- Liber Abaci
**"**" (1202, also spelled asLiber Abaci **Liber Abbaci**) is an historic book onarithmetic by Leonardo of Pisa, known later by his nicknameFibonacci . Its title has two common translations, "The Book of the Abacus" or "The Book of Calculation". In this work, Fibonacci introduced to Europe theArabic numerals , a major element of our decimal system, which he had learned by studying withArab s while living inNorth Africa with his father, Guilielmo Bonaccio, who wished for him to become a merchant.Liber Abaci was not the first Western book to describe Arabic numerals, the first being by

Pope Silvester II in 999, but by addressing tradesmen and academics, it began to convince the public of the superiority of the new numerals.**ummary of sections**The first section introduces the Arabic numeral system, including

lattice multiplication and methods for converting between different repesentation systems.The second section presents examples from commerce, such as conversions of

currency and measurements, and calculations ofprofit andinterest .The third section discusses a number of mathematical problems; for instance, it includes (ch. II.12) the

Chinese remainder theorem ,perfect number s andMersenne prime s as well as formulas for arithmetic series and forsquare pyramidal number s.Another example in this chapter, describing the growth of a population of rabbits, was the origin of the

Fibonacci sequence for which the author is most famous today. The fourth section derives approximations, both numerical and geometrical, ofirrational number s such as square roots.The book also includes Euclidean geometric proofs, and a study of

simultaneous linear equations followingDiophantus , which Fibonacci most likely learned from Persian mathematicianal-Karaji (Ore 1948).**Fibonacci's notation for fractions**In reading Liber Abaci, it is helpful to understand Fibonacci's notation for rational numbers, a notation that is intermediate in form between the

Egyptian fraction s commonly used until that time and thevulgar fraction s still in use today. There are three key differences between Fibonacci's notation and modern fraction notation.

#Where we generally write a fraction to the right of the whole number to which it is added, Fibonacci would write the same fraction to the left. That is, we write 7/3 as $scriptstyle2,frac13$, while Fibonacci would write the same number as $scriptstylefrac13,2$.

#Fibonacci used a "composite fraction" notation in which a sequence of numerators and denominators shared the same fraction bar; each such term represented an additional fraction of the given numerator divided by the product of all the denominators below and to the right of it. That is, $scriptstylefrac\{b,,a\}\{d,,c\}\; =\; frac\{a\}\{c\}\; +\; frac\{b\}\{cd\}$, and $scriptstylefrac\{c,,b,,a\}\{f,,e,,d\}\; =\; frac\{a\}\{d\}\; +\; frac\{b\}\{de\}\; +\; frac\{c\}\{def\}$. The notation was read from right to left. For example, 29/30 was written as $scriptstylefrac\{1,,2,,4\}\{2,,3,,5\}$, representing the value $scriptstylefrac45+frac2\{3\; imes5\}+frac1\{2\; imes3\; imes5\}$. This can be viewed as a form ofmixed radix notation, and was very convenient for dealing with traditional systems of weights, measures, and currency. For instance, for units of length, a foot is 1/3 of ayard , and aninch is 1/12 of a foot, so a quantity of 5 yards, 2 feet, and $scriptstyle\; 7\; frac34$ inches could be represented as a composite fraction: $scriptstylefrac\{3\; ,7,,2\}\{4,,12,,3\},5$ yards. However, typical notations for traditional measures, while similarly based on mixed radixes, do not write out the denominators explicitly; the explicit denominators in Fibonacci's notation allow him to use different radixes for different problems when convenient. Sigler also points out an instance where Fibonacci uses composite fractions in which all denominators are 10, prefiguring modern decimal notation for fractions.

#Fibonacci sometimes wrote several fractions next to each other, representing a sum of the given fractions. For instance, 1/3+1/4 = 7/12, so a notation like $scriptstylefrac14,frac13,2$ would represent the number that would now more commonly be written $scriptstyle\; 2,frac\{7\}\{12\}$, or simply the vulgar fraction 31/12. Notation of this form can be distinguished from sequences of numerators and denominators sharing a fraction bar by the visible break in the bar. If all numerators are 1 in a fraction written in this form, and all denominators are different from each other, the result is anEgyptian fraction representation of the number. This notation was also sometimes combined with the composite fraction notation: two composite fractions written next to each other would represent the sum of the fractions.The complexity of this notation allows numbers to be written in many different ways, and Fibonacci described several methods for converting from one style of representation to another. In particular, chapter II.7 contains a list of methods for converting a vulgar fraction to an Egyptian fraction; see

Egyptian fraction and the following internet links for a more detailed description of these methods.**"Modus Indorum"**In the "Liber Abaci", Fibonacci says the following introducing the so-called "Modus Indorum" or the method of the Indians, today known as Arabic numerals.

:After my father's appointment by his homeland as state official in the customs house of Bugia for the Pisan merchants who thronged to it, he took charge; and in view of its future usefulness and convenience, had me in my boyhood come to him and there wanted me to devote myself to and be instructed in the study of calculation for some days. :There, following my introduction, as a consequence of marvelous instruction in the art, to the nine digits of the Hindus, the knowledge of the art very much appealed to me before all others, and for it I realized that all its aspects were studied in Egypt, Syria, Greece, Sicily, and Provence, with their varying methods; and at these places thereafter, while on business. :I pursued my study in depth and learned the give-and-take of disputation. But all this even, and the algorism, as well as the art of Pythagoras, I considered as almost a mistake in respect to the method of the Hindus. (Modus Indorum). Therefore, embracing more stringently that method of the Hindus, and taking stricter pains in its study, while adding certain things from my own understanding and inserting also certain things from the niceties of Euclid's geometric art, I have striven to compose this book in its entirety as understandably as I could, dividing it into fifteen chapters. :Almost everything which I have introduced I have displayed with exact proof, in order that those further seeking this knowledge, with its pre-eminent method, might be instructed, and further, in order that the Latin people might not be discovered to be without it, as they have been up to now. If I have perchance omitted anything more or less proper or necessary, I beg indulgence, since there is no one who is blameless and utterly provident in all things.

