- Bicycling terminology
The following terminology is used in the general
cycling, as well as the more specific sports of road bicycle racingand mountain bicycle racing.
A bicycle race typically organized by
bicycle messengers or couriers. Alleycat racesseek to replicate some of the duties that a working messenger might encounter during a typical day. The races usually consist of previously undisclosed checkpoints, which are listed on a manifest, that a racer will have to go to; once at the checkpoint the racer will have his/her manifest updated. First racer to return with a completed manifest wins.
Alleycats were first formalized in
Toronto, Canadain 1989, however messengers have been racing against each other for much longer. Recently, with the boom in urban cycling, many non-messengers have been participating and organizing alleycat races.
A racing cyclist who excels in both climbing and time trialing, and may also be a decent sprinter. In stage races, an all-rounder seeks a top-10 place in the
General Classification. Eddy Merckxand Lance Armstrongwere both notable all-rounders; Jan Ullrich, Ivan Bassoand Alejandro Valverdeare more contemporary examples. All-rounders are usually Team Leaders in stage races.
arrière du peloton
From French, literally the "rear of the peloton" (main group of riders).
To quickly accelerate while riding in a pack, or in smaller numbers, with a view to create a gap between yourself and other riders.
A group of riders in a stage race (typically non-climbers and suffering domestiques) who ride together as a group on the mountain stages with the sole intention of finishing within the stage's time limit to allow them to start the next day.
Also known by the Italian term gruppetto.
bag of spanners
To totally lose all ability to pedal smoothly after overexertion but still remain on one's bike. Expressive: "He's pedaling like a bag of spanners"
British Best All-Rounder, a season-long time trial competition held in the UK.
A water bottle.
Riding or going "à bloc" means giving it all you've got, going all out, riding as hard as one possibly can (which can be dangerous for it leaves one in a state where recovery is needed, and therefore vulnerable to being attacked). Example: "I really gave it all in the last kilometres, although I didn't think it was possible until I crossed the line. I just went 'à bloc' " --
Alexander Vinokourovdescribing his win of the final stage of the 2005 Tour de France.
Riders of one team who set a relatively slow tempo at the front of a group to control the speed, often to the advantage of one of their teammates who may be in a break.
A rider who has gone into oxygen debt and loses the ability to maintain pace is said to have blown up, variations include popping, exploding and detonating. This is a more temporary condition than cracking or hitting the wall.
An aggressive and rude rider.
See hit the wall.
To be positioned in a peloton or other pack of riders, regardless of size, such that one is unable to move ahead of the other riders. This usually refers to the sprint where one is unable to improve one's finish placing due to the inability to maneuver around other riders, e.g. "I felt really fast, but the other team had me boxed in the gutter and I couldn't move up."
helmetdesigned to prevent or lessen damage to the head and face of a rider; this term is considered slightly insulting and is usually used by those advocating not using helmets.
"Breakaway", or "break" in short, is when a small group of riders or an individual have successfully opened a gap ahead of the peloton.
When a lone rider or smaller group of riders closes the space between them and the rider or group in front of them. This term is often used to describe when riders catch up with the main pack (or peloton) of riders or those who are leading the race.
road bicycle racing, a synonym for SAG wagon. The broom wagon often has an ironic broom actually fixed to the front of it.
The rate at which a cyclist pedals (in revolutions per minute).
The team cars following behind the peloton in support of their racers.
The rear cog cluster on a derailleur bicycle, that fits on a
freehub. It consists only of cogs, with no ratcheting mechanism, as the ratcheting mechanism is in the freehub.
A group of cyclists cycling in a close knit formation akin to a road race, normally for the purposes of training.
Annoying slapping of the bike's chain against the chainstays while riding over rough terrain.
The tendency of a chain to stick to chain rings and be sucked up into the bike instead of coming off the chainring. Primarily caused by worn chainrings and rust on small chain rings, under high loads, and in dirty conditions.
A group of one or more riders who are ahead of the peloton trying to join the race or stage leader(s). There may be none, one, or many chases at any given point in a race.
A sequence of tight turns, often s-shaped, usually most important near the finish of a road-race or during a criterium.
A rider who specialises in riding uphill quickly, usually due to having a high power-to-weight ratio.
A type of tire that uses a bead around the edge of the tire to attach to the rim of the wheel when inflated. The inner tube is separate.
