- Timeline of Portuguese history (Pre-Roman)
This is a historical timeline of
Portugal.=Pre-Roman Western Iberia= Paleolithic
200th millennium BC– In the Paleolithicperiod the NeanderthalMan enters the Iberian peninsula.
70th millennium BC
**Beginning of the Last Ice Age.
40th millennium BC
**Beginning of the
**The first large settlement of
Europeby Modern Humans, Nomadic Hunter-gathereres coming from the of the Steppesof Central Asia, characterized by the M173 mutationin the Y chromosome, allegedly defining them as an HaplogroupR population. When the Ice Age reached its maximum extent, these modern humans took refuge in Southern Europe, namely in Iberia, and in the steppes of southern Ukraineand Russia.
35th millennium BC– Beginning of the Neanderthal Châtelperroniancultural period, emanating from Southern France.
33rd millennium BC– Beginning of the Modern Human Aurignacianculture in Europe.
30th millennium BC– Modern Humans make way into the Iberian peninsula, coming from Southern France. Here, this genetically homogenous population (characterized by the M173 mutationin the Y chromosome), will supposedly develop the M343mutation, giving rise to the R1b Haplogroup, still dominant in modern Portuguese and Spanish populations.
28th millennium BC
**Extinction of the
NeanderthalMan in its last refuge – the west of Iberia (in modern Portugal).
Gravettianculture in Europe.
20th millennium BC
Solutreancultural period in Europe.
**Pre-historic Art in the
Vila Nova de Foz Côa(near modern Vila Nova de Foz Côa, in Portugal), one of the biggest sites in Europe.
15th millennium BC– Magdaleniancultural period in Europe. Mesolithic
10th millennium BC
Allerød Oscillationoccurs, an interstadial Deglaciation that weakens the rigorous conditions of the Ice Age.
Upper Palaeolithicand beginning of the Mesolithicperiod.
**The populations sheltered in Iberia, descendants of the
Cro-Magnon, given the deglaciation, migrate and recolonize all of Western Europe, thus spreading the R1b Haplogrouppopulations (still dominant, in variant degrees, from Iberia to Scandinavia).
Azilianculture in Southern Franceand Northern Iberia (to the mouth of the Douroriver).
Muge Culturein the Tagusvalley. Neolithic
5th millennium BC
**Beginning of the
Neolithicin the Iberian peninsula.
**Autochthonous development of
**Beginning of the Megalithic European culture, spreading to most of
Europeand having one of its oldest and main centres in the territory of modern Portugal.
Nomadic Hunter-gathereres of the R Haplogroup(characterized by the M173 mutationin the Y chromosome) that had taken refuge during the Last Ice Age in the Steppesof southern Ukraineand Russia(and had allegedly developed the M17 mutation, originating the R1a Haplogroup), are believed to have given rise to the Proto-Indo-European cultures (predecessors of the Indo-European population and their languages), such as the Kurganculture.
3rd millennium BC
Chalcolithicculture of Vila Nova, a Megalithic European culture, around the area of modern Lisbon.
Beaker culturespreads to most of Western Europe( Portugal, Spain, France(excluding the central massif), Great Britainand Ireland, the Low Countries, and Germanyfrom the Elbevalley west, with an extension along the upper Danubeinto the Vienna basinin Austria, with Mediterraneanoutposts on Sardiniaand Sicily). Bronze Age
1st millennium BC
**First wave of Indo-European migrations into Iberia, of the
Urnfieldculture (Proto- Celts).
**Bronze culture (Indo-European) in the Northwest of Iberia (modern Galicia and northern
Portugal), maintaining commercial relations with Brittanyand the British Isles. Emergence of the Castro Village culture in this Iberian area.
**Bronze culture in the Portuguese
**Bronze culture of Portuguese Beira Alta (not Indo-European but influenced by).
**Emergence of Tartessian society in the territory of modern
Andalusia. Iron Age
10th Century BC
**First contacts between
Phoeniciansand Iberia (along the Mediterraneancoast).
Tartessos, the first Iberia Statementioned in writing sources. Tartessos was a centralized Monarchybrought about under Phoenician influence and maintained commercial relations with the area of modern Algarve, inhabited by the Cynetes or Cunetes, and Portuguese Estremadura.
**Emergence of towns and cities in the southern littoral areas of western Iberia.
9th Century BC
**Foundation of the
Phoenician (from the city-sate of Tyre) colony of Carthage(in North Africa).
** Foundation of the
Phoenician colony of "Gadir" (modern Cádiz) near Tartessos. Contrary to myth, there is no record of Phoenician colonies west of the Strait of Gibraltar, even though there might have been some voyages of discovery. Phoenician influence in what is now Portuguese territory was done through cultural and commercial exchange with Tartessos.
