Legion of Merit


Legion of Merit
Legion of Merit
Legionnaire of the Legion of Merit.jpg
Awarded by United States Department of Defense
Type Medal
Awarded for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services and achievements
Status Currently awarded
Statistics
First awarded 1942
Precedence
Next (higher) Defense Superior Service Medal
Next (lower) Distinguished Flying Cross
Legion of Merit ribbon.svg
ribbon

The Legion of Merit is a military decoration of the United States armed forces that is awarded for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services and achievements. The decoration is issued both to United States military personnel and to military and political figures of foreign governments.

The Legion of Merit (Commander degree) is one of only two United States military decorations to be issued as a neck order (the other being the Medal of Honor) and the only United States decoration which may be issued in award degrees (much like an order of chivalry or certain Orders of Merit).[1][2]

The Legion of Merit is sixth in the order of precedence of U.S. military decorations, and is worn after the Defense Superior Service Medal and before the Distinguished Flying Cross. In contemporary use in the U.S. armed forces, the Legion of Merit is typically awarded to Army, Marine Corps, and Air Force general officers and colonels, and Navy and Coast Guard flag officers and captains occupying command or very senior staff positions in their respective services. It may also be awarded to officers of lesser rank and senior enlisted personnel, but these instances are less frequent and circumstances vary by service. As such, the medal can be considered as "points" in some enlisted promotion systems, such as the Air Force, where it is counted as 7 points (out of a possible 25 points for decorations).[3]

Contents

Criteria

  • The degrees of Chief Commander, Commander, Officer, and Legionnaire are awarded only to members of armed forces of foreign nations under the criteria outlined in US Army Regulation 672-7 and is based on the relative rank or position of the recipient as follows:[4]
  1. Chief Commander: Chief of State or Head of Government. However this degree was awarded by President Roosevelt to some Allied World War II theater commanders usually for joint amphibious landings or invasions. The President had this power under Executive Order 9260 of October 29, 1942 paragraph 3b.[5]
  2. Commander: Equivalent of a U.S. military Chief of Staff or higher position but not to Chief of State.
  3. Officer: General or Flag Officer below the equivalent of a U.S. military Chief of Staff; Colonel or equivalent rank for service in assignments equivalent to those normally held by a General or Flag Officer in U.S. military service; or Military Attaches.
  4. Legionnaire: All recipients not included above.
  • When the Legion of Merit is awarded to members of the Armed Forces of the United States it is awarded without reference to degree. The criteria are "for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services and achievements". Additional awards of the Legion of Merit are denoted by oak leaf clusters, in the Army and Air Force, and by award stars in the Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard. The sea services (i.e., USN, USMC, USCG) also permit the wearing of the Valor device on the Legion of Merit, while the Army and Air Force do not.
  • The performance must have been such as to merit recognition of key individuals for service rendered in a clearly exceptional manner.
  • Performance of duties normal to the grade, branch, specialty or assignment, and experience of an individual is not an adequate basis for this award.
  • For service not related to actual war the term “key individual” applies to a narrower range of positions than in time of war and requires evidence of significant achievement.
  • In peacetime, service should be in the nature of a special requirement or of an extremely difficult duty performed in an unprecedented and clearly exceptional manner.
  • However, justification of the award may accrue by virtue of exceptionally meritorious service in a succession of important positions.
  • The degrees and the design of the decoration were clearly influenced by the French Légion d'honneur.

History

Although recommendations for creation of a Meritorious Service Medal were initiated as early as September 1937, no formal action was taken toward approval.

In a letter to the Quartermaster General (QMG) dated December 24, 1941, the Adjutant General formally requested action be initiated to create a Meritorious Service Medal and provide designs in the event the decoration was established. Proposed designs prepared by Bailey, Banks, and Biddle and the Office of the Quartermaster General were provided to Assistant Chief of Staff (G1) (Colonel Heard) by the QMG on January 5, 1942.