A race judge, in road-racing they are usually based in a car following the event.
An attack that is made when a break has been caught by chasers or the peloton.
When a cyclist runs out of strength or energy, they are said to have cracked. Compare with hit the wall
A race on a closed short distance course with multiple laps. Often but not always a 4-cornered course; often includes primes (short for premiums and rhymes with 'seems') which are points or prizes for intermediate laps. Course length varies from 800 meters to 5 kilometers.
A form of bicycle racing that consists of many laps of a short course featuring pavement, wooded trails, grass, steep hills and obstacles requiring the rider to quickly dismount, carry the bike past some obstacles and remount.
(French: "danser" - to dance) - riding out of the saddle, standing up, usually in a taller gear than normal, and rocking side to side for leverage. The phrase "dancing on the pedals" is related.
A cyclist who excels at fast descents, often using them to break away from a group, or bridge a gap.
A rider whose job it is to support and work for other riders in their team (literally "servant" in French).
To ride closely behind another rider to make maximum use of their
slipstream, reducing wind resistanceand effort required to ride at the same speed.
To be dropped is to be left behind a breakaway or the peloton for whatever reason (usually because the rider cannot sustain the tempo required to stay with the group).To drop someone is to accelerate strongly with the intent of causing following riders to no longer gain the benefit of drafting.
The slot, of various sizes and orientations, in the frame that the axles of the wheels attach to.
A drop-off is a
mountain bikingterm. Experienced riders who ride on black/red routes may come across them. A drop-off is a step down in the terrain and can range from 20cm to 20ft. Most drop offs are met either by downhill riders, or freeriders. These riders have long travel bikes above six inches for bigger drops. When attempting a drop off the rider should ensure that the bike lands on it's rear wheel, or ideally, both wheels should land at the same time. A front heavy landing may result in the rider being pitched over the handlebars.
(French) a line of riders seeking maximum drafting in a crosswind, resulting in a diagonal line across the road.
To go over the handlebars in a crash. From "end-over-end".
The endo is the basis of many of the tricks that are possible in freestyle. An Endo is when the back wheel of the bike is lifted off of the ground and the bike goes up onto its front wheel only.
(French: hope) Age category for riders between 19 and 22 years of age.
A stage of a stage race.
Slang for a
Slang for a
A location along the course of a long bicycle road race where team personnel hand musettes containing food and beverages to passing riders.
Ideally, a feed zone should be along a long, uncongested straight section of road, with a wide shoulder for team personnel and vehicles. A slight uphill is desirable, as it will slow the passing riders and make grabbing the musettes easier; the grade should not be so steep as to cause the riders to struggle. The roadway approaching the feed zone should be straight with a long unobstructed sightline, so riders may easily identify the personnel from their teams and position themselves for a smooth pickup.
The ability to follow is the ability to match the pace of riders who are setting the tempo. Following is easier than pulling or setting the tempo and the term can be used in a derogatory manner, e.g. "He only ever followed".
A location on the course of a long, supported recreational ride from which volunteers dispense foods such as bananas, oranges, bread, and food bars, and beverages such as water and
sports drinks, to riders who stop for refreshment. Most cyclists must eat and drink to replenish calories, fluids, and electrolytes lost while completing a long ride. Thus the food stops are important to the success of most participants.
On recreational rides, riders typically stop and dismount to obtain refreshment (hence the term "food stop"). In contrast, long road bicycle races do not typically involve stopping for refreshment; instead, riders grab musettes containing food and beverages from team personnel who stand along the road at designated feed zones. In some events, riders obtain food handups directly from support vehicles.
*See also: SAG station and SAG wagon.
A distance between two or more riders large enough for drafting to no longer be effective. Also used as verb (US English), for example: "Armstrong has gapped Ullrich!". It's much easer for a stronger rider to pull ahead of others once a gap has been achieved; without a gap, the others can draft along using significantly less power to sustain the same speed as the rider in front. While gaps are usually achieved through attacks, on mountain climbs, where slower speeds means the advantage of drafting is much less significant, riders are often gapped who simply cannot maintain the tempo of the faster riders. A gap can also refer to the space in between a jump and the landing, which is common in mountain biking.
