- Principle of individuation
The Principle of Individuation is a criterion which supposedly individuates or numerically distinguishes the members of the kind for which it is given, i.e. by which we can supposedly determine, regarding any kind of thing, when we have more than one of them or not [Kim & Sosa p. 240] . It is also known as a 'criterion of identity' or 'indiscernibility principle'. The history of the consideration of such a principle begins with
Aristotle[ Metaphysics (Aristotle)1034a 5-8] . It was much discussed by the medieval philosophers, particularly Bonaventuraand Scotus, and later by Francisco Suarezand Leibniz. Some philosophers have denied the need for any such principle.
Plato, who looked upon the universal Forms(such as the Good, the Just, the Triangular and so on) as constituting reality, Aristotle regarded an individual as something real in itself. An individual therefore has two kinds of unity: specific and numerical. Specific unity (i.e. unity of the speciesto which an individual belongs) is a unity of nature which the individual shares with other individuals. For example, Lyndsey and Lacey Love are both human females, and share a unity of nature. This specific unity, according to Aristotle, is derived from Form, for it is form (which the medieval philosophers called quiddity) which makes an individual substance the kind of thing it is. But two individuals (such as the twins) can share exactly the same form, yet not be one in number. What is the principle by which two individuals differ in number alone? This cannot be a common property. As Bonaventurelater argued, there is no form of which we cannot imagine a similar one, thus there can be 'identical' twins, triplets, quadruplets and so on. For any such form would then be common to several things, and therefore not an individual at all. What is the criterion for a thing being an individual?
In a passage much-quoted by the medievals, Aristotle attributes the cause of individuation to matter:
The Middle Ages
Boethius to Aquinas
The late Roman philosopher
Boethius(480–524) touches upon the subject in his Isagoge, where he says that things which are individuals and are discrete only in number, differ only by accidential properties ["Ea vero quae individuae sunt et solo numero discrepunt, solis accidentibus distant"] . The Arabian philosopher Avicenna(980-1037) first introduced a term which was later translated into Latinas "signatum", meaning 'determinate individual'. Avicenna argues that a nature is not of itself individual, the relation between it and individuality is an accidental one, and we must look for its source not in its essence, but among accidental attributes such as quantity, quality, space and time [Phillips p. 152] . However, he did not work out any definite or detailed theory of individuation. His successor Averroes(1126-1198) argued that matter is numerically one, since it is undetermined in itself and has no definite boundaries. However, since it is divisible, this must be caused by quantity, and matter must therefore have the potential for determination in three dimensions (in the same way a rough and unhewn lump of marble has the potential to be sculpted into a statue).
The theories of Averroes and Avicenna had a great influence on the later theory of
Thomas Aquinas(1224-1274). Aquinas never doubted the Aristotelian theory of individuation by matter, but was uncertain which of the theories of Avicenna or Averroes are correct. He first accepted the theory of Avicenna that the principle of individuation is matter designated ("signata") by determinate dimensions ["De Ente et Essentia", c. 4] , but later abandoned this in favour of the Averroist theory that it is matter affected by unterminated dimension which is the principle ["In Boethium de Trinitate" Q.4 a2] . Later still, he seems to have returned to the first theory when he wrote the "Quodlibeta" [Quodlibet XI a6]
Scotus to Suarez
Giles of Rome(1243–1316) believed that individuation happens by the quantity in the matter. Duns Scotus(1265-1308) held that individuation comes from the numerical determination of form and matter whereby they become "this" form and "this" matter. Individuation is distinguished from a nature by means of a formal distinctionon the side of the thing ["Opus Oxeniensis" dist. III q2 15] . Later followers of Scotus called this principle haecceityor 'thisness'. The nominalistphilosopher William of Ockham(1300-1348) regarded the principle as unnecessary and indeed meaningless, since there are no realities independent of individual things. An individual is distinct of itself, not multiplied in a species, since species are not real (they correspond only to concepts in our mind). His contemporary Durandus held that individuation comes about through actual existence. Thus the common nature and the individual nature differ only as one conceived and one existing ["In Sent" II, d3 q. 2] .
