds and Little Birds" but translated in English as "The Hawks and the Sparrows"), a picaresque - and at the same time mystic - fable, he hired the great Italian comedian Totò to work with one of his preferred "naif" actors, Ninetto Davoli. It was a unique opportunity for Totò to demonstrate that he was a great dramatic actor as well.

In "Teorema" ("Theorem", 1968), starring Terence Stamp as a mysterious stranger, he depicted the sexual coming-apart of a bourgeois family (later repeated by François Ozon in "Sitcom").

Later movies centered on sex-laden folklore, such as "Il fiore delle mille e una notte" (literally "The Flower of 1001 Nights" but released in English as "Arabian Nights", 1974), Boccaccio's "Decameron" (1971) and Chaucer's "Canterbury Tales" (1972). These films are usually grouped as the "Trilogy of Life". His final work, "Salò" ("Salò, or the 120 Days of Sodom", 1975), exceeded what most viewers could then stomach in its explicit scenes of intensely sadistic violence. Based on the novel "120 Days of Sodom" by the Marquis de Sade, it continues to be his most controversial film; in May 2006, "Time Out"'s Film Guide named it the Most Controversial Film of all time.

Significance

Pasolini, as a director, created a sort of picaresque neorealism, showing a sad reality—hidden, but concrete— of which many social and political forces had no interest in seeing in artistic work for public distribution. "Mamma Roma" (1962), featuring Anna Magnani and telling the story of a prostitute and her son, was an astonishing affront to the common morality of those times. His works, with their unequaled poetry applied to cruel realities, showing that such realities are less distant from us than we imagine, have made a major contribution to a change in the Italian psyche.

The director also promoted in his works the concept of "natural sacredness," the idea that the world is holy in and of itself, and does not need any spiritual essence or supernatural blessing to attain this state. Indeed, Pasolini was an avowed atheist.

General disapproval of Pasolini's work was perhaps primarily caused by his frequent focus on sexual mores and the contrast between what he presented and the behavior sanctioned by public opinion. While Pasolini's poetry, outside of Italy less well-known than his films, often deals with his same-sex love interests, this is not the only, or even main, theme: much of it also takes as a subject his highly revered mother. As a sensitive and extremely intelligent man, he also depicted certain corners of the contemporary reality as few other poets could do.

His films won awards at the Berlin Film Festival, Cannes Film Festival, Venice Film Festival, Italian National Syndicate for Film Journalists, Jussi Awards, Kinema Junpo Awards, International Catholic Film Office and New York Film Critics Circle.

Political views

Pasolini generated heated public discussion with controversial analyses of public affairs. For instance, during the disorders of 1969, when the autonomist university students were carrying on a guerrilla-like uprising against the police in the streets of Rome and all the leftist forces declared their complete support for the students, describing the disorders as a civil fight of proletariat against the System, Pasolini, alone among the communists, declared that he was with the police; or, more precisely, with the policemen. He considered them true proletariat, sent to fight for a poor salary and for reasons which they could not understand, against pampered boys of their same age, because they had not had the fortune of being able to study, referring to "poliziotti figli di proletari meridionali picchiati da figli di papà in vena di bravate", lit. "policemen, sons of proletarian southerners, beaten up by arrogant daddy's boys "). This ironic statement, however, did not stop him from contributing to the autonomist "Lotta continua" movement.

Pasolini was also an ardent critic of "consumismo", i.e. consumerism, which he felt had rapidly destroyed Italian society in the late 1960s/early 1970s, particularly the class of the subproletariat, which he portrayed in Accattone, and to which he felt both sexually and artistically drawn. Pasolini observed that the kind of purity which he perceived in the pre-industrial popular culture was rapidly vanishing, a process that he named "la scomparsa delle lucciole", lit. "the disappearance of glow-worms"), the "joie de vivre" of the boys being rapidly replaced with more bourgeois ambitions such as a house and a family. The coprophagia scenes in "Salò" were described by him as being a comment on the processed food industry.

Not only economic globalization but also the cultural domination of the North of Italy (around Milan) over other regions, especially the South, primarily through the power of TV, angered him. He opposed the gradual disappearance of Italian dialects by writing some of his poetry in Friulian language, the regional language of the region where he spent his childhood.

Despite his left-wing views, Pasolini opposed abortion and radicalism. [http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/pasolini.htm] .