Abbr.: general classification. the timing splits used to determine who is winning in a stage race. calculated from the first rider over the line each day time is then measured back by gaps from the winner of the day. Time gaps are then calculated back between riders and added to the overall position of riders relative to each other. Riders can attack in stage races for time rather than winning the days stage. They are said to be "riding for G.C.". In such circumstances alliances can form where some riders in a breakaway will work to help others win the days stage despite not contesting the finish as the overall gap the breakaway gains helps them "on G.C."
Two meanings related to each other:
#The lowest gear ratio on a multi-speed derailleur bicycle; smallest chainring in front and the largest in back.
#The smallest chainring on a crank with triple chainrings.
To ride in the gutter is ride close to edge of the road making it hard for others to draft.
half-wheel or half-wheeler
A rider that rides 1/2 wheel in front of you on training rides and group rides. No matter how much you speed up to keep up with them, they stay that distance in front of you. Usually these people are frowned upon and less desirable to ride with. [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/606/A31805831 BBC - 606 - - A31805831 - A Sunday In Hell ] ]
Hammer is used in three different ways in road cycling.
Firstly, as a phrase that describes what happens to a rider who suddenly loses the ability to race, as in "The man with the hammer got him" or "He got hit by the man with hammer". This is a reference to the experience boxers have when their legs become powerless and weak just before collapsing ("as if" they have been hit with a hammer) following a severe blow to the head. The abruptness with which this happens differentiates it from hitting the wall. Alternative expressions are "'tapped'" short for "he got tapped by the man with hammer".
Secondly, "to put the hammer down" which means to pedal hard, often with the purpose of trying eliminating opponents in a road race. As in the phrase "We really put the hammer down and sprinted to the end."
Thirdly, and more literally, the verb "hammer" refers to pounding along powerfully on the pedals. e.g. "Leipheimer really "hammered" hard for the entirety of stage 19".
A style of road racing in Australia where riders are given time handicaps in bunches, with scratch being the last riders to leave and limit being the first riders to leave. The time intervals between groups, and the allocation of riders to groups is decided by the race handicapper, based on rider's ability, age and form. Race honours are usually awarded to the first 5 to 10 riders (depending on the size race) and to the fastest time.
The bearing system in the head tube within which the handlebars rotate.
Similar to "on the rivet" but slightly less extreme. A rider making a serious effort.
hill climb (race)
A short distance uphill race, usually an individual time trial over approx 3 - 5 km. See
hit the wall
To completely run out of
energyon a long ride, also known as "bonking".
hold a wheel
Similar to follow but more dramatic. holding a wheel may infer a rider is riding above his normal performance just to stay with a better rider or indicates he is about to be dropped or crack. Expressive "he can't hold the wheel"
UK English), see danseuse.
hors catégorie, or HC
The French term primarily used in cycle races (most notably, the
Tour de France) to designate a climb that is "beyond categorization", an incredibly tough climb. Most climbs are designated from Category 1 (hardest) to Category 4 (easiest), based on both steepness and length. A climb that is harder than Category 1 is designated as hors catégorie.
hors delai (HD)
A French term literally meaning "out of time", for when a rider has finished outside the time limit in a race and is therefore eliminated.
Also shortened to "the knock". See hit the wall.
individual time trial
Race where riders set off at fixed intervals and complete the course against the clock; fastest time wins.
To aggressively increase speed without warning, hopefully creating a substantial advantage over your opponents. Also (more usually) denoting an attempt to bridge a gap from the peloton or gruppetto to a breakaway. For example: "he is trying to jump across".
keirinis a 2000 metre track event where the riders start the race in a group behind a motorised derny. The derny paces the riders for 1400 metres and then pulls off the track, at which time the cyclists begin a sprint to the finish line. Keirin racing has traditionally been practised in Japan, where it has been a professional sport for over 20 years, and in which pari-mutuelbetting on the riders is permitted.
Accelerating quickly with a few pedalstrokes in an effort to break away from other riders (e.g. "Contador kicks again to try to rid himself of Rasmussen")
Referred to as "the knock". Short for "hunger knock". See hit the wall.
French for "red lantern", as found at the end of a railway train, and the name given to the rider placed last in a race.
Same as autobus. Riders who collect together in a road race just concerned with making it to the finish "in the time" so as not to be disqualified or "swept up". Members of the laughing group are not concerned with contesting the finish.