:The nine Indian figures are: :9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 :With these nine figures, and with the sign 0 ... any number may be written. — "(Ref. Sigler, 2003 and Grimm 1973 see references)"

In other words, in his book he advocated the use of the digits 0—9, and of

place value .In this book he showed the practical importance of the new

numeral system , usinglattice multiplication andEgyptian fractions by applying it to commercialbookkeeping , conversion of weights and measures, the calculation of interests, money-changing, and numerous other applications. The book was well received throughout educated Europe and had a profound impact on European thought, although the use of decimal numerals did not become widespread until the invention of printing almost three centuries later, in 1585 (See, for example, the 1482 Ptolemaeus map of the world printed byLienhart Holle in Ulm).**References***cite book

title = Fibonacci's Liber Abaci

author = Sigler, Laurence E. (trans.)

publisher = Springer-Verlag

year = 2002

id = ISBN 0-387-95419-8*cite book

title = Leonardi Pisani Liber Abbaci oder Lesevergnügen eines Mathematikers

author = Lüneburg, Heinz

publisher = B. I. Wissenschaftsverlag

location = Mannheim

year = 1993*cite book

title = Number Theory and its History

author = Ore, Oystein

publisher = McGraw Hill

year = 1948 Dover version also available, 1988, ISBN 978-0486656205.**See also***Lattice Multiplication

**External links*** [

*http://liberabaci.blogspot.com/ Liber Abaci and its Egyptian fraction methods*]

*PlanetMath|urlname=LiberAbaci|title=Liber Abaci

*Wikimedia Foundation.
2010.*

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**Liber abaci**— Liber abbaci, MS Biblioteca Nazionale di Firenze, Codice Magliabechiano cs cI 2616, fol. 124r: Berechnung der „Kaninchenaufgabe“ mit Fibonacci Reihe Leonardo da Pisa, auch Fibonacci genannt (* um 1180? in Pisa; † nach 1241? in Pisa) war… … Deutsch Wikipedia**Liber Abaci**— Une page du Liber abaci de la Biblioteca nazionale di Firenze. Le Liber abaci (aussi écrit Liber abbaci) est un ouvrage de Fibonacci écrit en 1202 que l on peut traduire en Livre du calcul ou Livre de l abaque. Dans cet ouvrage, Fibonacci… … Wikipédia en Français**Liber abaci**— Page 124 du Liber abaci de la bibliothèque nationale de Florence, décrivant la croissance d une population de lapins et introduisant ainsi la suite de Fibonacci. L encart, à droite du texte, présente les 13 premiers termes de la suite, écrits… … Wikipédia en Français**Liber abaci**— Una página del Liber Abaci de la Biblioteca Nazionale di Firenze. Liber abaci (1202) es un libro histórico sobre aritmética escrito por Leonardo de Pisa, más conocido como Fibonacci. Su título tiene dos traducciones comunes, El libro del ábaco o… … Wikipedia Español**Liber Abaci**— … Википедия**Liber abbaci**— Liber abbaci, MS Biblioteca Nazionale di Firenze, Codice Magliabechiano cs cI 2616, fol. 124r: Berechnung der „Kaninchenaufgabe“ mit Fibonacci Reihe Leonardo da Pisa, auch Fibonacci genannt (* um 1180? in Pisa; † nach 1241? in Pisa) war… … Deutsch Wikipedia**Fibonacci**— Liber abbaci, MS Biblioteca Nazionale di Firenze, Codice Magliabechiano cs cI 2616, fol. 124r: Berechnung der „Kaninchenaufgabe“ mit Fibonacci Reihe Leonardo da Pisa, auch Fibonacci genannt (* um 1180? in Pisa; † nach 1241? in Pisa) war… … Deutsch Wikipedia**Leonard von Pisa**— Liber abbaci, MS Biblioteca Nazionale di Firenze, Codice Magliabechiano cs cI 2616, fol. 124r: Berechnung der „Kaninchenaufgabe“ mit Fibonacci Reihe Leonardo da Pisa, auch Fibonacci genannt (* um 1180? in Pisa; † nach 1241? in Pisa) war… … Deutsch Wikipedia**Leonardo Fibonacci**— Liber abbaci, MS Biblioteca Nazionale di Firenze, Codice Magliabechiano cs cI 2616, fol. 124r: Berechnung der „Kaninchenaufgabe“ mit Fibonacci Reihe Leonardo da Pisa, auch Fibonacci genannt (* um 1180? in Pisa; † nach 1241? in Pisa) war… … Deutsch Wikipedia**Leonardo Pisano**— Liber abbaci, MS Biblioteca Nazionale di Firenze, Codice Magliabechiano cs cI 2616, fol. 124r: Berechnung der „Kaninchenaufgabe“ mit Fibonacci Reihe Leonardo da Pisa, auch Fibonacci genannt (* um 1180? in Pisa; † nach 1241? in Pisa) war… … Deutsch Wikipedia