Sexuality

The " glbtq" encyclopedia states the following regarding Pasolini's homosexuality:

While openly gay from the very start of his career (thanks to a gay sex scandal that sent him packing from his provincial hometown to live and work in Rome), Pasolini rarely dealt with homosexuality in his movies.The subject is featured prominently in "Teorema" (1968), where Terence Stamp's mysterious God-like visitor seduces the son of an upper-middle-class family; passingly in "Arabian Nights" (1974), in an idyll between a king and a commoner that ends in death; and, most darkly of all, in "Salò" (1975), his infamous rendition of the Marquis de Sade's compendium of sexual horrors, "The 120 Days of Sodom". [ [http://www.glbtq.com/arts/pasolini_pp_art.html Ehrenstein, David (2005). Pasolini, Pier Paolo. "glbtq: An Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Culture".] ]

Quotes

"If you know that I am an unbeliever, then you know me better than I do myself. I may be an unbeliever, but I am an unbeliever who has a nostalgia for a belief." (1966)

"The mark which has dominated all my work is this longing for life, this sense of exclusion, which doesn't lessen but augments this love of life." (Interview in documentary, late 1960s)

Filmography

Feature films

All titles written and directed by Pier Paolo Pasolini unless stated otherwise. Although obviously "Oedipus Rex" and "Medea" are loosely based on plays by Sophocles and Euripides respectively, significant liberties were taken with original texts and titles do not credit anyone except Pasolini. Latter is also true in the case with St. Matthew.

Documentaries

* "Sopralluoghi in Palestina per Il Vangelo secondo Matteo" (1964)
* "Comizi d'amore" ("The Assembly of Love", 1964)
* "Appunti per un film sull'India" (1969)
* "Appunti per un romanzo dell'immondizia" (1970)
* "Le mura di Sana'a" (1971)
* "12 Dicembre 1972 (long and short version) (1972)
* "Pasolini e la forma della città" (1975)
* "Appunti per un'Orestiade Africana" ("Notes Towards an African Orestes", 1975)

Episodes in omnibus films

* "La ricotta" in "RoGoPaG" (1963)
* First segment of "La rabbia" (1963)
* "La Terra vista dalla Luna" in "Le streghe" ("The Witches", 1967)
* "Che cosa sono le nuvole?" "Capriccio all'Italiana" (1968)
* "La sequenza del fiore di carta" in "Amore e rabbia" (1969)

Selected bibliography

Narrative

* "Poems"
* "Ragazzi di vita" ("The Ragazzi", 1955)
* "Una vita violenta" ("A Violent Life", 1959)
* "Amado Mio - Atti Impuri" (1982, originally composed in 1962)
* "Alì dagli occhi azzurri" (1965)
* "Reality" ("The Poets' Encyclopedia", 1979)
* "Petrolio" (1992, incomplete)

Poetry

* "La meglio gioventù" (1954)
* "Le ceneri di Gramsci" (1957)
* "L'usignolo della chiesa cattolica" (1958)
* "La religione del mio tempo" (1961)
* "Poesia in forma di rosa" (1964)
* "Trasumanar e organizzar" (1971)
* "La nuova gioventù" (1975)

Essays

* "Passione e ideologia" (1960)
* "Canzoniere italiano, poesia popolare italiana" (1960)
* "Empirismo eretico" (1972)
* "Lettere luterane" (1976)
* "Le belle bandiere" (1977)
* "Descrizioni di descrizioni" (1979)
* "Il caos" (1979)
* "La pornografia è noiosa" (1979)
* "Scritti corsari" 1975)
* "Lettere (1940–1954)" ("Letters, 1940-54", 1986)

Theatre

* "Orgia" (1968)
* "Porcile" (1968)
* "Calderón" (1973)
* "Affabulazione" (1977)
* "Pilade" (1977)
* "Bestia da stile" (1977)