Sprinting technique often used by the leadout man where the rider will accelerate to maximum speed close to the sprint point with a teammate, the sprinter, drafting behind, hoping to create space between the sprinter and the pack. When the leadout man is exhausted he will move to the side to allow his teammate to race in the sprint. Often a line of leadout men will be used to form a leadout train to drive the speed higher and higher (and to reduce the chances of other riders attacking) over the closing stages of a race. The purpose of a leadout is for the sprinter to achieve high speed at the sprint approach using as little of his own energy as possible, so he has as much energy as possible for the final sprint.
A rider in a small group who does not share some of the workload by riding in the front where wind resistance is greatest, but instead conservers their energy by riding in the
slipstreamof one of the other riders. By analogy with leechan animal which feeds on the blood of other animals.
Two meanings one the opposite meaning of the other
# To let go a rider or break is allowing a rider(s) to attack and not responding even if one has the capability to follow the attacking move. This is done for tactical reasons. Can be applied in the plural. "the peloton let the break go"
# To let go the wheels is to not be able to "hold a wheel" unable to follow the pace. "he let the wheels go" or "let go the wheel" the difference is the use of wheel rather than the rider or riders. if you let a rider or a break go you do so voluntarily. To let go a wheel is involuntary but has slightly derogatory edge in that the rider "let the wheels go" before he was pushed to his absolute limit, to be "dropped" (subtle)
First riders to depart in a handicap race.
The madison is a mass-start track event comprising teams of two riders per team. It is similar to a team points race, as points are awarded to the top finishers at the intermediate sprints and for the finishing sprint. Only one of the two team riders is racing on the track at any one time, riding for a number of laps, and then exchanging with his partner by a hand sling. The name originates from "
Madison Square Gardens", which was originally constructed as a velodrome.
The activity of
mountain biking, or a mountain bikeitself.
Small lightweight cotton shoulder bag, used for containing food and drink given to riders in a feed zone during a cycle race. The bag is designed so that it can be easily grabbed by a moving rider. The shoulder strap is placed over the head and one shoulder, the contents are then removed and placed into jersey pockets or bottles (bidons) are placed into bottle cages. The bag is then discarded.
An omnium is a multi-stage event that differs from a stage race in that points are assigned for placing in each stage rather than a time. Therefore a rider may win with a slower time than another rider, but more points. Conceivably a rider can win the omnium without finishing each event.
on the rivet
Describes a rider who is riding at maximum speed. When riding at maximum power output, a road racer often perches on the front tip of the saddle (seat), where the shell of an old-style leather saddle would be attached to the saddle frame with a rivet.
on your wheel
Phrase describing the condition of being very close to the rear wheel of the rider ahead of you. Used to inform the rider that you have positioned yourself in their slipstream for optimum drafting. For example: "I'm on your wheel."
open road race
Generally going from point A to point B; can include multi-laps. Can also mean a club event in which non-club members can enter.
Group of riders riding at high speed by drafting one another. Riders will take turns at the front to break the wind, then rotate to the back of the line to rest in the draft. Larger group rides will often form double pacelines with two columns of riders. Sometimes referred to as "bit and bit"
A list of races a rider has won. (French, meaning list of achievements or list of winners)
The profile of the race or stage route. (French, course, nm.)
Pedaling smoothly and efficiently.
Riding with considerable fatigue such that the rider is unable to maintain an efficient pedaling form that is strong and smooth.
(from French, literally meaning "little ball" or "
platoon" and also related to the English word " pellet") is the large main group in a road bicycle race. May also be called the field, bunch, or pack. Riders in a group save energyby riding close (drafting or slipstreaming) near and, particularly behind, other riders. The reduction in drag is dramatic; in the middle of a well-developed group it can be as much as 40%. [Edmund Burke, "High-Tech Cycling", 2003]
Lifting the front wheel of the bicycle in the air and jumping up and down on the rear wheel while in a stationary position.
From French, literally "pursuing" - refers to a cyclist or group of cyclists who are separated from and behind the leader(s) (tête de la course) but in front of the main group (peloton). This usually occurs when a small number of riders attempt to catch up to the leaders, either to join with them or to "bring them back to the pack" by encouraging the main group to chase them down.
