- Electron spectrometer
In an Electron spectrometer, an incoming beam of electrons is bent with electric or magnetic fields. As higher energy electrons will be bent less by the beam, this produces a spatially distributed range of energies.
Electron spectrometers are used on a range of scientific equipment, including
particle accelerators, transmission electron microscopes, and astronomical satellites.
An electrostatic electron spectrometer uses the electric field. Inspired by the bent path of the particles round electrodes ares used. The
effective potentialin the solution of motion in a system with rotational symmetry leads to radial focusing onto a mean radius. By superposition of a quadrupole field axial focusing is possible while weakening the radial focusing, until the astigmatismvanishes. By breaking the rotational symmetry a bit and varying the electrostatic potential along the mean path of the spherical aberrationis minimized. The spectrometer can use entrance and exit slits or use a small source, which only emits into specific angle and a small detector. Photoelectronspectra from single crystals exhibit a dependency on the emission angle, so that the entrance slit is needed. All the electrons from an isotopic source may be sucked off and focused into a directed beam (much like in an electron gun), which can then be analyzed. A position sensitive detector can detect the energy along one direction and depending on the additional optics lateral resolution or one angle along the other direction.
Electrostatic spectrometers preserve the spin, which can be resolved afterwards.
Electron energy loss spectroscopy
Time of flightspectrometer
Energy filtered transmission electron microscopy
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