Stanley Salmons


Stanley Salmons

Stanley Salmons (1939 - ) was born in Clapton, East London, and was educated at St. Marylebone Grammar School. Awarded a Royal Scholarship, he attended Imperial College London, from which he graduated in Physics and went on to gain a D.I.C. in Electronics and Communications. A long-standing interest in the life sciences led him to a Masters Degree in Physiology at University College London, supported by a Nuffield Foundation Bursary. He was then appointed to a Research Fellowship in the Department of Anatomy, University of Birmingham, where he subsequently held a Stothert Research Fellowship of the Royal Society. His Ph.D. was awarded for the development and use of the first implantable muscle stimulator

Professor Stanley Salmons lives in North Wales with his wife Paula, a physician (retired) and artist [http://www.paulasalmonslandscapes.com] .

They have three children and seven grandchildren

Career

Apart from a year’s leave of absence in the Department of Physiology at Harvard Medical School, Salmons remained on the staff at Birmingham University for the next twenty years, leaving to take up the Chair of Medical Cell Biology in the Department of Human Anatomy and Cell Biology at the University of Liverpool, where he is currently Emeritus Professor of Applied Myology.

He is internationally recognised for his contribution to heart surgery and for his work on the adaptive transformation of skeletal muscle by electrical stimulation and its various clinical applications. For 10 years he was Director of the British Heart Foundation Skeletal Muscle Assist Research Group. He holds the Erasmus Wilson Demonstrator Medal of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, and was elected to Fellowship of the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine in 1994. Salmons is also a past President of the International Society on Biotelemetry.

He was a founder member of the International Functional Electrical Stimulation Society, and is an Honorary Member of the Board of Directors, "Deutsche Gesellschaft für Elektrostimulation und Elektrotherapie". He has published over two hundred papers and book chapters, and several books in the fields of medicine and biomedical engineering.

Although formally retired, he is still actively involved in the work of the Muscle Research Group. He also serves as a peer-reviewer, and as a member of the Editorial Boards of Journal of Muscle Research & Cell Motility, Basic & Applied Myology, and Medical Engineering & Physics.

Drawing from his scientific background he has also written, and had published, two anthologies and many short stories. His debut novel, "Footprints in the Ash: A Pompeii Mystery", was released in June 2008.

cientific Publications

Full Papers

1. Salmons, S. (1966) The achievement of high overall rejection in difference amplifiers. Electron. Engng. 38: 218-221, 329.

2. Salmons, S. and Williams, D.G. (1967) A transistorized unit for microelectrophoretic application of drugs. World Med. Electron. 5: 302-306.

3. Salmons, S. and Vrbovà, G. (1969) The influence of activity on some contractile characteristics of mammalian fast and slow muscles. J. Physiol. 201: 535-549.

4. Salmons, S. (1971) On the calibration of digital measurements. J. Phys. E: Scient. Instrum. 4: 185-186, 472.

5. Salmons, S. (1971) Skeletal Muscle - an adaptive machine? Brit. Sci. News (Spectrum) No. 83: 2-4.

6. Srèter, F.A., Gergely, J., Salmons, S. and Romanul, F. (1973) Synthesis by fast muscle of myosin light chains characteristic of slow muscle in response to long-term stimulation. Nature 241: 17-19.

7. Srèter, F.A., Elzinga, M., Salmons, S., Mabuchi, K. and A.R. Luff (1975) The Nt-methylhistidine content of myosin in stimulated and cross- reinnervated skeletal muscles of the rabbit. FEBS Lett. 57: 107-111.

8. Salmons, S. and Srèter, F.A. (1976) Significance of impulse activity in the transformation of skeletal muscle type. Nature 263: 30-34.

9. Salmons, S., Gale, D.R. and Srèter, F.A. (1978) Ultrastructural aspects of the transformation of muscle fibre type by long term stimulation: changes in Z-discs and mitochondria. J. Anat. 127: 17-31.

10. Rubinstein, N., Mabuchi, K., Pepe, F., Salmons, S., Gergely, J. and Srèter, F. A. (1978) Use of type-specific antimyosins to demonstrate the transformation of individual fibres in chronically stimulated rabbit fast muscles. J. Cell Biol. 79: 252-261.

11. Salmons, S. (1980) Functional adaptation in skeletal muscle. Trends in Neurosciences 3: 134-137.

12. Salmons, S. and Henriksson, J. (1981) The adaptive response of skeletal muscle to increased use. Muscle & Nerve 4: 94-105.

13. Brown, J. and Salmons, S. (1981) Percutaneous control of an implantable muscle stimulator via an optical link. J. Biomed. Engng. 3: 206-208.

14. Eisenberg, B. R. and Salmons, S. (1981) The reorganisation of subcellular structure in muscle undergoing fast-to-slow type transformation: a stereological study. Cell Tiss. Res. 220: 449-47l.

15. Mastri, C., Salmons, S. and Thomas, G.H. (1982) Early events in the response of fast skeletal muscle to chronic low-frequency stimulation: polyamine biosynthesis and protein phosphorylation. Biochem. J. 206: 211-219.

16. Salmons, S. (1983) Myotrophic effects of anabolic steroids. Vet. Res. Commun. (special issue)7: 19-26.

17. Brown, W.E., Salmons, S. and Whalen, R.G. (1983) The sequential replacement of myosin subunit isoforms during muscle type transformation induced by long term electrical stimulation. J. Biol. Chem. 258: 14686-14692.

18. Eisenberg, B.R., Brown, J.M.C. and Salmons, S. (1984) Restoration of fast muscle characteristics following cessation of chronic stimulation: the ultrastructure of slow-to-fast transformation. Cell Tiss. Res. 238: 221-230.

19. Southall, D.P., Talbert, D.G., Johnson, P., Morley, C.J., Salmons, S., Miller J. and Helms, P.J. (1985) Prolonged expiratory apnoea: a disorder resulting in episodes of severe arterial hypoxaemia in infants and young children. The Lancet: 571-577.

20. Brown, W.E., Salmons, S., and Whalen, R.G. (1985) Mechanisms underlying the asynchronous replacement of myosin light chain isoforms during stimulation-induced fibre-type transformation of skeletal muscle. FEBS Lett. 192: 235-238. 21. Williams, R.S., Salmons, S., Newsholme, E.A., Kaufman, R.E. and Mellor, J. (1986) Regulation of nuclear and mitochondrial expression by contractile activity in skeletal muscle. J. Biol. Chem. 261: 376-380.

22. Lawrence, J.C. Jr., Krsek, J.A., Salsgiver, W.J., Hiken, J.F., Salmons, S. and Smith R.L. (1986) Phosphorylase kinase isozymes in normal and electrically stimulated skeletal muscles. Am. J. Physiol. 250: C84-C89.

23. Acker, M.A., Hammond, R., Mannion, J.D., Salmons, S. and Stephenson, L.W. (1986) An autologous biologic pump motor. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.12: 733-746.

24. Henriksson, J., Chi, M.M.-Y., Hintz, C.S.,Young, D.A., Kaiser, K.K., Salmons, S. and Lowry, O.H. (1986) Chronic stimulation of mammalian muscle: changes in enzymes of six metabolic pathways. Am. J. Physiol. 251: C614-C632.

25. Chi, M.M.-Y., Hintz, C.S., Henriksson, J., Salmons, S., Hellendahl, R.P., Park, J.L., Nemeth, P.M., Lowry, O.H. (1986) Chronic stimulation of mammalian muscle: enzyme changes in individual fibers. Am. J. Physiol. 251: C633-C642. 26. Williams, R.S., Garcia-Moll, M., Mellor, J., Salmons, S. and Harlan, W. (1987) Adaptation of skeletal muscle to increased contractile activity. Expression of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins. J. Biol. Chem. 262: 2764-2767.