Primes (pronounced "preems", from French) are intermediate sprints within a race, usually offering a prize and/or points. Primes are a way to encourage more competitive riding, and also an opportunity for companies to gain publicity by sponsoring a prime.
criterium, a bell is sounded on the lap preceding the prime sprint at the appropriate line for that prime sprint. The line used for prime sprints need not be the same as the start or finish line. Primes may be either predetermined for certain laps or spontaneously designated under the supervision of the Chief Referee. All primes won shall be awarded to riders even if they withdraw from the race. Lapped riders are not eligible for primes except in the following situation: when a breakaway has lapped the main field, riders in the main field and the breakaway riders are then both eligible for primes. When primes are announced for a given group, only riders in that group or behind it at the beginning of the prime lap are eligible. Prizes can be cash, merchandise, or points, depending on the race.
A short individual time trial before a stage race, used to determine which rider wears the leader's jersey on the first stage.
To take the lead on a paceline or echelon.
pull back time
To pull back time is to make up time on another rider who is ahead on G.C. "he needs to "pull back" two minutes if he wants to get in yellow"
pull it back
to work too hard and reduce the lead of a breakaway, also used as "he needs to pull him back" or "they need to pull him back."
The most difficult stage of a multi-day road race, typically involving multiple low- or beyond-category climbs.
A rider who does a ride is one who makes an endeavour to win a race or move up on GC against the odds and pulls it off. "he did a ride"
The outer portion of the wheel, on which the tire attaches.
a race on a road
A type of trainer composed of rolling cylinders under the rear wheel linked to a single rolling cylinder under the front wheel which allow the rider to practice balance while training indoors.
Weight (more correctly
mass) that is rotating while the bike is moving, particularly the wheels. Mass near the outside edge of a wheel has about twice the stored energyof a similar non-rotating mass moving at the same speed. A bicycle wheel can be considered to be a good approximation of a hollow cylinderwith most of its mass at or near the rim. The rotation of cranks, wheel hubs, and other parts are of less significance because both their radius and speed of rotation ( angular velocity) are small. All mass resists changes in velocity( accelerationor deceleration) due to inertia. This resistance is noticably greater where rotational inertiais also a significant component, so lighter wheel rims, spoke nipples, and tires will permit faster acceleration (or the same acceleration for less expenditure of energy). This effect is much reduced at lower speeds such as during hill climbing.
A location along the course of a long mass-participation recreational ride providing mechanical and/or medical assistance to riders in need. Volunteers at the SAG station may also dispatch SAG wagons to assist riders stranded along the course. A SAG station may also function as a food stop.
"SAG" (most commonly written in all uppercase) may derive from a rider "sagging" off the back of the group, or it may be an
acronym(or a backronym) for "Support And Gear" or "Support Aid Group."
Support motor vehicle following long races or recreational rides to pick up riders unable to complete the event. See also: food stop and SAG station.
In racing events, typically the main group of riders will ride as a peloton and can be served by one or more SAG wagons trailing behind. In large recreational rides, there may be thousands of riders spread over much of the course, so ride organizers may employ roving SAG wagons to locate and assist stranded riders.
bicycle racing, another term for SAG wagon is broom wagon.
Last riders to depart in a handicap race. Also referred to as the "scratch bunch" or "scratchies". Also, a straightforward type of track race with a predetermined number of laps (except in the case of an "unknown scratch," when officials ring a bell to signify one lap to go) until the finish line.
To pull or throw shapes, throwing shapes is a rider whose exertions has caused him to pedal in a ungainly and un-fluid manner. A sign a rider is about to crack or has cracked. Can be used in expressive ways. "He's throwing a whole basket of shapes".
A component used by the rider to control the gearing mechanisms and select the desired gear ratio. It is connected to the derailleur by a cable.
Australian English for tubular tyres.
it-on and sit-in
To ride behind another rider without taking a turn on the front (thus tiring the lead rider), often in preparation for an attack or sprint finish. "sitting in the wheels" is to take an easy ride drafted by the peloton or gruppeto. often a strategic decision to save energy in 21 day stage race
A breakaway that is allowed to go from the peloton in a stage race because it poses no strategic threat to any of the main contenders on GC. In french terminology a soft break is a "dishonest break".
A non-riding member of a team whose role is to provide support for the riders, possibly including transportation and organization of supplies, preparation of the team's food, post-ride massages and personal encouragement.
Has the ability to generate very high power over short periods (a few seconds to a minute) allowing for great finishing speeds, but is usually unable to sustain sufficiently high power over long periods to be a good time trialist, and is usually too big to have a high enough power-to-weight ratio to be a good climber.
