- Janet Frame
name = Janet Frame
bgcolour = silver
birth_date = birth date|1924|8|28|mf=y
Dunedin, New Zealand
death_date = Death date and age|2004|1|29|1924|8|28
Dunedin, New Zealand
Novelist, short story writer, essayist, poet
magnum_opus = "
An Angel at My Table"
modernism, magic realism, postmodernism
Rainer Maria Rilke, Virginia Woolf, Emily Brontë, Charlotte Brontë, W. H. Auden, James Joyce, Dylan Thomas, Gustave Flaubert, William Faulkner, Marcel Proust, William Styron, Henry David Thoreau, Edgar Allan Poe, Stephen Spender, Robert Browning, Lewis Carroll, Nathalie Sarraute, May Sarton, Patrick White, Frank Sargeson, James K. Baxter, Ruth Dallas, Denis Glover,
The New Zealand author Janet Paterson Frame, ONZ, CBE (
August 28, 1924- January 29, 2004) published eleven novels in her lifetime, together with three collections of short stories, a book of poetry, an edition of juvenile fiction, and three volumes of autobiography. A twelfth novel and a second volume of poetry have appeared posthumously.
Frame, well-known for her literary output as well as her personal history, narrowly escaped
leucotomyjust at the time her first book won a national literary prize.cite web|title= Janet Frame, 79, Writer Who Explored Madness|first= Douglas|last= Martin
January 30, 2004|work=New York Times|accessdate=2007-11-17] Partly as a result of her dramatic past, Frame, aptly described by scholar Simone Oettli as an artist who paradoxically wanted simultaneous fame and anonymity, [Oettli, Simone. Rev. "Wrestling with the Angel: A Life of Janet Frame," by Michael King. "World Literature Today" 76.1 Winter 2002: 142.] has become the focus of a wide range of biographical myths posited by literary critics and the general public alike. [Brown, R. 'The unravelling of a mad myth.' "Women's Studies Journal" 7(1): 66-74.] [Wiske, Maria. "Materialisations of a Woman Writer: Investigating Janet Frame's Biographical Legend" Peter Lang (SW): 2006] Although Frame's work — which eschewed the dominant New Zealand literary realism of the time, combining prose, poetry, modernist and postmodernist elements with a somewhat magical realist style [http://www.nzherald.co.nz/section/1/story.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=3546633 "A literary angel mourned"] - " New Zealand Herald", Saturday 31 January 2004] — was met with a decidedly mixed critical and public reception, [Reid, Tony. "Visionary view of the 'tapestry of words.'" Interview with Janet Frame. "New Zealand Herald" February 12, 1983: 2.1] King, Michael. "Wrestling with the Angel: A Life of Janet Frame." Penguin (NZ), 2000.] her status as a respected novelist of international repute, coupled with her remarkable life-story, immortalised in her autobiographies and in director Jane Campion's film-adaptation of the texts, have earned her a place in twentieth-century literary history.
Dunedin, on the east coast of New Zealand's South Island, Frame entered the world as the third of five children born to George, a railway worker, and to Lottie (née Godfrey), a former housemaid to the family of writer Katherine Mansfield. Dr Emily Hancock Siedeberg, New Zealand's first female medical graduate, delivered Frame at St. Helen's Hospital in 1927. The future author spent her early childhood years in various small towns in New Zealand's South Island provinces of Otagoand Southland, including Outram and Wyndham, before the family eventually settled in the coastal town of Oamaru(recognisable as the "Waimaru" of her début novel and further featured in her subsequent fiction [Leaver-Cooper, Sheila. "Janet Frame's Kingdom by the Sea: Oamaru". Dunmore (NZ), 1997] ). As described in detail in her autobiographies, Frame's childhood featured the deaths of two of her sisters, Myrtle and Isabel, who drowned in separate incidents at a young age, and the epileptic seizures suffered by her brother George (referred to as "Geordie" and "Bruddie").Frame, Janet. "An Autobiography" Century Hutchinson (NZ), 1989.]