The Assistant Chief of Staff (G1) (BG Hilldring), in a response to the QMG on April 3, 1942, indicated the Secretary of War approved the design recommended by the QMG. The design of the Legion of Merit (change of name) would be ready for issue immediately after legislation authorizing it was enacted into law.

An Act of Congress (Public Law 671—77th Congress, Chapter 508, 2d Session) on July 20, 1942, established the Legion of Merit and provided that the medal "shall have suitable appurtenances and devices and not more than four degrees, and which the President, under such rules and regulations as he shall prescribe, may award to

(a) personnel of the Armed Forces of the United States and of the Government of the Commonwealth Philippines and
(b) personnel of the armed forces of friendly foreign nations who, since the proclamation of an emergency by the President on 1939-09-08, shall have distinguished themselves by exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services."

The medal was announced in War Department Bulletin No. 40, dated August 5, 1942. Executive Order 9260, dated October 29, 1942, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, established the rules for the Legion of Merit and required the President's approval for the award. However, in 1943, at the request of General George C. Marshall, approval authority for U.S. personnel was delegated to the War Department.

Executive Order 10600, dated March 15, 1955, by President Dwight D. Eisenhower, revised approval authority. Current provisions are contained in Title 10, United States Code 1121.

The reverse of the medal has the motto taken from the Great Seal of the United States "ANNUIT COEPTIS" (He [God] Has Favored Our Undertakings) and the date "MDCCLXXXII" (1782) which is the date of America's first decoration, the Badge of Military Merit, now known as the Purple Heart. The ribbon design also follows the pattern of the Purple Heart ribbon.

Appearance

Chief Commander Commander Officer Legionnaire
Us legion of merit chief commander.png
Us legion of meit commander.png
Us legion of merit officer.png
Us legion of merit legionnaire.png
Ribbon
Us legion of merit commander rib.png
Us legion of merit chief commander rib.png
Us legion of merit officer rib.png
Us legion of merit legionnaire rib.png
  • The Chief Commander Degree of the Legion of Merit Medal is, on a wreath of green laurel joined at the bottom by a gold bow-knot (rosette), a domed five-pointed white star bordered crimson, points reversed with v-shaped extremities tipped with a gold ball. In the center, a blue disk encircled by gold clouds, with 13 white stars arranged in the pattern that appears on the United States Coat of Arms. Between each point, within the wreath are crossed arrows pointing outwards. The overall width is 2 15/16 inches (75 mm). The words "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" are engraved in the center of the reverse. A miniature of the decoration in gold on a horizontal gold bar is worn on the service ribbon.
  • The Commander Degree of the Legion of Merit Medal is, on a wreath of green laurel joined at the bottom by a gold bow-knot (rosette), a five-pointed white star bordered crimson, points reversed with v-shaped extremities tipped with a gold ball. In the center, a blue disk encircled by gold clouds, with 13 white stars arranged in the pattern that appears on the United States Coat of Arms. Between each star point, within the wreath, are crossed arrows pointing outwards. The overall width is 2¼ inches (57 mm). A gold laurel wreath in the v-shaped angle at the top connects an oval suspension ring to the neck ribbon that is 1 15/16 inches (49 mm) in width. The reverse of the five-pointed star is enameled in white, and the border is crimson. In the center, a disk for engraving the name of the recipient surrounded by the words "ANNUIT COEPTIS MDCCLXXXII." An outer scroll contains the words "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA." A miniature of the decoration in silver on a horizontal silver bar is worn on the service ribbon.
The neck ribbon for the degree of Commander is 1 15/16 inches (49 mm) wide and consists of the following stripes: 1/16 inch (2 mm) white 67101; center 1 13/16 inches (46 mm) crimson and 1/16 inch (2 mm) white.
  • The Officer Degree of the Legion of Merit Medal is similar to the degree of Commander except the overall width is 1 7/8 inches (48 mm) and the pendant has a suspension ring instead of the wreath for attaching the ribbon. A gold replica of the medal, 3/4 inch (19 mm) wide, is centered on the suspension ribbon.
  • The Legionnaire Degree of the Legion of Merit Medal and the Legion of Merit Medal issued to U.S. personnel is the same as the degree of Officer, except the suspension ribbon does not have the medal replica.
The ribbon for all of the decorations is 1 3/8 inches (35 mm) wide and consists of the following stripes: 1/16 inch (2 mm) white; center 1¼ inches (32 mm) crimson; and 1/16 inch (2 mm) white. The reverse of all of the medals has the motto taken from the Great Seal of the United States "ANNUIT COEPTIS" (He (God) Has Favored Our Undertakings) and the date "MDCCLXXXII" (1782), which is the date of America's first decoration, the Badge of Military Merit, now known as the Purple Heart. The ribbon design also follows the pattern of the Purple Heart ribbon.