27. Acker, M.A., Mannion, J.D., Brown, W.E., Salmons, S., Henriksson, J., Bitto, T., Gale, D.R., Hammond, R. and Stephenson, L.W. (1987) Canine diaphragm muscle after one yr of continuous electrical stimulation: its potential as a myocardial substitute. J. Appl. Physiol. 62: 1264-1270.

28. Acker, M.A., Hammond, R.L., Mannion, J.D., Salmons, S. and Stephenson, L.W. (1987) Skeletal muscle as the potential power source for a cardiovascular pump: assessment in vivo. Science 236: 324-327.

29. Joplin, R.E., Franchi, L.L. and Salmons, S. (1987) Changes in the size and synthetic activity of nuclear populations in chronically stimulated rabbit skeletal muscle. J. Anat. 155: 39-50.

30. Acker, M., Anderson, W.A., Hammond, R.L., DiMeo, Jr., B.S., McCullum, B.S., Staum, M., Velchik, M., Brown, W.E., Gale, D., Salmons, S. and Stephenson, L.W. (1987) Oxygen consumption of chronically stimulated skeletal muscle. J. Thor. Cardiovasc. Surg. 94: 702-709.

31. Clark, B.J. III, Acker, M.A., McCully, K., Subramanian, H.V., Hammond, R.L., Salmons, S., Chance, B. and Stephenson, L.W. (1988) In vivo 31P-NMR spectroscopy of chronically stimulated canine skeletal muscle. Am. J. Physiol. 254: C258-266.

32. Cooper, J.P. and Salmons, S. (1988) A simple three-program implantable muscle stimulator with optical control. J. Biomed. Engng. 10: 467-469.

33. Henriksson, J., Salmons, S., Chi, M.M.-Y., Hintz, C.S. and Lowry, O.H. (1988) Chronic stimulation of mammalian muscle: changes in metabolite concentrations in individual fibers. Am. J. Physiol. 255: C543-C551.

34. Anderson, W.A., Andersen, J.S., Bridges, C.R., Hammond, R.L., DiMeo F., Frisch, E.E., Salmons, S. and Stephenson L.W. (1988) Skeletal muscle ventricles as a potential right heart assist or substitute. ASAIO Transactions 34: 241-246.

35. Anderson, W.A., Andersen, J.S., Acker, M.A., Hammond, R.L., Chin, A.J., Douglas, P.S., Khalafalla, A.S., Salmons, S. and Stephenson L.W. (1988) Skeletal muscle grafts applied to the heart: a word of caution. Circulation 78 (suppl III) : 180-190.

36. Brownson, C., Isenberg, H., Brown,W., Salmons, S. and Edwards Y. (1988) Changes in skeletal muscle gene transcription induced by chronic stimulation. Muscle & Nerve 11: 1183-1189.

37. Brown, J.M.C., Henriksson, J. and Salmons, S. (1989) Restoration of fast muscle characteristics following cessation of chronic stimulation: physiological, histochemical and metabolic changes during slow-to-fast transformation. Proc. R. Soc. B. 235: 321-346.

38. Salmons, S. (1989) The importance of the adaptive properties of skeletal muscle in long term electrophrenic stimulation of the diaphragm. Stereotact. Funct. Neurosurg. 53: 223-232.

39. Franchi, L.L., Murdoch, A., Brown, W.E., Mayne, C.N., Elliott, L. and Salmons, S. (1990) Subcellular localisation of newly incorporated myosin in rabbit fast skeletal muscle undergoing stimulation-induced type transformation. J. Musc. Res. Cell Motil. 11: 227-239.

40. Salmons, S. and Jarvis, J.C. (1990) Cardiomyoplasty: the basic issues. Cardiac Chronicle 4: 1-7.

41. Pochettino, A., Spanta, A.D., Hammond, R.L., Anderson, D.R., Bridges, C.R., Samet, P., Niinami, H., Hohenhaus, E., Salmons, S. and Stephenson, L.W. (1990) Skeletal muscle ventricles for total heart replacement. Ann. Surg. 212: 345-352.

42. Pochettino, A., Anderson, D.R., Hammond, R.L., Salmons, S. and Stephenson, L.W. (1991) Skeletal muscle ventricles. Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 3: 154-159.

43. Jarvis, J.C. and Salmons, S. (1991) A family of neuromuscular stimulators with optical transcutaneous control. J. Med. Eng. Technol. 15: 53-57.

44. Jarvis, J.C. and Salmons, S. (1991) An electrohydraulic apparatus for the measurement of static and dynamic properties of rabbit muscles. J. Appl. Physiol. 70: 938-941.

45. Callewaert, L., Puers, B., Sansen, W. and Salmons, S. and Jarvis, J.C. (1991) Programmable implantable device for investigating the adaptive response of skeletal muscle to chronic electrical stimulation. Med. Biol. Engng. Comput. 29: 548-553.

46. Salmons, S. and Jarvis, J.C. (1991) Simple optical switch for implantable devices. Med. Biol. Engng. Comput. 29: 554-556.

47. Mayne, C.N., Anderson, W.A., Hammond, R.L., Eisenberg, B.R., Stephenson, L.W. and Salmons, S. (1991) Correlates of fatigue resistance in canine skeletal muscle stimulated electrically for up to one year. Am. J. Physiol. 261 (Cell Physiol. 30): C259-C270.48. Jarvis, J.C., Mayne, C.N. and Salmons, S. (1991) Basic studies on skeletal muscle for cardiac assistance. J. Cardiac Surg. 6 (Suppl.): 204-209.

49. Mayne, C.N., Jarvis, J.C. and Salmons, S. (1991) Dissociation between metabolite levels and force fatigue in the early stages of stimulation-induced transformation of mammalian skeletal muscle. Basic Appl. Myol. 1: 63-70.

50. Ruggiero, R., Niinami, H., Hooper, T.L., Pochettino, A., Hammond, R.L., Lu, H., Spanta, A.D., Nakajima H., Nakajima H., Mannion, J.D., Acker, M.A., Bridges, C.R., Anderson, D.R., Colson, M., Kantrowitz, A., Salmons, S., Stephenson, L.W. (1991) Skeletal muscle ventricles for cardiac assistance. Basic Appl. Myol. 1: 129-137.

51. Salmons, S. (1991) Myotrophic action of an anabolic steroid (nandrolone decanoate) in normal, but not in chronically stimulated, rabbit limb muscles Basic Appl. Myol. 1: 241-251.

52. Brownson, C., Little, P., Jarvis, J.C. and Salmons, S. (1992) Reciprocal changes in myosin isoform mRNAs of rabbit skeletal muscle in response to the initiation and cessation of chronic electrical stimulation. Muscle & Nerve 15: 694-700.

53. Salmons, S. (1992) Myotrophic effects of an anabolic steroid in rabbit limb muscles Muscle & Nerve15: 806-812.54. Lexell, J., Jarvis, J.C., Downham, D.Y. and Salmons, S. (1992) Quantitative morphology of stimulation-induced damage in rabbit fast-twitch muscles. Cell Tiss. Res. 269: 195-204.

55. Salmons, S. and Jarvis, J.C. (1992) Cardiac assistance from skeletal muscle: a critical appraisal of the various approaches. Brit. Heart J. 68: 333-338.