In 1943 Frame began training as a teacher at the
Dunedin College of Education, while at the same time auditing courses in English, French and psychology at the adjacent University of Otago. Shortly after her arrival at university, Frame, in the throes of an emotional crisis,Page number began regular therapy-sessions with junior lecturer John Money, to whom she developed a strong attachment, and whose later work as a sexologist specialising in gender reassignment remains controversial. [Colapinto, John. "As Nature Made Him: The Boy Who was Raised as a Girl." Harper Collins, 2000.]
While practising teaching in Dunedin in 1947, Frame dramatically abandoned her classroom during a scheduled visit from a school-inspector. [Lloyd, Mike. "Frame Walks Out." "Kotare" 5.1, 2004. http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-Whi051Kota-t1-g1-t4.html#name-120555-1] Shortly thereafter the psychiatric ward of the local Dunedin hospital admitted her as a patient.Page number Following this brief internment, Frame, unwilling to return home to her family, where tensions between her father and brother had become increasingly unbearable for the would-be-author, transferred to
Seacliff Mental Hospitalnear Karitanenorth of Dunedin, where doctors diagnosed her as suffering from schizophrenia.Page number Over the course of the next eight years, Frame repeatedly readmitted herself to a number of psychiatric hospitals in New Zealand, including Avondale and Sunnyside. The institutions treated her with insulin and, according to her own account, administered over two hundred rounds of electroconvulsive therapy.
In 1951, while Frame remained interned in
psychiatric hospital, New Zealand's Caxton Press published her first book, a slim volume of short stories titled "The Lagoon and Other Stories". The work won the Hubert Church Memorial Award, at that time one of the nation's most prestigious literary prizes, and resulted in the cancellation of her scheduled lobotomy. [Frame, Janet. "An Autobiography" Century Hutchinson (NZ), 1989. ] Page number Four years later, in 1955, following her final discharge from psychiatric hospital, Frame, at the time staying with her sister's family in the Aucklandsuburb of Northcote, met the New Zealand writer Frank Sargeson. From April 1955 to July 1956 Frame lived and worked in an old army hut in the garden of Sargeson's home in Takapuna, producing her first full-length novel, which the publishers — rejecting the author's original title, "Talk of Treasure" — released as "Owls Do Cry" (Pegasus, 1957).Page number
Frame left New Zealand in 1956, living and working for the following seven years in Europe, primarily based in
London, with sojourns in Ibizaand Andorra.Page number While abroad, Frame — still struggling with anxiety and depression — admitted herselfPage number to the MaudsleyHospital in London, where American-trained psychiatrist Alan Miller, who studied under Money at Johns Hopkins University, proposed that she had never suffered from schizophrenia.Page number She would subsequently brandish a letter from him certifying this opinion to critics claiming madness as a source of her genius. In an effort to alleviate the ill-effects of her years spent in and out of psychiatric hospital, Frame then began regular sessions with the psychoanalyst R.H. Cawley, who encouraged her to continue to pursue her writing, and to whom she would eventually dedicate seven of her novels.
Frame eventually returned to New Zealand in 1963 and accepted the
Burns Fellowshipat the University of Otagoin 1965.Page number In subsequent years, the author lived in several different parts of New Zealand's North Island, including Auckland, Taranaki, Wanganui, the Horowhenua, Palmerston North, Waiheke, Stratford, Browns Bay and Levin.Page number In addition to these numerous, and somewhat infamousPage number shifts of residence,
Frame also travelled a great deal, principally to the
United States, where she received offers of residencies at the artists' colonies MacDowelland Yaddo.Page number Partly as a result of these extended stays abroad, several Americans became some of Frame's closest friends, [King, Michael. 'Janet Frame: Antipodean phoenix in the American chicken coop." "Antipodes: A North American Journal of Australian Literature" 15:(2): 86-87; December 2001.] including the painter Theophilus Brown, of whom she would he say, he was "the chief experience of my life", Page number and his long-time partner Paul John Wonner, along with the novelists May Sarton, John Marquand, Jr. and Alan Lelchuck. In addition, Frame's one-time teacher/therapist and longtime friend John Moneylived and worked in North America from 1947 onwards, and Frame frequently used his home in Baltimoreas a base.Page number
In the 1980s Frame authored three volumes of autobiography ("To the Is-land", "An Angel at my Table" and "The Envoy from Mirror City") which collectively trace the course of her life leading up to her return to New Zealand in 1963. Director
Jane Campionand screenwriter Laura Jones adapted the trilogy into the 1990 film " An Angel at my Table", wherein a trio of actresses, ( Kerry Fox, Alexia Keogh and Karen Fergusson) portray the author at various ages. As a result of the autobiographies, which sold more than any of the author's previous publications,Page number and, even more so, Campion's widely successful film-adaptation of the texts,Page number a new generation of readers encountered the author and her work, pushing Frame increasingly into the public eye.