Similar to shapes. pedaling squares is pedaling without fluid rhythm. Pedaling in a labored fashion
One part of a multi-day race, such as the Tour de France.
An amateur rider, who is taken in by a professional team during the season. This lets the rider get some experience at riding a few pro races, and the team gets a chance to assess the abilities of the rider.
The part of the forks that is inside the frame, that joins the exposed portion of the forks to the stem.
The component that attaches the handlebars to the steer tube of the bicycle. They come in two major types, quill and threadless. The angle and length plays a major part in how the bicycle fits the rider.
A team of professional cyclists. Usually one rider will be the team leader and the others will support him, though the team itself will be comprised of a mix of riders from the various specialisations.
team time trial
Riders start in groups or teams, usually of a fixed size. The time of the "n"th rider of a team counts for the classification.
Steady pace at the front of a group of riders. A relatively fast tempo can be used by a group or team to control the peloton, often to make up time to a break. The group will ride at the head of the bunch and set a fast enough pace to stretch the peloton out (also known as stringing out) and discourage other riders from attacking. Setting a slower tempo can be done for the purpose of blocking.
A tempo is also a type of track race where two points are awarded to the first person to cross the line each lap, and one point is awarded to the second person to cross the line each lap. The winner is the person with the most points at the end of the race.
A time-trialist who tends to over-specialize in the discipline. Slightly derogatory.
tête de la course
From French, literally "head of the race" - the leading cyclist or group of cyclists, when separated from (in front of) the peloton.
A rider that sits at the back of a breakaway but doesn't take a pull. Thus the rider gets a free ride similar to a ticket collector on a train who rides for free.
A race against the clock where riders are started separately (ranging from 30 seconds to 5 minutes apart). The winner of the race is determined by the fastest person across the course. No drafting may be employed in a time trial as it is a solo race event.
A rider that can generate relatively high power over long periods of time (5 minutes to an hour or more) in a race against the clock.
An oval cycling track for races, banked at up to 42 degrees. Cycling tracks are usually, but not always indoors Bicycling or cycle tracks are also called velodromes.
A piece of equipment that a bicycle stands on so that the rear wheel can spin while the bicycle is stationary, allowing stationary riding.These are usually used when the conditions outside are bad.
Tubular tyres are cycle tyres have the inner tube permanently stitched inside the casing, and are glued to special rims. Tubulars take very high pressure (up to 10 bar or 145 psi) and offer the least rolling resistance and lowest weight. However, they are difficult to replace and repair and are very expensive. Also called tub.
A trainer that spins a fan assembly at the same time (for pedal resistance and air flow)
A turn is a rider sharing the workload on a pace line "he took a turn" or "he is doing a lot of turns on the front". Missing turns can be expressed thus "he has missed a few turns now and has stopped working". In a breakaway the riders expect to share the work equally in "turns". A rider who doesn't take his turn is "sitting on the break"
A cycling track for races. See track.
A steep incline along a race's course.
See also hit the wall.
A rider who sits on the rear wheel of others in a group or on an other rider, enjoying the draft but not working.
Lifting the front wheel of the bicycle in the air whilst riding and continuo to ride on only the back wheel. The rider maintains the wheelie by applying pedalstrokes and rear break in order to balance the bicycle on only the rear wheel.
In contexts such as "riding with" and "finished with" used to mean "next to each other or one behind another, close enough to be drafting". Example: "Samuel Dumoulin (Française Des Jeux) and Simon Gerrans (Ag2r-Prevoyance) joined up with the leading four and set about working well together."
Abbreviation of wide outside lane. An outside lane on a roadway that is wide enough to be safely shared side-by-side by a bicycle and motor vehicle. The road may be marked with partial lane markings to designate the portion of the lane to be used by bicycles.
To work is to do "turns on the front", aid a group of riders by sharing the workload of working against air resistance by "pulling on the front" of the group. similar to pull. Often used expressively in-combination with other expressions:eg "he is hasn't done any work all day he has just sat on the breakaway" working is used in many contexts in the peloton and road racing
* [http://www.adventuresportsonline.com/mtbterms.htm Glossary at Adventure Sports Online]
* [http://www.7stanes.gov.uk/forestry/infd-6ysdcm Glossary at 7 Stains]
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