Footnoes

References


* Aichele, George. "Translation as De-canonization: Matthew's Gospel According to Pasolini - filmmaker Pier Paolo Pasolini - Critical Essay." Cross Currents (2002). FindArticles. 12 Feb. 2006. A review of The Gospel According to St. Matthew as a re-writing of the Christian canon.
* Distefano, John. "Picturing Pasolini." Art Journal (1997). EBSCO. Rutgers University Alexander Library, New Brunwick, NJ. 15 Feb. 2006. The author traces Pasolini's coverage in the media in photographs. He pays particular attention to how Pasolini's manhood and homosexuality are portrayed. The author created an art exhibition with the same title.
* Eloit, Audrene. "Oedipus Rex by Pier Paolo Pasolini The Palimpsest: Rewriting and the Creation of Pasolini's Cinematic Language." Literature Film Quarterly (2004). FindArticles. A review and discussion of Pasolini's interpretation of Sophocles's text, Freud, and cinematic theory.
* Forni, Kathleen. "A "cinema of poetry": What Pasolini Did to Chancer's Canterbury Tales." Literature Film Quarterly (2002). FindArticles. 12 Feb. 2006. A review of The Canterbury Tales as both an homage to Chaucer and a parody in the Bakhtinian spirit.
* Frisch, Anette. "Francesco Vezzolini: Pasolini Reloaded." Rutgers University Alexander Library, New Brunwick, NJ. 15 Feb. 2006. In an interview, Vezzolini discusses Pasolini's influence on his art installation: "The Trilogy of Death." He discusses what Pasolini may have done had he lived, and how poetry and literature made Pasolini respectable.
* Green, Martin. "The Dialectic Adaptation." Rutgers University Alexander Library, New Brunswick, NJ. 15 Feb. 2006. Green compares Pasolini's The Canterbury Tales with Chaucer's original text and Pasolini's Decameron. He proposes that Pasolini was asserting his right to deal with entertaining material for its own sae, a departure from his normally serious tone.
* Greene, Naomi. "Pier Paolo Pasilini: Cinema as Heresy". Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 1990. Greene opens with a personal chapter on Pasolini's life and death. The second chapter discusses how Acettone and Mamma Roma were received by audiences and critics and the immediate impact of the films. La Rabbia, Il Vangelo and Comizi d'amore are discussed in relation to Gramsci and Marx. The book ends in a discussion on Pasolini's cinematic theory and his influence on future film makers.
* Passannanti, Erminia. "Deconstruction and redefinition of the Italian Catholic Identity in Pier Paolo Pasolini's "La ricotta". " An in-depth interpretation of "La ricotta" (1962) included in the anthology "Italy on Screen: Italian Identity in the National Imaginary and International Symbolic", Lucy Bolton and Christina Siggers Manson(eds.), Series New Studies in European Cinema series, Peter Lang (due to be published in March 2008).
* Pugh, Tison. "Chaucerian Fabliaux, Cinematic Fabliau: Pier Paolo Pasolini's I racconti di Canterbury." Literature Film Quarterly (2004). FindArticles. 12 Feb. 2006. An in-depth review and interpretation of The Canterbury Tales.
* Restivo, Angelo. "The Cinema of Economic Miracles: Visuality and Modernization in the Italian Art Film". London: Duke UP, 2002. In part two, "The Nation, the Body, and Pasolini", Restivo discusses the creation of a "neo-Italiano" language, the "Italian" and living in a modern world. Restivo describes the political and economic situation of Pasolini's Italy and its relationship to the films. Chapter five discusses sex and the body in the creation of "the new Italian."
* Rohdie, Sam. "The Passion of Pier Paolo Pasolini". Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana UP, 1995. Rohdie's book deals with parts of Pasolini's life that is overlooked by other authors. He deals with Pasolini not just as a poet or a film maker, but as a full character. He puts Pasolini in a larger tradition of Western thought and shows how he uses undeveloped societies to criticize his world. Rohdie also asserts that Pasolini was neither a Socialist or a Communist, but he was a revolutionary.
* Rumble, Patrick A. "Allegories of contamination : Pier Paolo Pasolini's Trilogy of life". Toronto: University of Toronto P, 1996. "The Trilogy of Life" consisted of Decameron, The Canterbury Tales and Arabian Nights. Rumble goes into great detail interpreting the trilogy and naming possible inspirations and making comparisons. A whole chapter is devoted to Decameron, but for most of the book the films as discussed together. A brief closing chapter discusses the significance of Pasolini's homosexuality on his work.
* Schwartz, Barth D. "Pasolini Requiem". 1st ed. New York: Pantheon Books, 1992. Schwartz's book is an exhaustingly thorough biography of Pasolini's adult life (and death). It includes personal details, the making of his key films, accounts of his legal troubles, and summaries of the films themselves.
* Siciliano, Enzo. "Pasolini: A Biography". Trans. John Shepley. New York: Random House, 1982. Written by a friend of Pasolini, it is a thorough, factual (if heavy) account of Pasolini's life.
* Viano, Maurizio. "A Certain Realism: Making Use of Pasolini's Film Theory and Practice". Berkeley: University of California P, 1993. Viano analyzes Pasolini's major inspirations and influences, providing an "essential biography" before dedicating a chapter to each of his major films. Each chapter opens with a very brief summary of the film followed by an easy to read, yet thorough analysis of the film in the context of other works, other film makers, current events and the work of critics and historians. This is an excellent source for anyone seeking to understand and appreciate Pasolini's films.
* Willimon, William H. "Faithful to the script." Christian Century (2004). FindArticles. 12 Feb. 2006. A favorable review of The Gospel According to St. Matthew from a Christian perspective written by an American Bishop.