Despite her growing celebrity, Frame generally avoided the limelight, although some commentatorswho? have occasionally over-statedOr|date=July 2008 her drive for anonymity and seclusion. In fact, Frame sustained an extended network of friends and made occasional appearances at literary festivals in
New Zealand, Canadaand the United States.
Frame's memoirs, as the author, her biographer, and her publishers and critics have noted, aimed to "set the record straight" regarding her past and, in particular, regarding her mental status. [Frame, Janet. "My Say." Interview with Elizabeth Alley. Concert Programme. Radio New Zealand, Wellington, NZ.
27 April 1983. Rpt "In the Same Room: Conversations with New Zealand Writers." Ed. Elizabeth Alley and Mark Williams. Auckland: Auckland UP, 1992.] Page number Indeed, repeated critical and public speculation has often focussed on the subject of Frame's mental health, most recently with rehabilitation physician Sarah Abrahamson's suggestion that the author may have been on what is commonly referred to as the autistic spectrum.cite web|last=Abrahamson|first=Sarah|title="Did Janet Frame have high-functioning autism?"|url=http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal/abstract.php?id=2747|accessdate=2008-05-01] Although some contested Abrahamson's editorial, most vehemently Frame's niece and current literary executor Pamela Gordon, [Hann, Arwen. "Autism Claim Draws Fire from Family, Mum." "The Press" [NZ] . 22 October 2007: 10.] Sharp, Iain. "Frame of Mind" "Sunday Star Times" [NZ] . 21 October 2007: C8.] [Smith, Charmian. "Putting Janet in the Frame." "Otago Daily Times" [NZ] . 27 October 2007: 45.] who herself has a daughter with autism, both the " New Zealand Medical Journal" [Frizelle, Frank A. "Peer review of NZMJ articles: issues raised after publication of the viewpoint article on Janet Frame." http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal/120-1264/2787] and the author [Abrahamson, Sarah. "Author responds to criticism of her 'Did Janet Frame have high-functioning autism?' viewpoint article. http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal/120-1264/2787] defended the work.
1983 saw Frame become a Commander of the
Order of British Empire(CBE) for services to literature, and in 1990 she was made a member of the Order of New Zealand, the country's highest civil honour. [ [http://www.dpmc.govt.nz/honours/lists/onz.html The Order of New Zealand] Honours List.] Frame also held foreign membership of the American Academy of Arts and Letters, received honorary doctorates from two New Zealand universities, and achieved recognition as a cultural icon in her native New Zealand. [The New Zealand Edge. http://www.nzedge.com/heroes/frame.html]
Rumours occasionally circulated portraying Frame as a contender for the
Nobel Prize in literature, most notably in 1998, when some commentators reported her as the frontrunner after a journalist spotted her name at the top of a list subsequently revealed to have been in alphabetical order, [MacLeod, Scott. “Reclusive Frame tipped as leading Nobel candidate.” "New Zealand Herald". 2 October 2003.] and again five years later, in 2003, when Asa Bechman, the influential chief literary critic at the Swedish daily " Dagens Nyheter", wrongly predicted that the author would win the prestigious prize. [Fox, Gary. "Sth African J M Coetzee awarded Nobel prize for Literature, dashing hopes of NZ writer Janet Frame." "IRN News". 3 October 2003]
In 2000, the popular historian