56. Mocek, F.W., Anderson, D.R., Pochettino, A., Hammond, R.L., Spanta, A., Ruggiero, R., Thomas, G., Lu, H., Fietsam, R., Nakajima, H., Nakajima, H., Krakovsky, A., Hooper, T., Niinami, H., Colson, M., Levine, S., Salmons, S., Stephenson, L.W. (1992) Skeletal muscle ventricles in circulation long-term: 191 to 836 days. J. Heart Lung Transplant. 11: S334-340.

57. Hohenhaus, E., Pochettino, A., Hammond, R.L., Niinami, H., Lu, H., Spanta, A.D., Pluymers, R.J., Jarvis, J.C., Salmons, S., Stephenson, L.W. (1992) Effect of treatment with an anabolic steroid (Nandrolone decanoate) on physiological and morphological characteristics of unconditioned and conditioned canine latissimus dorsi muscles. Basic Appl. Myol. 2: 115-125.

58. Hooper, T.L. and Salmons, S. (1993) Skeletal muscle assistance in heart failure. Cardiovasc. Res. 27: 1404-1406.

59. Lexell, J., Jarvis, J.C., Downham, D.Y. and Salmons, S. (1993) Stimulation-induced damage in rabbit fast-twitch muscles: a quantitative morphological study of the influence of pattern and frequency. Cell Tiss. Res. 273: 357-362.

60. Mayne, C.N., Mokrusch, T., Jarvis, J.C., Gilroy, S.J. and Salmons, S. (1993) Stimulation-induced expression of slow muscle myosin in a fast muscle of the rat: evidence of an unrestricted adaptive capacity. FEBS Lett. 327: 297-300.

61. Salmons, S. (1994) Exercise, stimulation and type transformation of skeletal muscle. Int. J. Sports Med. 15: 136-141.

62. Lexell, J., Jarvis, J.C., Downham D.Y. and Salmons, S. (1994) Stimulation-induced muscle damage. Basic Appl. Myol. (Special issue on Muscle Damage, ed. Salmons, S.) 4: 59-66.

63. Cox, V.M., Jarvis, J.C., Sutherland, H. and Salmons, S. (1994) The relationship of 99Tcm-pyrophosphate uptake to muscle damage in chronically stimulated rabbit muscles. Basic Appl. Myol. (Special issue on Muscle Damage, ed. Salmons, S.) 4: 67-76.

64. Lexell, J., Jarvis, J.C., Currie, J., Downham D.Y. and Salmons, S. (1994) Fibre type composition of rabbit tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus muscles. J. Anat. 185: 95-101.

65. Kong X, Manchester J, Salmons S, Lawrence JC Jr (1994) Glucose transporters in single skeletal muscle fibers: relationship to hexokinase and regulation by contractile activity. J. Biol. Chem. 269: 12963-12967.

66. El Oakley, R.M., Jarvis, J.C., Barman, D., Greenhalgh, D.L., Currie, J., Downham, D.Y., Salmons, S., Hooper, T.L. (1995) Factors affecting the integrity of latissimus dorsi muscle grafts: implications for cardiac assistance from skeletal muscle. J. Heart Lung Transpl. 14: 359-365.

67. Yan, Z., Salmons S., Jarvis, J.C. and Booth, F.W. (1995) Increased muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase II mRNA after training. Am J. Physiol. 268 (Endocrinol. Metab. 31): E277-E281.

68. Kwende, M.M.N., Jarvis, J.C. and Salmons, S. (1995) The input-output relationships of skeletal muscle. Proc. Roy. Soc. Ser B 261: 193-201.

69. Shortland, A.P., Black, R.A., Jarvis, J.C. and Salmons, S. (1996) A novel video technique for visualizing flow structures in cardiovascular models. J. Biomech. 29: 239-244.

70. Shortland, A.P., Black, R.A., Jarvis, J.C., Henry, F.S., Iudicello, F., Collins, M.W. and Salmons, S. (1996) Formation and travel of vortices in model ventricles: application to the design of skeletal muscle ventricles. J. Biomech. 29: 503-511.

71. Jarvis, J.C., Sutherland, H., Mayne, C.N., Gilroy, S.J. and Salmons, S. (1996) Induction of a fast-oxidative phenotype by chronic muscle stimulation: mechanical and biochemical studies. Am. J. Physiol. 270 (Cell Physiol. 39): C306-312.

72. Mayne, C.N., Sutherland, H., Jarvis, J.C., Gilroy, S.J., Craven, A.J. and Salmons, S. (1996) Induction of a fast-oxidative phenotype by chronic muscle stimulation: histochemical and metabolic studies. Am. J. Physiol. 270 (Cell Physiol. 39): C313-320.

73. Degens, H., Craven, A.J., Jarvis, J.C. and Salmons, S. (1996) The use of coloured dye-extraction microspheres to measure blood flow in rabbit skeletal muscle: a validation study with special emphasis on repeated measurements. Exper. Physiol. 81: 239-250.

74. Henry, F.S., Shortland A., Iudicello F., Black, R.A., Jarvis J.C., Collins, M.W. and Salmons, S. (1995) Flow in a simple model ventricle: comparison between numerical and physical simulations. ASME J. Biomech. Eng. 119: 13-19.

75. Shortland A., Black, R.A., Jarvis J.C. and Salmons, S. (1996) Factors influencing vortex development in a model of a skeletal muscle ventricle. Artif. Org. 20: 1026-1033.

76. Jones, J., Emmanuel, J., Sutherland, H., Jackson, M.J., Jarvis, J.C., and Salmons, S. (1997) Stimulation-induced skeletal muscle da

77. Salmons, S., Jarvis, J.C., Mayne, C.N., Chi, M.M.-Y., Manchester, J.K., McDougal, D.B., Jr. and Lowry, O.H. (1996) Changes in ATP, phosphocreatine and 16 metabolites in rabbit muscles stimulated for up to 96 hours. Am. J. Physiol. 40: C1167-C1171.

78. Thomas, G.A., Isoda, S., Hammond, R.L., Lu, H.P., Nakajima, H., Nakajima, H.O., Greer, K., Gilroy, S.J., Salmons, S., and Stephenson, L.W. (1996) Pericardium-lined skeletal muscle ventricles: up to 2 years in-circulation experience. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 62: 1698-1706.

79. Cox, V.M., Jarvis, J.C., Lexell, J. and Salmons, S. (1996) Effect of the ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor di-fluoro methyl-ornithine on damage in electrically stimulated muscle. Basic Appl. Myol. 6: 291-296.

80. Jarvis, J.C., Mokrusch, T., Kwende, M.M.N., Sutherland, H., and Salmons, S. (1996) Fast-to-slow transformation in stimulated rat muscle. Muscle & Nerve 19: 1469-1475.

81. van Doorn, C.A.M., Bhabra, M.S., El Oakley, R.M., Jarvis, J.C., Salmons, S. and Hooper, T.L. (1996) Effects of cardiomyoplasty on cardiac growth in rats. J. Cardiac Surg. 11: 226-233.82. Salmons, S. (1996) Muscles: the actuators. J. Rehabil. Res. Devel. 33: 191-194. (Single topic issue on Functional Neuromuscular Stimulation).

83. Yan, Z., Salmons S., Dang, Y.L., Hamilton, M.T. and Booth, F.W. (1996) Increased contractile activity decreases RNA-protein interaction in the 3´-UTR of cytochrome c mRNA. Am. J. Physiol. 271 (Cell Physiol. 40): C1157-1166.

84. Gilroy, S., Salmons, S. and Pennington, S.R. (1997) Changes in nuclear protein composition during fibre-type transformation in skeletal muscle. Electrophoresis 18: 809-813.