Notable recipients

Chief Commander

Nationality

Rank

Name

Force

Date

Comments

United Kingdom Lieutenant-General Kenneth A.N. Anderson, CB, MC British Army June 18, 1943
Republic of China Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek Chinese Armed Forces July 1943
United Kingdom General Bernard Law Montgomery, KCB, DSO British Army August 6, 1943
United Kingdom Temporary Air Chief Marshal Sir Arthur William Tedder, GCB Royal Air Force August 27, 1943
Soviet Union Marshal of the Soviet Union Aleksandr Mikhajlovich Vasilevskij Red Army June 22, 1944
Soviet Union Chief Marshal Of Aviation Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Novikov Military Air Forces June 22, 1944
United Kingdom Rear-Admiral Sir Victor Crutchley VC, KCB, DSC Royal Australian Naval Squadron September 1944 For exceptionally meritorious conduct 1942–44 in command of Task Force 44 in the Pacific.
United Kingdom Air Marshal Arthur Travers Harris, OBE, AFC Royal Air Force October 17, 1944 Known as "Bomber" Harris; because of moral qualms, he was the only major British commander not to receive a peerage[6] after World War II. He instituted "area bombing"[7] of German cities.
King George VI Commonwealth armed forces 1945
United Kingdom Air Chief Marshal William Sholto Douglas, GCB, MC, DFC Royal Air Force
United Kingdom Admiral of the Fleet Sir Andrew Browne Cunningham Bt, GCB, DSO** Royal Navy First Sea Lord
United Kingdom Admiral Sir John Henry Dacres Cunningham KCB Royal Navy For gallant and distinguished service during the invasion operations in Northern Italy and the South of France.
United Kingdom Admiral Sir Bertram Home Ramsay KCB, KBE, MVO Royal Navy January 15, 1945 For gallant and distinguished service whilst in command of the invasion operations on Normandy.
United Kingdom Acting Air Marshal Sir Arthur Coningham KCB, DSO, MC, DFC, AFC Royal Air Force
Sri Lanka Air Chief Marshal Donald Perera VSV, USP Sri Lanka Air Force
Iraq Commander-In-Chief Crown Prince 'Abd al-Ilah Iraqi Armed Forces June 1, 1945
United Kingdom Vice Admiral Sir Philip Vian KBE, CMG Royal Navy July 17, 1945
Soviet Union Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov Red Army 1945
Soviet Union Marshal of the Soviet Union Ivan Stepanovich Konev Red Army 1945
Soviet Union Marshal of the Soviet Union Leonid Aleksandrovich Govorov Red Army
Soviet Union Army General Stanislav Giljarovich Poplavskij Red Army
Soviet Union Marshal of the Soviet Union Kirill Afanasievich Meretskov Red Army
Soviet Union Marshal of the Soviet Union Konstantin Konstantinovich Rokossovskij Red Army
Soviet Union General Andrey Ivanovich Yeryomenko Red Army
Romania King Michael I of Romania Romanian Armed Forces 1945
France General Charles De Gaulle French Armed Forces August 24, 1945
Ethiopia Emperor Haile Selassie Ethiopian Armed Forces 1945
United Kingdom Vice Admiral Sir Geoffrey Blake KCB, DSO Royal Navy November 6, 1945
Norway Chief of Defence of Norway Crown Prince Olav Norwegian Armed Forces November 23, 1945 "exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services from August 1944 to July 1945."