Michael Kingpublished his authorised biography of Frame, "Wrestling with the Angel", simultaneously released in New Zealand and North America, with British and Australian editions appearing in subsequent years. King's exhaustive work attracted equal measuresFact|date=July 2008 of praise and criticism; some questioned the extent to which Frame guided the hand of her biographer, [Ricketts, Harry. "A life within the frame." "The Lancet" [UK] November 10, 2001: 1652.] [Wilkins, Damien. "In the Lock-Up." "Landfall" 201 [NZ] May 2001: 25-36] with one critic likening King's role to that of a ventriloquist's dummy, [Evans, Patrick. "Dr. Clutha’s Book of the World: Janet Paterson Frame, 1924-2004" http://www.engl.canterbury.ac.nz/research/pde3.htm] while others felt that he had failed to come to terms with the complexity and subtlety of his subject. [Wikse, Maria. "Materialisations of a Woman Writer: Investigating Janet Frame's Biographical Legend" Bern (SW): Peter Lang, 2006.] King defended his project and maintained that future biographies on Frame would eventually fill in the gaps left by his own work. [King, Michael. "The Compassionate Truth" "Meanjin Quarterly" 61.1 (2002) 34]
Janet Frame died in Dunedin in January 2004, aged 79, from
acute myeloid leukaemia, shortly after becoming one of the inaugural recipients of New Zealand's newly-minted "Icon" and Prime Minister's awards for the arts. [Herrick, Linda. "Belated recognition for 'icons' of arts." "New Zealand Herald" July 2, 2003] [Kitchin, Peter. "Daring to be different." "The Dominion Post" [NZ] July 9, 2003.] Since her death, several posthumous works have been released, including a volume of poetry entitled "The Goose Bath," which won New Zealand's 2007 Montana Book Award for poetry, generating some controversyamong New Zealand's literati, [Moore, Christopher. "Dubious Decision" "The Press" (Christchurch, NZ), 1 August 2007] ["Good for the Gander" "The Listener" (NZ) 18 August 2007] and a previously unpublished novel, "Towards Another Summer," largely based on a weekend Frame spent with British journalist Geoffrey Moorhouseand his family. [Moorehouse, Geoffrey. "Out of New Zealand" "Guardian" [UK] November 16, 1962.] On June 2, 2008, a previously unpublished short story by Frame, "A Night at the Opera," appeared without advance notice in "The New Yorker," creating a stir within the literary community. [Mathews, Philip. "Back on the page" "The Press" (Christchurch, NZ), 26 July 2008] Another previously unpublished short story, "Gorse Is Not People," appeared in the September 1, 2008 edition of "The New Yorker". Both stories take place in a mental hospital, and are believed to have been written by Frame in 1954. [Mathews, Philip. "Back on the page" "The Press" (Christchurch, NZ), 26 July 2008]
* 1957 "Owls Do Cry". Christchurch: Pegasus Press.
* 1961 "Faces in the Water". Christchurch: Pegasus Press; New York: Braziller.
* 1962 "The Edge of the Alphabet". Christchurch: Pegasus Press.
* 1963 "Scented Gardens for the Blind". London: WH Allen.
* 1965 "The Adaptable Man". London: WH Allen.
* 1966 "A State of Siege". New York: Braziller.
* 1968 "The Rainbirds". London: WH Allen. (Published in the US with Frame's preferred original title, "Yellow Flowers in the Antipodean Room". New York: Braziller, 1969)
* 1970 "Intensive Care". New York: Braziller.
* 1972 "Daughter Buffalo". New York: Braziller.
* 1979 "Living in the Maniototo". New York: Braziller.
* 1989 "
The Carpathians". New York: Braziller.
* 2007 "Towards Another Summer". Auckland: Vintage ISBN 9781869418687 (Posthumously published).
* 1951 "The Lagoon and Other Stories". Christchurch: Caxton Press. (Mistakenly dated on first edition as 1952)
* 1963. "The Reservoir: Stories and Sketches"/"Snowman Snowman: Fables and Fantasies". New York: Braziller (Edited selection published in the Commonwealth edition "The Reservoir and Other Stories" London: W.H. Allen, 1966).
* 1983. "You Are Now Entering the Human Heart". Wellington: Victoria University Press.
* 1969. "Mona Minim and the Smell of the Sun". (With illustrations by
Robin Jacques.) New York: Braziller (Reissued posthumously in 2005 by Random House, New Zealand, with illustrations by David Elliot).