85. Doorn, C.A.M. van, Degens, H., Bhabra, M.S., Till, C.B.W., Shaw, T.E., Jarvis, J.C., Salmons, S., and Hooper, T.L. (1997) Intramural blood flow of skeletal muscle ventricles functioning as aortic counterpulsators. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 64: 86-93.

86. Jarvis, J.C., Kwende, M.M.N., Shortland, A., El Oakley, R.M., Gilroy, S.J., Black, R.A. and Salmons, S. (1997) Relation between muscle contraction speed and hydraulic performance in skeletal muscle ventricles. Circulation 96: 2368-2375.

87. Iudicello, F., Henry, F.S., Collins, M.W., Salmons, S., Sarti, A., and Lamberti, C. (1997) Comparison of haemodynamic structures between a skeletal muscle ventricle and the human left ventricle. Int. Med. Clin. Lab. 5: 1-10.

88. Ryschon, T.W., Jarvis, J.C., Salmons, S., and Balaban, R.S. (1997) High-energy phosphates and tension production in rabbit tibialis anterior/extensor digitorum longus muscles. J. Appl. Physiol. 82: 1024-1029

89. Degens, H., Salmons, S., and Jarvis, J.C. (1998) Intramuscular pressure, force and blood flow in the rabbit tibialis anterior muscles during single and repetitive contractions. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 78: 13-19.

90. Tang, A.T.M., Geraghty, P., Dascombe, M.J., Jarvis, J.C., Salmons, S. and Hooper, T.L. (1998) Nitroglycerine reduces neutrophil activation and acute damage in latissimus dorsi muscle grafts. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 66: 2015-2021.

91. Sutherland, H., Jarvis, J.C., Kwende, M.M.N., Gilroy, S.J. and Salmons, S. (1998) The dose-related response of rabbit fast muscle to long-term low-frequency stimulation. Muscle & Nerve21: 1632-1646.

92. Tang, A.T.M., Jarvis, J.C., Hooper, T.L. and Salmons, S. (1998) Observation and basis of improved blood flow to the distal latissimus dorsi muscle: a case for electrical stimulation prior to grafting. Cardiovasc. Res. 40: 131-137.

93. Salmons, S., Tang, A.T.M., Jarvis, J.C., Degens, H., Hastings, M., and Hooper, T.L. (1998) Morphological and functional evidence, and clinical importance, of vascular anastomoses in the latissimus dorsi muscle of the sheep. J. Anat.193: 93-104.

94. Barron, D.J., Etherington, P.J., Winlove, C.P., Jarvis, J.C., Salmons, S., and Pepper, J.R. (1998) Muscle transformation in cardiomyoplasty: the effect of conditioning and mobilisation on perfusion, oxygenation and fatigue resistance in the latissimus dorsi muscle. Eur. J. Cardiothorac. Surg. 13: 588-598.

95. Tang, A.T.M., Jarvis, J.C., Hooper, T.L. and Salmons, S. (1999) Cardiomyoplasty: the benefits of electrical prestimulation of the latissimus dorsi muscle in situ. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 68: 46-51.

96. Salmons, S. (1999) Permanent cardiac assistance from skeletal muscle: a prospect for the new millenium. Artif. Org. 23: 380-387.

97. Cummins, B. and Salmons, S. (1999) Changes in the synthesis of total proteins induced by chronic electrical stimulation of skeletal muscle. Basic Appl. Myol. 9: 19-28.

98. Thomas, G.A., Hammond, R.L., Greer, K.A., Lu, H., Jarvis, J.C., Shortland, A.P., Pullan, D. M., Salmons, S., and Stephenson, L.W. (2000) Functional assessment of skeletal muscle ventricles after pumping for up to four years in circulation. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 70: 1281-1289; discussion 1290.

99. Greenbaum, A.R., Jarvis, J.C., Manek, S., Green, C.J., OíHare, D., Pepper, J.R., Winlove, C.P. and Salmons, S. (2000) Oxygenation and perfusion of rabbit tibialis anterior muscle subjected to different patterns of electrical stimulation. J. Musc. Res. Cell Motil. 21: 285-291.

100. Lopez-Guajardo, A., Sutherland, H., Jarvis, J.C., and Salmons, S. (2000) Dynamics of stimulation-induced muscle adaptation: insights from varying the duty cycle. J. Musc. Res. Cell Motil. 21: 725-735.

101. Lopez-Guajardo, A., Sutherland, H., Jarvis, J.C., and Salmons, S. (2001) Induction of a fatigue-resistant phenotype in rabbit fast muscle by small daily amounts of stimulation. J. Appl. Physiol. 90: 1909-1918.

102. Jarvis, J.C., and Salmons, S. (2001) The application and technology of implantable neuromuscular stimulators: an introduction and overview. Med. Eng. Phys. 23: 3-7.

103. Salmons, S., Gunning, G.T., Taylor, I., Grainger, S.R.W., Hitchings, D.J., Blackhurst, J., and Jarvis, J.C. (2001) ASIC OR PIC? Implantable stimulators based on semi-custom CMOS technology or lowñpower microcontroller architecture. Med. Eng. Phys. 23: 37-43.

104. Sutherland, H., Khundkar, R., Zolle, O., McArdle, A., Simpson, A. W. M., Jarvis, J. C., Salmons, S. (2001) A fluorescence-based method for measuring nitric oxide in extracts of skeletal muscle. Nitric Oxide 5: 475-481.

105. Woo, E.B.-C., Tang, A.T.M., Jarvis, J.C., Hasleton, P.S., Salmons, S., and Hooper, T.L. (2002) Improved viability of latissimus dorsi muscle grafts after electrical prestimulation. Muscle & Nerve 25: 679-684.

106. Mela, P., Veltink, P.H., Huijing, P.A., Salmons, S., and Jarvis, J.C. (2002) The optimal stimulation pattern for skeletal muscle is dependent on muscle length. IEEE Trans. Neural Systems Rehab. Eng. 10: 85-93.

107. Capoccia, M., Sutherland, H., Salmons, S., and Jarvis, J.C. (2002) The hemodynamic function of intrathoracic skeletal muscle ventricles after recovery from surgery in pigs. Artif. Org. 26: 235-37.

108. Woo, E.B.-C., Jarvis, J.C., Hooper, T.L. and Salmons, S. (2002) Avoiding ischemia in latissimus dorsi muscle grafts: electrical prestimulation versus vascular delay. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 73: 1927-1932.

109. Salmons, S. (2003) Invited review: Avoiding ischaemic damage in latissimus dorsi muscles redeployed as functional grafts. Basic Appl. Myol. 13: 71-81.

110. Salmons, S., Greer, K., Shortland, A.P., Jarvis, J.C., Lu, H., Bastian, S., Hammond, R.L., Stephenson, L.W. (2003) Skeletal muscle ventricles with a single-limb conduit: the importance of hemodynamic design. J. Cardiac Surg. 19: 119-127.

111. Shortland, A.P., Jarvis, J.C. and Salmons, S. (2003) Haemodynamic considerations in the design of a skeletal muscle ventricle. Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 41: 529-535.

112. Sutherland, H., Jarvis, J. C. and Salmons, S. (2003) Pattern dependence in the stimulation-induced type transformation of rabbit fast skeletal muscle. Neuromodulation 6: 176-189.

113. Kern, H., Salmons, S., Hofer, C., Mödlin, M., Richter, W., Mayr, W., Rossini, K., and Carraro, U. (2004) Recovery of long-term denervated human muscles induced by electrical stimulation. Muscle & Nerve 31: 98-101.