The late scholastic philosopher
Francisco Suarez(1548-1617) held, in opposition to Scotus, that the principle of individuation can only be logically distinguished from the individual being. Every being, even an incomplete one, is individual of itself, by reason of its being a thing. Suárez maintained that, although the humanity of Socrates does not differ from that of Plato, yet they do not constitute "in reality" one and the same humanity; there are as many "formal unities" (in this case, humanities) as there are individuals, and these individuals do not constitute a factual, but only an essential or ideal unity. The formal unity, however, is not an arbitrary creation of the mind, but exists in the nature of the thing before any operation of the understanding [Metaphysical Disputations V, sec. 3] .
* Butler, "Dissertation on Personal Identity" in Works, I (Oxford, 1896), 387 sqq.;
* Hume, D., Enquiry concerning Human Understanding (London and Edinburgh, 1764);
* Jaegwon Kim, Ernest Sosa, "A Companion to Metaphysics" Blackwell Publishing, 1995
* Leibniz, "De principio individui" in Werke, ed. Gerhardt (Berlin, 1875-90);
* -----, Nouveaux essais sur l'entendement humain (New York and London, 1896), II, xxvii;
* Mill, J.S., Examination of Hamilton's Philosophy (London, 1865), xii;
* Phillips, R.P. , "Modern Thomistic Philosophy", London 1934
* Reid, T., "Essay on the Intellectual Powers", III (Edinburgh, 1812);
* Ueberweg, "History of Philosophy", I (London, 1874).
* [http://individual.utoronto.ca/pking/articles/Mediaeval_Individuation.pdf The problem of individuation in the Middle Ages] (Peter King)
* [http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/medieval-haecceity Medieval theories of haecceity] , Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
* [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07762a.htm Individual] , Catholic Encyclopedia
* [http://www.fordham.edu/gsas/phil/klima/SMLM/PSMLM5/PSMLM5.pdf#page=38 Henry of Ghent's] theory of Individuation, "Proceedings of the Society for Medieval Logic and Metaphysics", Volume 5, 2005 Martin Pickavé, pp. 38-49.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
principle of individuation — See individuation, principle of … Philosophy dictionary
individuation, principle of — Also known as the criterion of identity . The principle associated with a kind of thing, telling when we have two of them and when we have one. Thus to count words it is necessary to know whether we suppose that variations of spelling, or meaning … Philosophy dictionary
individuation — individuation, principle of … Philosophy dictionary
Individual, Individuality — • An individual being is defined by St. Thomas as quod est in se indivisum, ab aliis vero divisum (a being undivided in itself but separated from other beings) Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Individual, Individuality … Catholic encyclopedia
ИНДИВИДУАЦИЯ — [лат. individuatio], выделение единичного и индивидуального из всеобщего. Понятие «индивидуация» возникло в средневековой философии при рассмотрении фундаментального вопроса о соотношении общего (см. ст. Универсалии) и частного (см. ст. Индивид) … Православная энциклопедия
Technics and Time, 1 — Technics and Time, 1: The Fault of Epimetheus (French: La technique et le temps, 1: La faute d Épiméthée ) is a book by the French philosopher Bernard Stiegler, first published by Galilée in 1994. The English translation, by George Collins and… … Wikipedia
Matter — • Taking the term in its widest sense, matter signifies that out of which anything is made or composed Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Matter Matter … Catholic encyclopedia
Ockham’s world and future — Arthur Gibson PHILOSOPHICAL BIOGRAPHY Ockham was born in about 1285, certainly before 1290, probably in the village of Ockham, Surrey, near London. If his epitaph is accurate, he died on 10 April 1347. Yet Conrad of Megenberg, when writing to… … History of philosophy
Henry of Ghent and Duns Scotus — Stephen Dumont LIFE AND WORKS Henry of Ghent Henry of Ghent was arguably the most influential Latin theologian between Thomas Aquinas and Duns Scotus, regent as a leading master of theology at the University of Paris for the better part of the… … History of philosophy
Duns Scotus — John Duns Scotus John Duns Scotus Full name John Duns Scotus Born c. 1265 Duns, Berwickshire, Scotland Died 8 November 1308 Cologne, Germany … Wikipedia