* 1967. "The Pocket Mirror". New York: Braziller.
* 2006. "The Goose Bath". Auckland: Random House/Vintage (Posthumously published); (Released in the UK as a collected edition along with selections from "The Pocket Mirror" under the title "Storms Will Tell: Selected Poems". Bloodaxe Books, 2008)
* 1982. "To the Is-Land" (Autobiography 1). New York: Braziller.
* 1984. "An Angel at My Table" (Autobiography 2). New York: Braziller.
* 1984. "The Envoy From Mirror City" (Autobiography 3). Auckland: Century Hutchinson.
* 1989. "An Autobiography" (Collected edition). Auckland: Century Hutchinson (Posthumously reprinted under the title "An Angel at My Table", London: Virago, 2008).
Separately published stories and poems
* 1946. "University Entrance" in "New Zealand Listener",
22 March 1946.
* 1947. "Alison Hendry" in "Landfall" 2, June 1947. (Published under the penname "Jan Godfrey"; reprinted in "The Lagoon and Other Stories" under the title "Jan Godfrey".)
* 1954. "The Waitress" in "New Zealand Listener",
9 July 1954
* 1954. "The Liftman" in "New Zealand Listener",
13 August 1954
* 1954. "On Paying the Third Installment" in "New Zealand Listener",
10 September 1954
* 1954. "Lolly Legs" in "New Zealand Listener",
15 October 1954
* 1954. "Trio Concert" in "New Zealand Listener",
29 October 1954.
* 1954. "Timothy" in "New Zealand Listener",
26 November 1954
* 1955. "The Transformation" in "New Zealand Listener",
28 January 1955
* 1956. "The Ferry" in "New Zealand Listener",
13 July 1956.
* 1956. "Waiting for Daylight" in "Landfall" (NZ) 10
* 1956. "I Got Shoes" in "New Zealand Listener",
2 November 1956.
* 1957. "Face Downwards in the Grass" in "Mate" (NZ) 1
* 1957. "The Dead" in "Landfall" (NZ) 11
* 1957. "The Wind Brother" in "School Journal" (NZ) 51.1
* 1958. "The Friday Night World" in "School Journal" (NZ) 52.1
* 1962. "Prizes" in "The New Yorker"
10 March 1962
* 1962. "The Red-Currant Bush, the Black-Currant Bush, the Gooseberry Bush, the African Thorn Hedge, and the Garden Gate Who Was Once the Head of an Iron Bed" in "Mademoiselle" April 1962
* 1963. "The Reservoir" in "The New Yorker"
12 January 1963(reprinted in "The Reservoir: Stories and Sketches")
* 1963. "The Chosen Image" in "Vogue", July 1963
* 1964. "The Joiner" in "Landfall" (NZ) 18
* 1957. "The Road to Takapuna" in "Mate" (NZ) 12
* 1964. "Scott's Horse" in "Landfall" (NZ) 18
* 1964. "The Senator Had Plans" in "Landfall" (NZ) 18
* 1965. "The Bath" in "Landfall" (NZ) 19 (Reprinted in "You Are Now Entering the Human Heart")
* 1966. "A Boy's Will" in "Landfall" (NZ) 20
* 1966. "White Turnips: A Timely Monologue" in "New Zealand Monthly Review" May 1966
* 1966. "In Alco Hall" in "Harper's Bazaar", November 1966
* 1968. "In Mexico City" in "New Zealand Listener",
20 December 1968
* 1969. "You Are Now Entering the Human Heart" in "The New Yorker"
29 March 1969(Reprinted in "You Are Now Entering the Human Heart")
* 1969. "The Birds of the Air" in "Harper's Bazaar", June 1969
* 1969. "Jet Flight" in "New Zealand Listener",
8 August 1969
* 1969. "The Words" in "Mademoiselle" October 1969
* 1970. "Winter Garden" in "The New Yorker"
31 January 1970
* 1974. "They Never Looked Back" in "New Zealand Listener",
23 March 1974
* 1975. "The Painter" in "New Zealand Listener",
6 September 1975
* 1976. "Rain on the Roof" in "The Journal" (NZ), April 1976 (Previously published in "The Pocket Mirror")
* 1979. "Insulation" in "New Zealand Listener",
17 March 1979
* 1979. "Two Widowers" in "New Zealand Listener",
9 June 1979
* 2004. "Three Poems by Janet Frame" in "New Zealand Listener", 28 August-3 September 2004 (Posthumously published) [http://www.listener.co.nz/default,2490.sm view online]
* 2008. "A Night at the Opera" in "The New Yorker",