114. Salmons, S., Ashley, Z., Sutherland, H., Russold, M.F., Li, F., and Jarvis, J.C. (2004) FES of denervated muscles: basic issues. Artif. Org. 29: 199-202.

115. Ashley, Z., Sutherland, H., Lanmuller, H., Unger, E., Mayr, W., Kern, H., Jarvis, J.C., Salmons, S. (2004) Determination of the chronaxie and rheobase of denervated limb muscles in conscious rabbits. Artif. Org. 29: 212-215.

116. Ramnarine, I.A., Salmons, S., and Jarvis, J.C. (2005) Use what you have—biological assistance for the treatment of heart failure in the Caribbean. West Indian Med. J. 54: 65-69.

117. Lanmüller, H., Ashley, Z., Unger, E., Sutherland, H., Reichel, M., Russold, M., Jarvis, J., Mayr, W., and Salmons, S. (2005) Implantable device for long-term electrical stimulation of denervated muscles in rabbits. Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 43: 535-40.

118. Sutherland, H., Salmons, S., Ramnarine, I.R., Capoccia, M., Walsh, A.A., and Jarvis, J.C. (2006) Adaptive conditioning of skeletal muscle in a large animal model (Sus domesticus) J. Anat. 209: 165-177.

119. Ramnarine, I.R., Capoccia, M., Ashley, Z., Sutherland, H., Russold, M., Summerfield, N., Salmons, S., and Jarvis, J.C. (2006) Counterpulsation from the skeletal muscle ventricle and the intraaortic balloon pump in the normal and failing circulations. Circulation 114 (Suppl I): I10-I15.

120. Ashley, Z., Sutherland, H., Lanmuller, H., Russold, M.F., Unger, E., Bijak, M., Mayr, W., Boncompagni, S., Protasi, F., Salmons, S., Jarvis, J.C. (2007) Atrophy, but not necrosis, in rabbit skeletal muscle denervated for periods up to one year. Am. J. Physiol. 292: C440-451.

121. Ashley, Z., Salmons, S., Boncompagni, S., Protasi, F., Russold, M.F., Lanmuller, H., Mayr, W., Sutherland, H., Jarvis, J.C. (2007) Effects of chronic electrical stimulation on long-term denervated muscles of the rabbit hind limb. J. Musc. Res. Cell Motil. 28: 203-217.

122. Ashley, Z., Sutherland, H., Russold, M.F., Lanmuller, H., Mayr, W., Jarvis, J.C., Salmons, S. (2008) Therapeutic stimulation of denervated muscles: the influence of pattern. Muscle Nerve (in press).

123. Salmons, S. and Jarvis, J.C. (2008) Cardiomyoplasty reviewed: lessons from the past, prospects for the future. Basic Appl. Myol. 18 (in press).

124. Salmons, S. and Jarvis, J.C. (2008) Functional electrical stimulation of denervated muscles: an experimental evaluation. Artif. Org. 32: 597-603 (in press).

125. Salmons, S. (2009) Therapeutic electrical stimulation of denervated muscles. SCOPE (in press)

126. Salmons, S. (2009) Cardiac assistance from skeletal muscle: a reappraisal. Eur. J. Cardiothorac. Surg. (in press).

cientific Books

* Salmons, S. (1964) Difference amplifiers, with an introduction to electrophysiological applications, D.I.C. Thesis, Imperial College, London.
* Salmons, S. (1968) The development and use of implantable electronic devices to investigate the influence of activity on the contractile speed of mammalian skeletal muscle, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Birmingham.
* Salmons, S. and Jarvis, J.C. (eds.) (1991) Harnessing skeletal muscle power for cardiac assistance. ISBN 90-365-0412-0, Commission of the European Communities: Brussels. 123 pp.
* Carraro, U. and Salmons, S. (eds.) (1991) Basic and Applied Myology: Perspectives for the 90’s (Padua: Unipress).
* Salmons, S. (1994) Proc. Meeting of the Working-Group on Skeletal Muscle Assist, EC Concerted Action “HEART” ISBN 88-86219-02-4, pp 110-111, 150-156.
* Lewis, T., Graham, T.R., Frazier, O.H., Hill, J.D., Pennington, D.G., and Salmons, S. (1995) Mechanical Circulatory Support. Edward Arnold: London. 385 pp.
* Salmons, S. (ed) (1994) Proc. EC Concerted Action “HEART” Skeletal Muscle Assist Working Group ISBN 88-86219-01-06, 54 pp.
* Salmons, S. (ed) (1995) Proc. EC Concerted Action “HEART” Skeletal Muscle Assist Working Group ISBN 88-86219-03-2, 35 pp.
* Salmons, S. (1995) Section 7: Muscle. In Gray’s Anatomy, edited by Williams, P.L., Bannister, L.H., Berry, M.M., Collins, P., Dyson, M., Dussek, J.E., Ferguson, M.W.J. (Churchill Livingstone: New York, Edinburgh, London, Tokyo, Madrid, Melbourne) 38th edition, pp. 737-900
* Salmons, S. (ed) (1996) Proc. EC Concerted Action “HEART” Skeletal Muscle Assist Working Group, Florence (and Editorial Introduction), 58 pp.
* Salmons, S. (ed) (1997) Muscle Damage. ISBN 0 19 262753 8. Oxford University Press: Oxford, 243 pp.
* Penzel, T., Salmons, S. and Neuman, M.R. (eds) (1998) Biotelemetry XIV (Proceedings of the XIVth International Symposium on Biotelemetry, Marburg, April 1997). Tectum Verlag: Marburg

Book Chapters

1. Salmons, S. (1972) A telemetric technique for measuring muscle tension in conscious unrestrained animals. In: Biotelemetry, eds. Kimmich, H.P. and Vos, J.A., pp. 335-336 (Leiden: Meander).

2. Sréter, F.A., Romanul, F.C.A., Salmons, S. and Gergely, J. (1974) The effect of a changed pattern of activity on some biochemical characteristics of muscle. In: Exploratory Concepts in Muscular Dystrophy II, ed. Milhorat, A.T., Intern. Congress Series No. 333, pp. 338-343 ( Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica).

3. Romanul, F.C.A., Sréter, F.A., Salmons, S. and Gergely, J. (1974) The effect of a changed pattern of activity on histochemical characteristics of muscle fibres. Ibid. pp.344-348.

4. Salmons, S., Sréter, F.A. and Morris, C.J. (1976) Use of implantable stimulators to investigate functional adaptation in skeletal muscle. In: Biotelemetry III, eds. Fryer, T.B., Miller, H.A. and Sandler, H., pp. 275-278 (Academic Press, Inc.).

5. Rubinstein, N., Mabuchi, K., Salmons, S., Gergely, J. and Sréter, F.A. (1979) Fast-to-slow myosin transformation in pre-existing muscle fibers during chronic stimulation. In: Motility in Cell Function, eds. Pepe, F.A., Sanger, J.W. and Nachmias, V.T., Proceedings of the First John M. Marshall Symposium in Cell Biology, (New York: Academic Press).

6. Salmons, S. (1980) Prospects for the use of telemetry in studies of the differentiation of mammalian locomotor systems. In: A Handbook of Biotelemetry and Radiotracking, eds. Amlaner, C.J. and MacDonald, D.W., pp. 517-524 ( Oxford: Pergamon Press).

7. Salmons, S. (1980) The response of skeletal muscle to different patterns of use - some new developments and concepts. In: Plasticity of Muscle, ed. Pette, D., pp. 387-399 (Berlin: W. de Gruyter).