India General Rajendrasinhji Jadeja Indian Army 1946 [8]
Saudi Arabia King Abdul Aziz Ibn Abdur Rahman al Faisal Al Saud Saudi Arabian Armed Forces February 18, 1947
Mexico President Miguel Aleman Mexican Armed Forces May 1, 1947
Iran Shah Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi Iranian Armed Forces October 7, 1947
Kingdom of Yugoslavia General Dragoljub Mihailović Yugoslav Royal Army March 29, 1948
United Kingdom General Sir William Slim, GBE, KCB, DSO, MC, ADC British Army 1948
Australia Prime Minister The Rt Hon Sir Robert Menzies, KT, AK, CH, QC Australian Armed Forces
India Field Marshal Kodandera Madappa Cariappa Indian Army 1950
Greece King Paul I Greek Armed Forces October 28, 1953
Turkey President Celal Bayar Turkish Armed Forces January 27, 1954
Thailand Field Marshal Luang Plaek Pibulsonggram Thai Royal Army May 2, 1955
India General Satyawant Mallana Srinagesh Indian Army 1955 [8]
Thailand King Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX) Thai Armed Forces June 28, 1960
South Korea General Kim Yong-Bae Republic Of Korea Army February 14, 1968 For service April 1965 to March 1966. The initial award of Commander degree was revoked and replaced with Chief Commander.
South Korea Minister of National Defense Kim Sung-Eun Republic Of Korea December 9, 1968 For service March 1963 to June 1966.
India Admiral Jal Cursetji Indian Navy 1978 [9]
Turkey President Kenan Evren Turkish Armed Forces June 27, 1988
Germany General Wolfgang Schneiderhan Bundeswehr
Turkey General Hilmi Özkök Turkish Armed Forces 2002
Pakistan Admiral Shahid Karimullah Pakistan Navy July 21, 2004 For his steadfast support of American-Pakistan cooperation in regional maritime, security affairs, demonstrated superb resolve and unwavering dedication to the Global War on terrorism
Pakistan Admiral Afzal Tahir Pakistan Navy January 23, 2006 Legion of Merit in recognition of his efforts in conducting maritime security operations and strengthening of cooperation between the two navies in the 5th Fleet area of responsibility.
Malaysia Admiral Mohammad Anwar Mohammad Nor Malaysian Armed Forces
Israel General Gabi Ashkenazi Israeli Defence Forces July 24, 2008
Pakistan General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani Pakistani Army January 1, 2009
Iraq General Babaker Shawkat B. Zebari Iraqi Army January 7, 2010
Pakistan Admiral Noman Bashir Pakistan Navy March 18, 2010 For distinguish service and strengthening the American-Pakistani relations. Also, for his role to established and strengthening the Pakistan Navy and U.S. Navy relations in Arabian sea.

Commander

Nationality

Rank

Name

Force

Date

Comments

Brazil Brigadier General Alexandre Zacharias de Assumpção Brazilian Army 1942 General of Brigade Alexandre Zacharias de Assumpcao, Brazilian Army, was cited for service as Commanding General of the

8th Military Region, Brazil. The 8th Military Region was headquartered in Belem, which was a major support base for US aircraft transiting to North Africa and the Mediterranean. The Army made 31 awards of the Legion of Merit, commander grade, to Brazilian officers during World War II.