2 June 2008(Posthumously published) [http://www.newyorker.com/fiction/features/2008/06/02/080602fi_fiction_frame/default,2490.sm view online]
* 2008. "Gorse Is Not People" in "The New Yorker",
1 September 2008(Posthumously published) [http://www.newyorker.com/fiction/features/2008/09/01/080901fi_fiction_frame view online]
Articles, reviews, essays and letters
* 1953. "A Letter to Frank Sargeson" in "Landfall" 25, March 1953
* 1954. "Review of Terence Journet's "Take My Tip" in "Landfall" 32, December 1954
* 1955. "Review of "A Fable" by William Faulkner" in "Parson's Packet", no. 36, October-December 1955
* 1964. "Memory and a Pocketful of Words" in "Times Literary Supplement",
4 June 1964
* 1964. "This Desirable Property" in "New Zealand Listener",
3 July 1964
* 1965. "Beginnings" in "Landfall" (NZ) 73, March 1965
* 1968. "The Burns Fellowship" in "Landfall" (NZ) 87, September 1968
* 1973. "Charles Brasch 1909-1973: Tributes and Memories from His Friends" in "Islands" (NZ) 5, Spring 1973
* 1975. "Janet Frame on "Tales from Grimm" in "Education" (NZ) 24.9, 1975
* 1982. "Departures and Returns" in G. Amirthanayagan (ed.) "Writers in East-West Encounter", London: Macmillan, 1982 (Originally delivered as a paper at the International Colloquium on the Cross-Cultural Encounter in Literature, East-West Center,
Honolulu, October 1977).
* 1984. "A last Letter to Frank Sargeson" in "Islands" (NZ) 33, July 1984
Awards and honours
* 1951: Hubert Church Prose Award ("The Lagoon and other Stories")
* 1956: New Zealand Literary Fund Grant
* 1958: New Zealand Literary Fund Award for Achievement ("Owls Do Cry")
* 1964: Hubert Church Prose Award ("Scented Gardens for the Blind"); New Zealand Literary Fund Scholarship in Letters.
* 1965: Robert Burns Fellowship, University of Otago, Dunedin, NZ
* 1967: "Buckland Literary Award." ("The Reservoir and Other Stories"/"A State of Siege")
* 1969: New Zealand Literary Fund Award ("The Pocket Mirror: Poems")
* 1971: Buckland Literary Award (Intensive Care); Hubert Church Prose Award." ("Intensive Care")
* 1972: President of Honour: P.E.N. International New Zealand Centre, Wellington, NZ
* 1973: James Wattie Book of the Year Award ("Daughter Buffallo")
* 1974: Hubert Church Prose Award ("Daughter Buffallo"); Winn-Manson Menton Fellowship.
* 1978: Honorary Doctor of Literature (D.Litt. Honoris Causa) University of Otago, Dunedin, NZ
* 1979: Buckland Literary Award ("Living in the Maniototo")
* 1980: New Zealand Book Award for Fiction ("Living in the Maniototo")
* 1983: Buckland Literary Award; Sir James Wattie Book of the Year Award ("To the Is-Land"); C.B.E. (Commander, Order of the British Empire)
* 1984: Frank Sargeson Fellowship, University of Auckland, NZ
* 1984: New Zealand Book Award for Non-Fiction (An Angel at My Table); Sir James Wattie Book of the Year Award ("An Angel at My Table"); Turnovsky Prize for Outstanding Achievement in the Arts
* 1985: Sir James Wattie Book of the Year Award ("The Envoy from Mirror City")
* 1986: New Zealand Book Award for Non-Fiction ("The Envoy from Mirror City"); Honorary Foreign Member: The American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters
* 1989: Ansett New Zealand Book Award for Fiction; Commonwealth Writers Prize for Best Book ("The Carpathians")
* 1990: O.N.Z. (Member, Order of New Zealand)
* 1992: Honorary Doctor of Literature (D.Litt), University of Waikato, Hamilton, NZ
* 1994: Massey University Medal, Massey University, Palmerston North, NZ
* 2003: Arts Foundation of New Zealand Icon Artists; New Zealand Prime Minister’s Award for Literary Achievement
* 2007: Montana Book Award for Poetry ("The Goose Bath")
New Zealand literature
An Angel at My Table" (biopic based on Frame's autobiographies)
* Delbaere, Jeanne, ed. "The Ring of Fire. Essays on Janet Frame." Dangaroo Press (Aarhus),1992.