8. Salmons, S. (1985) Functional adaptation in skeletal muscle. In: Evarts, E.V., Wise, S.P., and Bousfield, D. (eds) The motor system in neurobiology. Elsevier Biomedical Press: Amsterdam, pp 23-29

9. Salmons, S. and Brown, J. (1983) Percutaneous control of implanted devices via an optical link. In: Biotelemetry VI, ed. Sansen, W., pp. 24-27 (Leuven: Acco).

10. Salmons, S. and Brown, J.M.C. (1983) The potential for percutaneous optical control of implants for therapeutic stimulation. In: High Technology Aids for the Disabled, ed. Perkins,W.J., pp. 82-87 (London: Butterworths).

11. Salmons, S. and Brown, J.M.C. (1984) A versatile implantable stimulator with transcutaneous optical control. In: Medical Telemetry. Proceedings of a Workshop on Alternative Methods for Radiotelemetry, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, May l983, eds. Kimmich, H.P. and Bornhausen, M., pp. 289-296 (Commission of the European Communities Report EUR 9158 EN).

12. Brown, W.E., Brown, J.M.C. and Salmons, S. (1984) Application of an implantable stimulator to the study of gene regulation in muscle. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Biotelemetry, Stanford, California, pp. 1-4.

13. Salmons, S. (1984) Adaptive aspects of skeletal muscle function in relation to long-term therapeutic stimulation. In: Biotelemetry VIII, eds. Kimmich, H.P. and Klewe, H-J., pp. 274-278.

14. Salmons, S. (1984) An introduction to the therapeutic use of electrical stimulation. In: Biotelemetry VIII, eds. Kimmich, H.P. and Klewe, H–J., pp. 269-273.

15. Salmons, S. and Brown, J.M.C. (1986) The use of transcutaneous optical control as a route to developing new and more versatile implantable stimulators for therapeutic application. In: Medical Telemetry Proceedings of a Workshop on Alternative Methods for Radiotelemetry, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, April 1985. eds. Kimmich, H.P., Weller, C., Erdmann, W. and Bornhausen, M., pp. 34-41 (Commission of the European Communities Project II. 2.5./5.).

16. Bitto, T., Mannion, J.D., Hammond, R., Cox J., Hamashita, J., Duckett, S.W., Salmons, S. and Stephenson, L.W. (1986) Preparation of fatigue- resistant diaphragmatic muscle grafts for myocardial replacement. In: Progr. Artif. Organs , eds. Nosé, Y., Kjellstrand, C. and Ivanovich, P., pp. 441-446 (Cleveland:ISAO Press).

17. Salmons, S., Callewaert, L., Puers, B. and Sansen W. (1987) A custom-integrated programmable implantable stimulator with optical control. In: Biotelemetry IX, eds. Kimmich, H.P. and Neuman, M.R., pp. 163-166 (Döring-Druck, Braunschweig). 18. Acker, J.A., Mannion, J.D., Hammond, R.L., Stephenson, L.W. and Salmons, S. (1987) Cardiac assist devices energized by skeletal muscle. In: Biotelemetry IX, eds. Kimmich, H.P. and Neuman, M.R., pp. 199-202 (Döring-Druck, Braunschweig) 19. Mannion, J.D., Acker, M.A., Hammond, R.L., Stephenson, L.W., Khalafalla, A., Henriksson, J. and Salmons, S. (1988) Chronic burst stimulation of canine latissimus dorsi muscle: a further step towards the use of skeletal muscle for cardiac augmentation. “Towards the artificial heart” (Proceedings of an Interdisciplinary Symposium) , ed. Stagnaro, E., pp. 192-200 (University of Padua).

20. Salmons, S. (1988) Functional electrical stimulation of the lower limb: characterization of normal and adaptively transformed muscle. In: Restoration of walking by implanted electrical stimulation: what can be expected from the next decade?, eds. Woloszko, J. and Rabischong, P., COMAC-BME Handbook, (Brussels: EEC).

21. Salmons, S. and Stephenson, L.W. (1989) Adaptive capacity of skeletal muscle and its therapeutic applications. In: Neuromuscular Stimulation. Basic Concepts and Clinical Implications, ed. Rose, F.C., Jones, R., Vrbová, G., Comprehensive Neurologic Rehabilitation Series (New York: Demos Publications) pp 203-215.

22. Henriksson, J., Salmons, S. and Lowry, O.H. (1990) Chronic stimulation of mammalian muscle: enzyme and metabolite changes in homogenates and individual fibres. In: Transformed Muscle for Cardiac Assist and Repair, eds. Chiu, R.C.-J. and Bourgeois, I.M. (Mount Kisco, NY: Futura Publishing Company, Inc.) pp. 9-24.

23. Salmons, S. and Jarvis, J.C. (1990) The working capacity of skeletal muscle transformed for use in a cardiac assist role. In: Transformed Muscle for Cardiac Assist and Repair, eds. Chiu, R.C.-J. and Bourgeois, I.M. (Mount Kisco, NY: Futura Publishing Company, Inc.) pp 89-104.

24. Brownson, C., Salmons, S. and Edwards, Y. (1988) Changes in the concentrations of selected mRNA transcripts in response to continuous electrical stimulation of skeletal muscle. In: Sarcomeric and Non-Sarcomeric Muscles: Basic and Applied Research Prospects for the 90s, ed. Carraro, U. (Padua: Unipress) pp 353-359.

25. Salmons, S. (1989) Skeletal muscle to power heart assist devices. In: Heart Assist and Replacement Technology, eds. Kunst, E.E. and van Alsté, J.A., pp 63-67 (Commission of the European Communities).

26. Salmons, S., Jarvis, J.C., Mayne, C.N., Franchi, L.L., and Murdoch, A. (1989) Significance and localization of myosin transitions in chronically stimulated muscle. 3rd Vienna International Workshop on Functional Electrostimulation: Basics, Technology, and Application. ISBN 3-900928-01-0, pp 29-32.

27. Salmons, S. (1990) On the reversibility of stimulation-induced muscle transformation. In: The Dynamic State of Muscle Fibres, ed. Pette, D., (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter), pp 401-414.

28. Henriksson, J., Nemeth, P.M., Borg, K., Salmons, S. and Lowry, O.H. (1990) Fibre type-specific enzyme activity profiles. A single fibre study of the effects of chronic stimulation on the rabbit fast-twitch tibialis anterior muscle. In: The Dynamic State of Muscle Fibres, ed. Pette, D. (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter), pp 385-398.

29. Salmons, S. and Jarvis, J.C. (1991) Cardiomyoplasty: a look at the fundamentals. In: Cardiomyoplasty, eds. Carpentier, A., Chachques, J.–C., Grandjean (Mount Kisco, NY: Futura Publishing Company, Inc.) pp 3-17.

30. Salmons, S. and Jarvis, J.C. (eds) (1991) Harnessing skeletal muscle power for cardiac assistance. Proc. Expert Meeting under EC Concerted Action “HEART”. Commission of the European Communities, ISBN 90-365-0412-0, 123 pp. (also included in Annals of the Concerted Action HEART 1989-1990, ISBN 90-365-0480-5) 31. Salmons, S. (1991) Skeletal muscle devices. In: Proc. 1st General Meeting of EC Concerted Action “HEART”, Rome.

32. Brownson, C., Little, P., Mayne, C.N., Jarvis, J.C. and Salmons, S. (1992) Reciprocal changes in myosin isoform expression in rabbit fast skeletal muscle resulting from the application and removal of chronic electrical stimulation. In: Molecular Biology of Muscle (Society for Experimental Biology Symposium no. 46), ed. el Haj, A., Colchester, U.K.: The Company of Biologists Ltd. ISBN 0 948601 35 3, pp 301-310.