Brazil Brigadier General Amaro Soares Bittencourt Brazilian Army 1942 First recipient of this medal in any degree.
United Kingdom Wing Commander Guy Penrose Gibson, VC, DSO & Bar, DFC & Bar Royal Air Force December 3, 1943 WWII leader of the Dams raid (Operation Chastise) in 1943.
Poland Lieutenant General Władysław Anders 2nd Polish Corps August 1, 1944
United Kingdom Admiral Sir Gerald Charles Dickens KCVO, CB, CMG Royal Navy 1945 WWII Commander
United Kingdom Air Commodore Andrew James Wray Geddes DSO, OBE Royal Air Force 1945 Responsible for the planning of Operations Manna and Chowhound
New Zealand Lieutenant General Sir Bernard Cyril Freyberg, VC, KCB, KBE, CMG, DSO 2nd New Zealand Division, New Zealand Military Forces August 2, 1945
South Africa Major General William Henry Evered Poole, CB, CBE, DSO 6th South African Armored Division Unit is part of the 5th US Army during the Italian Campaign in World War II
Canada Major General Georges Vanier 1946 Canadian representative to the United Nations and Ambassador to France, later Governor General of Canada.
Canada Rear Admiral Leonard W. Murray Canadian Northwest Atlantic 1946 Architect of the Battle of the Atlantic.
New Zealand Air Chief Marshal Sir Keith Rodney Park Royal Air Force June 27, 1947 WWII commander during the Battle of Britain and later Allied Air Commander South East Asia
Philippines General Alfredo M. Santos Armed Forces of the Philippines
Flaga PPP.svg Major General Stefan Pawel Rowecki Armia Krajowa August 9, 1984 Awarded by Ronald Reagan posthumously forty years and one week after his death at the hands of the Gestapo.
Philippines General Fidel Ramos Armed Forces of the Philippines 1990
Bangladesh Brigadier General Abdul Muneem Mansur Ahmed Bangladesh Army January 16, 1991 The first Bangladeshi General to receive this award for his outstanding service as the Defense Attache in the Bangladesh Embassy, United States.
France General Michel Roquejeoffre French Army July 14, 1991
United Kingdom General Sir Peter de la Billière KCB, KBE, DSO, MC & bar British Forces to the Middle East during Gulf War I July 14, 1991
Israel General Ehud Barak Israeli Defense Forces 1992 Later became Israeli Prime Minister from 1999 to 2001
Canada General Alfred John Gardyne Drummond de Chastelain, OC, CMM, CH, CD Canadian Forces 1995 In 1999, he was made a Companion of Honour by Queen Elizabeth II. He is the former Chief of the Defence Staff (Canada) for the Canadian Forces and he is the Chairman of the Independent International Commission on Decommissioning since November 1995 for the Northern Ireland Peace Process.
Colombia General I.M. Elias Nino Herrera Colombian Marine Corps For exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding service as Commandant of the Colombian Marine Corps. General Nino's cooperation and understanding have been a significant contribution to the mutual friendship between Colombia and the United States.
Ecuador General de Ejército
(General of the Army)
Paco Moncayo Ecuadorian Armed Forces For of his exceptionally superior performance as Chief of the Armed Forces Joint Command and his contribution to Ecuadorian history, politics and democracy.
Australia General Sir Phillip Bennett, AC, KBE, DSO, KStJ
John Baker, AC, DSM
Peter Cosgrove, AC, MC
Australian Defence Force Chiefs of the Defence Force
Germany General Adolf Heusinger
Klaus Naumann
Wolfgang Schneiderhan
Bundeswehr
France General Edgard de Larminat
Alain de Boissieu
Vincent Desportes
Jean-Louis Georgelin
Canada Lieutenant General Charles Bouchard Deputy Commander NORAD 2004 Commander of NATO forces enforcing "No Fly Zone" Libya 2011
Australia Lieutenant General Peter Leahy, AC
Ken Gillespie, AC, DSC, CSM
Australian Army 2004
2009
Chief of Army
Bangladesh Lieutenant General Hasan Mashhud Chowdhury Bangladesh Army 2005 Former Chief of Army Staff (Bangladesh)
Turkey Commander-in-Chief Mehmet Yaşar Büyükanıt Turkish Armed Forces December 12, 2005
United Kingdom General Michael John Dawson Walker, Baron Walker of Aldringham GCB, CMG, CBE, ADC, DL Implementation Force in Bosnia May 13, 1997[10] Former Chief of the Defence Staff (CDS) in the United Kingdom
Italy Admiral Giampaolo Di Paola Italian Navy
Russia Admiral of the Fleet Vladimir Vasilyevich Masorin Russian Navy August 24, 2007 The first Russian recipient for meritorious conduct of the Russian Federation Navy to increase cooperation and interoperability with the U.S. Navy and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization from Sept. 2005 – Aug. 2007.
Poland General Franciszek Gągor Polish Armed Forces May 22, 2008 For exceptionally meritorious service as the Chief of Staff of the Polish Armed Forces from February 2006 to May 2008.
Japan General Toshio Tamogami Air Self-Defense Force August 19, 2008 [11]
Sweden Supreme Commander of the Swedish Armed Forces Sverker Göranson Swedish Armed Forces 2010 For dedication and professionalism as supreme commander led the continuing transformation of the Swedish Armed Forces and the Swedish international operations.
Sri Lanka General Rohan de S. Daluwatte RWP, RSP, VSV, USP Sri Lanka Army For service as Military attaché to the Sri Lankan Embassy in the United States
Sri Lanka Major General Milinda Peiris RWP, RSP, USP Sri Lanka Army For service as Military attaché to the Sri Lankan Embassy in the United States
Australia Vice Admiral David Shackleton, AO, RAN
Chris Ritchie, AO, RAN
Russ Crane, AO, CSM, RAN
Royal Australian Navy Chief of Navy
Japan General Yoshifumi Hibako Ground Self-Defense Force June 8, 2011 Chief of Staff