* Evans, Patrick. [http://www.engl.canterbury.ac.nz/research/pde3.htm "Dr. Clutha’s Book of the World: Janet Paterson Frame, 1924–2004."] "Journal of New Zealand Literature" 22: 15–3.
* Finlayson, Claire. "A Bolder Spirit." "University of Otago Magazine". (NZ) February 2005: 13–14.
* Frame, Janet. "An Autobiography." (collected edition). Auckland: Century Hutchinson, 1989.
* King, Michael. "The Compassionate Truth." "Meanjin Quarterly" 61.1 (2002): 24–34.
* King, Michael. "An Inward Sun: The World of Janet Frame." Penguin (NZ), 2002.
* King, Michael. "Tread Softly for you Tread on My Life." Cape Catley (NZ), 2001
* King, Michael. "Wrestling with the Angel: A Life of Janet Frame." Penguin (NZ), 2000.
* [http://www.nzherald.co.nz/section/story.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=3546285 "Legendary NZ writer Janet Frame dies".] "New Zealand Herald."
29 January 2004.
* [http://www.library.auckland.ac.nz/subjects/nzp/nzlit2/frame.htm Auckland University's Frame bibliography]
* [http://janetframe.org.nz Janet Frame Literary Trust]
* [http://www.bookcouncil.org.nz/tourism/destinations/edenstreet.html 56 Eden Street Trust]
* [http://www.bookcouncil.org.nz/writers/framej.html NZ Book Council Profile]
* [http://www.nzepc.auckland.ac.nz/sounds/soundnz.asp#F Aotearoa New Zealand Sound Archive (scroll down to hear a reading of the poem "Friends Far Away Die")]
* [http://www.ninoxdvd.com/#dvd01 "Wrestling With The Angel," television documentary produced and broadcast in New Zealand]
* [http://www.victoria.ac.nz/modernletters/reading/desk.aspx The Landfall/Janet Frame desk conservation report]
* [http://www.livingheritage.net.nz/schools/intermediate/st-josephs/walkways/janet.htm Janet Frame Heritage Trail]
* [http://www.listener.co.nz/issue/3326/features/1435/the_gift_of_language.html CK Stead's essay "The Gift of Language"]
* [http://www.otago.ac.nz/DeepSouth/vol1no1/hawes1.html Tara Hawes's essay "Janet Frame: The Self as Other/Othering the Self"]
* [http://www.overthere.com.au/writing/tempest.html Diane Caney's essay "Janet Frame & The Tempest," originally delivered at the 1992 Janet Frame conference]
* [http://www.engl.canterbury.ac.nz/research/pde3.htm Patrick Evans' essay "Dr. Clutha’s Book of the World: Janet Paterson Frame, 1924–2004," published in the "Journal of New Zealand Literature," 2004]
* [http://books.guardian.co.uk/departments/generalfiction/story/0,,2243202,00.html Director Jane Campion's introduction to the 2008 UK reprint of Frame's autobiographies]
* [http://www.virago.co.uk/pdf/extracts/9781844084579.pdf Extract from Frame's autobiographies]
* [http://www.randomhouse.com.au/Authors/Default.aspx?Page=Author&ID=Frame,%20Janet Janet Frame at Random House Australia]
NAME=Frame, Janet Paterson
DATE OF BIRTH=
August 28, 1924
PLACE OF BIRTH=
Dunedin, New Zealand
DATE OF DEATH=
January 29, 2004
PLACE OF DEATH=
Dunedin, New Zealand
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.