Phoeniciansintroduce in Iberia the use of Iron, of the Potter's wheel, the production of Olive oiland Wine. They were also responsible for the first forms of Iberian writing, had a big religious influence and accelerated urban development.
**There are organized settlements in "Olissipona" (modern
Lisbon, in Portuguese Estremadura) with clear Mediterraneaninfluences. The myth of a Phoenician foundation of the city as far back as 1300 BC, under the name "Alis Ubbo" ("Safe Harbour") is not true
8th Century BC- Strong Phoenician influence in the city of "Balsa" (modern Tavirain the Algarve).
7th Century BC
**Strong Tartessian influence in the area of modern
**Second wave of Indo-European (
Celtsof the Hallstatt culture?) migration into Portuguese territory.
6th Century BC
Phoenician colonization of the Mediterraneancoast of Iberia. Many of the colonies are deserted.
**Beginning of Greek settlement in the
Iberian peninsula, namely in the eastern Mediterraneanshore (modern Catalonia). There are no Greek colonies west of the Strait of Gibraltar, only voyages of discovery. The myth of an ancient Greek founding of "Olissipo" (modern Lisbon) by Ulysses is not true.
**Rise of the colonial might of
Carthage, which slowly replaces the Phoenician in its former areas of dominion.
Phoenician influenced Tavirais destroyed by violence.
**Cultural shift in southern Portuguese territory after the fall of
Tartessos, with a strong Mediterraneancharacter that prolonges and modifies Tartessian culture. This occurs mainly in Low Alentejoand the Algarve, but has littoral extensions up to the Tagusmouth (namely the important city of "Bevipo", modern Alcácer do Sal).
**First form of writing in western Iberia (south of
Portugal), the Southwest script(still to be translated), denotes strong Tartessian influence in its use of a modified Phoenician alphabet. In these writings the word Conii(similar to Cunetes or Cynetes, the people of the Algarve) appears frequently.
**The poem "
Ora Maritima", written by Avienusin the 4th centuryand based on the Massaliote Periplusof the 6th Century BC, states that all of western Iberia was once called for the name of its people, the Oestriminis, which were replaced by an invasion of the "Saephe" or "Ophis" (meaning Serpent). From then on western Iberia would have been know as Ophiussa(Land of the Serpents).The poem also describes the various ethnic groups present at that time:
Saephe or Ophis, today seen as probably Hallstatt culture Celts, in all of western Iberia (modern Portugal) between the Douroand the Sado rivers.
***The Cempsi, probably
Hallstatt culture Celts, in the Tagusmouth and the south up to the Algarve.
***The Cynetes or Cunetes in the extreme south and some cities along the
Atlanticcoast (such as "Olissipo", modern Lisbon), probably not Indo-European, but autochthonous Iberian (even if strongly or totally celticized over the next centuries).
Dragani, Celtor Proto-Celt of the first Indo-European wave, in the mountainous areas of Galicia, northern Portugal, Asturiasand Cantabria.
Lusis, probably a first reference to the Lusitanians, similar to the Dragani ( Celtor Proto-Celt of the first Indo-European wave).
5th Century BC
**Further development of strong
Central European( Celtic) influences and migrations in western Iberia north of the Tagusriver.
**Development of a 2nd Castro Village culture in Galicia and northern
**First mint of
coinsand use of moneyin the Iberian peninsula.
**Discovery voyages to the
Atlanticby the Carthaginians.
**The Greek historian
Herodotus of Halicarnassuscites the word "Iberia" to designate what is now the Iberian peninsula, according to ancient Greek costume.
**Urban bloom of Tartessian influenced
4th Century BC
Celtici, a new wave of Celtic migration (of the La Tène culture), enter deeply into Portuguese territory and settle in the Alentejoalso penetrating in the Algarve.
Turduliand Turdetani, probably descendants of the Tartessians, are established in the area of the Guadianariver, in the south of modern Portugal.
**A series of cities in the
Algarve, such as "Balsa" ( Tavira), "Baesuris" ( Castro Marim), "Ossonoba"(Faro) and "Cilpes" ( Silves), are inhabited by the Cynetes or Cunetes progressively mingled with Celtic populations.
Lusitanians(most probably proto- Celt) inhabit the area between the Douroand the Tagusrivers (and progressively penetrate the High Alentejo). They are neighbored to the east by the Vettones(also probably proto- Celt).
Celtic Calaicians or Gallaeci inhabit all the region above the Douroriver (modern Galicia and northern Portugal).
**Rome begins to rise as a
Mediterraneanpower rival to Carthage.
3rd Century BC
First Punic War( 264 BC- 241 BC) between Rome and Carthage. Roman victory.
Timeline of Portuguese history
*Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia (3rd Century BC to 4th Century AC)
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