Officer

Ehud Barak, later Prime Minister of Israel, with the Legion of Merit in 1993
  • At the beginning of the North African campaign, General Lyman L. Lemnitzer accompanied General Mark Wayne Clark by submarine to North Africa. Upon arrival, about 60 officers were awarded the Legion of Merit and were among the first awarded the medal. By some misunderstanding as to the rules governing the awards, these 60 American officers were awarded the degree of Officer. According to Lemnitzer, President Roosevelt was quite annoyed but did not rescind the awards. These were the only U.S. officers (or service personnel of any rank) awarded the Legion of Merit with a degree.
  • Group Captain Harry Day, senior Officer at numerous POW camps during World War II, and significantly helped American POWs endure the captivity, as well as organizing escape operations. He received the award on July 5, 1946.
  • In 1946, Commodore Alfred Victor Knight of the Royal Australian Navy was awarded the commendation for honorary services. The citation described him as a `forceful leader’ who, by his `splendid co-operation in the conduct of a vital training programme, aggressive determination and untiring energies … contributed materially to combined large-scale operations’.
  • In 1947, Colonel Valentine Patrick Terrel Vivian head of counter-espionage, Section V, and Vice-Chief of the S.I.S. or MI6. The citation reads, as deputy director of a special British agency in the European Theater of Operations from January 1943 to June 1945, rendered exceptionally devoted and meritorious service to the Allied armies, by American forces in a special province of military operations, and continuing it through the long period of preparation for the Normandy invasion and during the march into Germany, Colonel Vivian made an outstanding contribution to Allied military and to the enemy's defeat.[12][13]
  • In 1948, then Brigadier General John Frederick Boyce Combe was made an Officer of the Legion for his contribution "to the over-all success Allied forces in Italy" during World War II.
  • In 1952, then Commander Emilio S. Liwanag of the Philippine Navy was made an Officer of the Legion of Merit. His award was conferred by Major General Blackshear M. Bryan, deputy chief of staff, HQ Far East Command, for services in the Philippine liaison office with the United Nations Command during the Korean War.
  • In 1960 Major General Mian Hayaud Din was made an Officer of the Legion for his role as Chief of the Pakistan Military Mission to the United States from 1955 to 1960.
  • In 1996, Lieutenant General Roméo Dallaire of the Canadian Army was made an Officer of the Legion for his role as Commander of the United Nations peacekeeping force in Rwanda during the civil war and subsequent genocide.
  • In 1990, Colonel Stanisław Wożniak from Poland was made an Officer of the Legion of Merit for his exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services.
  • Lieutenant General Tariq Khan became the fourth Pakistani Officer to receive the award for meritorious services as a liaison officer at CENTCOM during Operations Enduring Freedom. He received the award on December 9, 2007.
  • In 2008, Air Chief Marshal Sir Glenn Torpy Head of the Royal Air Force, for his part in Operation Telic / Operation Iraqi Freedom.
  • Lieutenant General Sir James Dutton, Royal Marines, "in recognition of meritorious, gallant and distinguished services during coalition operations in Afghanistan".[14]
  • Major General Colin Boag, British Army, "in recognition of gallant and distinguished services during coalition operations in Iraq", March 2008.[15]
  • Lieutenant General James Bucknall, British Army, "in recognition of gallant and distinguished services during coalition operations in Iraq, July 2009".[16]