33. Salmons, S. and Jarvis, J.C. (1992) The prospects for using skeletal muscle as the energy source for mechanical circulatory devices. Proc. Expert Meeting “Muscle driven devices for cardiac assistance”, ed. Carraro, U. Commission of the European Communities, ISBN 90-365-0483-X, pp 5-14; and in: Basic and Applied Myology: Perspectives for the 90’s, eds. Carraro, U., Salmons, S. (Padua: Unipress) 1991, pp 409-416

34. Jarvis, J.C., Brownson, C., Sutherland, H., Salmons, S. (1992) Comparison between the effects of continuous long-term stimulation of rabbit skeletal muscle at 2.5 Hz and 10 Hz. Proc. Expert Meeting “Muscle driven devices for cardiac assistance”, ed. Carraro, U. Commission of the European Communities, ISBN 90-365-0483-X, pp 29-34; and in: Basic and Applied Myology: Perspectives for the 90’s, eds. Carraro, U., Salmons, S. (Padua: Unipress) 1991, pp 109-113.

35. Salmons, S. (1992) Presentations of networks: skeletal muscle assist. In: Proc. General Meeting of EC Concerted Action “HEART”, Enschede. Commission of the European Communities, ISBN 90-365-0486-4, pp 95-97 (also included in Annals of the Concerted Action HEART 1991-1992, Vol. 2, ISBN 90-365-0591-7).

36. Salmons, S. (1992) “FES” of the lower limb: characterization of normal and adaptively transformed muscle. In: Restoration of walking for paraplegics, eds. Pedotti, A., Ferrarin, M. (Milan: Edizioni Pro Juventute) ISBN 88-85936-10-5, pp 159-166.

37. Salmons, S. and Jarvis, J.C. (1992) Skeletal muscle as an adaptive contractile biomaterial for cardiac assistance: fundamental considerations. Proc. 14th Ann. Int. Conf. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society eds. Morucci, J.P., Plonsey, R., Coatrieux ,J.L., Laxminarayan, S. ISBN 0-7803-0816-6.

38. Taylor, I., Grainger S.R.W., Hitchings, D.J., Jarvis, J.C. and Salmons, S. (1993) A miniature implantable neuromuscular stimulator based on gate array technology. In: Biotelemetry XII, Mancini, P., Fioretti, S., Cristalli, C., Bedini, R., eds. Pisa: Editrice Universitaria Litografia Felici, pp 39-43.

39. Iudicello, F., Henry, F.S., Collins, M.W., Shortland, A., Jarvis, J.C., Black, R.A. and Salmons, S. (1993). Numerical simulation of the flow in a model skeletal muscle ventricle.Computers in Cardiology 1993, IEEE Computer Society Press, pp 377-380.

40. Salmons, S. (1993) Fast and slow muscle fibres: exercise, stimulation and transformation. In: Proceedings Basic and Applied Exercise Physiology, Nijmegen, The Netherlands, June 1993, pp 7-20.

41. Salmons, S. (1993) Introduction of the Working-Group on “Skeletal Muscle Assist”. In: Proceedings of the Concerted Action “HEART” Phase II Opening Meeting, June 1993, ISBN 88-86219-00-8, p 88.

42. Salmons, S. (1993) Skeletal muscle assist: preservation of power in a fatigue-resistant muscle. In: Proceedings of the Concerted Action “HEART” Phase II Opening Meeting, June 1993, ISBN 88-86219-00-8, p 89-90.

43. El Oakley, R.M., Jarvis, J.C., Barman, D., Currie, J., Downham, D.Y., Salmons, S., Hooper, T.L. (1993) Conditioning and damage in grafts of sheep latissimus dorsi muscle. In: Proceedings of the Concerted Action “HEART” Phase II Opening Meeting, June 1993, ISBN 88-86219-00-8, p 96.

44. Salmons, S. (1993) Skeletal Muscle Assist: Proceedings of Working Group Session. In: Proceedings of the Concerted Action “HEART” Phase II Opening Meeting, June 1993, ISBN 88-86219-00-8, pp 148-154.

45. Salmons, S. and Jarvis, J.C. (1993) Measuring, estimating and preserving skeletal muscle power for cardiac assistance. In: 4th Vienna International Workshop on Functional Electrostimulation: Basics, Technology, Clinical Application. ISBN 3-900928-02-9, pp 26-29.

46. Salmons, S., Jarvis, J.C., Mayne, C.N. and Sutherland, H. (1993) Measurement and biochemical correlates of power fatigue resistance in transformed skeletal muscles. In: Neuromuscular Fatigue, eds. Sargeant, A.J. and Kernell, D. (Amsterdam: North-Holland) pp 61-62.

47. Salmons, S. (1994) Histological damage in chronically stimulated skeletal muscle. In: Les Journées de la Pitié 1993, Transplantation cardiaque et pulmonaire, cardiomyoplastie, assistance circulatoire, eds. Cabrol, C., Gandjbakhch, I. and Pavie, A. (Laboratoires Sandoz, Rueil-Malmaison) pp. 173-176.

48. Doorn, C.A.M. van, Jarvis, J.C., Hopkinson, D., Greenhalgh, D., Salmons, S. and Hooper, T.L. (1994) Adequacy of blood supply in sheep latissimus dorsi muscle grafts. Proc. Meeting of the Working-Group on Skeletal Muscle Assist, EC Concerted Action “HEART” ISBN 88-86219-02-4, pp116-117.

49. Salmons, S. and Jarvis, J.C. (1995) Educating skeletal muscle to do cardiac work. In: Mechanical Circulatory Support, Lewis, T. and Graham, T.R. (eds), Frazier, O.H., Hill, J.D., Pennington, D.G. and Salmons, S. (Section eds.) London: Edward Arnold, pp. 259-266.

50. Henry, F.S., Iudicello F., Shortland A., Jarvis J.C., Black, R.A., Collins, M.W. and Salmons, S. (1994) Modelling wall-driven cardiovascular flows. Advances in Bioengineering, Askew, M.J. (ed) ASME, BED-28: 399-400.

51. Jarvis, J.C., Kwende, M.M.N., Sutherland, H. and Salmons, S. (1994) The relationship between the temporal pattern of impulses and the transformed phenotype of skeletal muscle after chronic electrical stimulation. Proc.Meeting of the EC Concerted Action “HEART” Skeletal Muscle Assist Working Group ISBN 88-86219-01-06, pp 47-49.

52. Taylor, I., Jarvis, J.C., Grainger, S.R.W., Hitchings, D.J. and Salmons, S. (1996) Development of implantable stimulators based on semicustom CMOS technology. In: Biotelemetry XIII, Cristalli, C., Amlaner, C.J. and Neuman, M.R. (eds), pp 87-92.

53. Gunning, T.G., Grainger, S.R.W., Hitchings, D.J., Jarvis, J.C., Taylor, I. and Salmons, S. (1996) The use of low-power microcontroller architecture for implantable stimulators. In: Biotelemetry XIII, Cristalli, C., Amlaner, C.J. and Neuman, M.R. (eds) pp 93-98.

54. Doorn, C.A.M. van, Bhabra, M.S., Jarvis, J.C., Salmons, S. and Hooper T.L. (1995) The effects of cardiomyoplasty on cardiac growth (abstract). Proceedings 5th Vienna International Workshop on Functional Electrostimulation, Vienna, August 1995. ISBN 3-900928-03-7, p 322.