External links

*
* [http://www.pasolini.net Italian site with extensive commentary on his theories, films, and literature]
* [http://www.sensesofcinema.com/contents/directors/02/pasolini.html Senses of Cinema: Great Directors Critical Database]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/film/4529877.stm BBC News report on the reopening of the murder case]
* Guy Flatley: [http://www.moviecrazed.com/outpast/pasolini.html "The Atheist Who Was Obsessed with God"]
* [http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/pasolini.htm An extensive biography at the Kirjasto site]
* Doug Ireland: [http://www.zmag.org/content/showarticle.cfm?SectionID=43&ItemID=8433 Restoring Pasolini]
* [http://www.cpinternet.com/mbayly/callasasmedea.htm Maria Callas in Pasolini's "Medea"]
* [http://www.bfi.org.uk/features/salo/foreword.html Pasolini's own notes on Salo from 1974]
* [http://www.0web.it/poesia/pier-paolo-pasolini Pier Paolo Pasolini poems] Original Italian text.
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A3ACSmZTejQ Video (in Italian): Pasolini on the destructive impact of television (interrupted and half-censored by Enzo Biagi)]

Persondata
NAME= Pasolini, Pier Paolo
ALTERNATIVE NAMES=
SHORT DESCRIPTION= Italian novelist, poet, intellectual, film director, journalist, linguist, philosopher
DATE OF BIRTH= March 5, 1922
PLACE OF BIRTH= Bologna, Italy
DATE OF DEATH= November 2, 1975
PLACE OF DEATH= Ostia, Rome, Italy


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  • Pier-Paolo Pasolini — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Pasolini (homonymie). Pier Paolo Pasolini …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Pier Paolo Pasolini — (* 5. März 1922 in Bologna; † 2. November 1975 in Ostia) war ein italienischer Filmregisseur, Dichter und Publizist. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Leben 1.1 Kindheit und Jugend …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Pier-Paolo Pasolini — (* 5. März 1922 in Bologna; † 2. November 1975 in Ostia) war ein italienischer Filmregisseur, Dichter und Publizist …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Pier Paolo Pasolini — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Pier Paolo Pasolini Retrato de Pier Paolo Pasolini Nacimiento 5 de marzo de 1922 …   Wikipedia Español

  • Pier Paolo Pasolini — (Bolonia, 5 de marzo de 1922 Roma, 2 de noviembre de 1975) es un Escritor, Poeta y director cinematográfico italiano. Pasolini nació en Bologna, una de las ciudad tradicionalmente mas orientadas hacia la izquierda. Era hijo de un soldado que se… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Pier Paolo Pasolini — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Pasolini. Pier Paolo Pasolini Données clés Naissance 5 mars 1922 Bologne, Italie Nationalité Italien Décès …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Pier Paolo Pasolini — Vida Lo mejor de la vida es el pasado, el presente y el futuro …   Diccionario de citas

  • Paolo Pasolini — Pier Paolo Pasolini Pier Paolo Pasolini (* 5. März 1922 in Bologna; † 2. November 1975 in Ostia) war ein italienischer Filmregisseur, Dichter und Publizist …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Pasolini,Pier Paolo — Pa·so·li·ni (pä sō leʹne), Pier Paolo. 1922 1975. Italian writer and director whose films, including The Gospel According to St. Matthew (1964) and The Decameron (1971), reflect on religion, class, and sexuality. * * * …   Universalium

  • Pasolini, Pier Paolo — (1922 1975)    Poet, playwright, novelist, painter, essayist, film director. Although he would become one of the foremost directors to emerge in the second wave of postwar Italian cinema in the early 1960s, Pasolini came to cinema relatively late …   Guide to cinema


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