Legionnaire

When the Legion of Merit is awarded to members of the Armed Forces of the United States it is awarded without reference to degree.

References

  1. ^ "Legion of Merit". Awards. Institute of Heraldry. http://www.tioh.hqda.pentagon.mil/Awards/legion_of_merit.aspx. Retrieved April 26, 2010. 
  2. ^ "Types of the Medal of Honor: 1862 To Present." Congressional Medal of Honor Society. Retrieved: July 23, 2006.
  3. ^ Air Force Personnel Center Legion of Merit
  4. ^ 578.13 Legion of Merit
  5. ^ Executive Order 9260 of October 29, 1942 http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/print.php?pid=58838
  6. ^ Keegan, John The Second World War Penguin Books: 1989, page 433 ISBN 978-0-14-303573-2
  7. ^ Keegan, John The Second World War Penguin Books: 1989, page 421 ISBN 978-0-14-303573-2
  8. ^ a b "Service Chiefs of India". Google Books. http://books.google.com/books?id=k35_SlDMyUsC&pg=PA49&dq=legion+of+merit+india&hl=en&ei=msjITs6sOeOviQLCwp3ODw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CD8Q6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=legion%20of%20merit%20india&f=false. Retrieved 2011-11-20. 
  9. ^ "Admirals of the World". Google Books. http://books.google.com/books?id=S1VimlFIjQoC&pg=PA85&dq=jal+cursetji&hl=en&ei=Hp_ITrH4HMiwiQKb-ezbDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=jal%20cursetji&f=false. Retrieved 2011-11-20. 
  10. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 54763. p. 5628. May 13, 1997. Retrieved March 15, 2011.
  11. ^ "AF welcomes Japanese chief of staff". bolling.af.mil. August 20, 2008. http://www.bolling.af.mil/news/story.asp?id=123111707&page=1. 
  12. ^ The National Archives. "Documents Online". http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/documentsonline/details-result.asp?queryType=1&resultcount=1&Edoc_Id=7698915. Retrieved July 31, 2010. 
  13. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 37909. p. 1312. March 18, 1947. Retrieved July 29, 2009.
  14. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 59554. pp. 18539–18540. September 24, 2010. Retrieved February 17, 2011.
  15. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 58633. p. 3619. March 7, 2008. Retrieved February 20, 2011.
  16. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 59133. p. 12503. July 21, 2009. Retrieved February 20, 2011.
  17. ^ Home of the Heroes. Lieutenant (jg) Ann A. Bernatitus, "Angel of Mercy".

Lieutenant General John N. McLaughlin, USMC Retired (deceased) received the Legion of Merit after his release from Captivity in the Korean War for meritorious conduct as the Senior Officer in his POW Camp.

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