55. Salmons, S. (1995) Progress towards permanent cardiac assistance from conditioned skeletal muscle. In: Proceedings5th Vienna International Workshop on Functional Electrostimulation, Vienna, August 1995. ISBN 3-900928-03-7, p 21-26.

56. Salmons, S. and Jarvis, J.C.(1995) Preservation of power in skeletal muscle grafts. In: Les Journées de la Pitié 1994, Transplantation cardiaque et pulmonaire, cardiomyoplastie, assistance circulatoire, eds. Cabrol, C., Gandjbakhch, I. and Pavie, A. (Laboratoires Sandoz, Rueil-Malmaison) pp. 141-143

57. Degens, H., Salmons, S. and Jarvis, J.C. (1996) Mean blood flow and intramuscular pressure during cyclic activity in the rabbit tibialis anterior muscle. In: Salmons, S. (ed) Proc EC Concerted Action “HEART” Skeletal Muscle Assist Working Group, Florence, pp 9-13

58. Salmons, S., Jones, J., Sutherland, H., Jarvis, J.C. (1996)Decreased susceptibility of prestimulated skeletal muscle to stimulation-induced damage. In: Salmons, S. (ed) Proc EC Concerted Action “HEART” Skeletal Muscle Assist Working Group, Florence, 47-53.

59. Jarvis, J.C., Gollee, H., Kwende, M.M.N., Salmons, S. and Murray-Smith, D.J. (1996) Towards an optimized muscle controller. In: Neuroprosthetics—from basic research to clinical applications. Pedotti, A., Ferrarin, M., Quintern, J. and Reiner, R. (eds) Springer-Verlag: Berlin. pp123-128

60. Iudicello, F., Collins, M.W., Henry, F.S., Jarvis, J.C., Shortland, A., Black, R. and Salmons, S. (1996) A review of modelling for arterial vessels. Part I—Simplified ventricular geometries. Part II—Application to ventricles including muscle effects. First International Conference on Advances in Fluid Mechanics, New Orleans, June 1996 (abstract) and Advances in Fluid Mechanics Vol. 9. eds. Rahman, M., Brebbia, C.A. 1996, Computational Mechanics Publications: Boston.

61. Salmons, S., and Jarvis, J.C. (1997) Section V - Skeletal muscle assist. In: EC Concerted Action “HEART”: Guidelines and inventories on mechanical circulatory support systems. Commission of the European Communities: Brussels, ISBN 88-86219-05-9, pp V1-V31.

62. Salmons, S. (1997) Damage in functional grafts of skeletal muscle. In: Salmons, S. (ed) Muscle damage. Oxford University Press: Oxford, pp 215-233.

63. Jarvis, J.C., Sutherland, H., Kwende, M.M.N., Mayne, C.N. and Salmons, S. (1997) Relationship between working capacity and activation frequency of chronically stimulated skeletal muscle. In: Cardiac Bioassist (eds. A.F. Carpentier, J.C. Chachques, P.A. Grandjean) Armonk, New York: Futura Publishing Co. pp 269-272.

64. Shortland, A.P., Iudicello, F., Black, R.A., Jarvis, J.C., Henry, F.S., Collins, M.W. and Salmons, S. (1997) Physical and numerical simulation of blood flow within a skeletal muscle ventricle. In: Cardiac Bioassist (eds. A.F. Carpentier, J.C. Chachques, P.A. Grandjean) Armonk, New York: Futura Publishing Co. pp 567-573.

65. Salmons, S. (1998) Thirty years of implantable muscle stimulators: changing devices and changing muscles. In: Biotelemetry XIV—Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Biotelemetry, Marburg, April 1997) (eds. Penzel, T., Salmons, S. and Neuman, M.R.). Tectum Verlag: Marburg, pp 243-250.

66. Salmons, S. (2000) Cardiac assistance from skeletal muscle: achieving a viable and appropriately transformed graft. In: Brett, W., Todorov, A., Pfisterer, M., and Zerkowski, H.-R. (eds) Surgical remodeling in heart failure—alternative to transplantation. Basel Heart Workshop Series, Steinkopff Verlag: Darmstadt, pp 41-51.

67. Sutherland, H., Jarvis, J.C., and Salmons, S. (2001) Using a PIC16LC84–based implantable stimulator to probe the events initiating adaptive change in skeletal muscle. In: Eiler, J., Alcorn, D.J.. and Neuman, M.R. (eds) Biotelemetry XV—Proceedings of the 15th International Symposium on Biotelemetry, Juneau, Alaska, May 1999. Publisher: City?, pp 679-685.

68. Capoccia, M., Sutherland, H., Salmons, S., and Jarvis, J.C. (2001) The haemodynamic function of intrathoracic skeletal muscle ventricles after recovery from surgery in pigs. In: Mayr, W., Bihak, M., and Jancik, C. (eds) Proceedings7th Vienna International Workshop on Functional Electrical Stimulation. Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, University of Vienna, Vienna Medical School: Vienna, pp 76-79.

69. Mayr, W., Kern, H., Hofer, C., Jarvis, J., and Salmons, S. (2001) The EU-Project RISE: Use of electrical stimulation to restore standing in paraplegics with long-term denervated degenerated muscles (DDM). In: Mayr, W., Bihak, M., and Jancik, C. (eds) Proceedings7th Vienna International Workshop on Functional Electrical Stimulation. Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, University of Vienna, Vienna Medical School: Vienna, pp 6-9.

70. Salmons, S. (2003) Cardiac bioassist: what are the issues and how are we addressing them? In: Guldner, N.W., Klapproth, P., and Jarvis, J.C. (eds) Cardiac Bioassist 2002. Shaker Verlag: Aachen, Germany, pp 91-104.

71. Salmons, S. (2003) Skeletal Muscle. In: Neuroprosthetics: Theory and Practice, Kenneth W Horch & Gurpreet Dhillon (eds.) Series on Bioengineering & Biomedical Engineering—Vol. 3. World Scientific Publishing Co., Inc. River Edge, NJ.

72. Monnet, E. and Salmons, S. (2003) Functional adaptation of skeletal muscle and its application to cardiac assist. In: Neuroprosthetics: Theory and Practice, Kenneth W Horch & Gurpreet Dhillon (eds.) Series on Bioengineering & Biomedical Engineering—Vol. 3. World Scientific Publishing Co., Inc. River Edge, NJ.

73. Sutherland, H., Zolle, O., Khundkar, R., Simpson, A.W.M., Jarvis, J.C., and Salmons, S. (2004) A non-radioactive assay for nitric oxide synthase activity in tissue extracts. In: Hassid, A. (ed) Nitric Oxide Protocols, 2nd edn., Methods in Molecular Biology, Humana Press: Totowa, New Jersey, pp 105-11.

Editorials, Selected Abstracts and Letters

1. Salmons, S. (1967) An implantable muscle stimulator. J. Physiol. 188: 13-14P.

2. Salmons, S. and Vrbová, G. (1967) Changes in the speed of mammalian fast muscle following long-term stimulation. J. Physiol. 192: 39-40P.

3. Sréter, F.A., Romanul, F.C.A., Salmons, S. and Gergely, J. (1973) Changes in myosin and in energy metabolism on chronic stimulation of white muscles of rabbit. Fed. Proc. 32: 359.

4. Romanul, F.C.A., Sréter, F.A., Salmons, S. and Gergely, J. (1973) Reversal of energy metabolism and myosin characteristics by chronic stimulation of white muscles. Neurol. (Minneap.) 23: 406-407.

5. Romanul, F.C.A., Sréter, F.A. and Salmons, S. (1973) Reversal of energy metabolism and myosin characteristics of white muscles after chronic stimulation. Trans. Amer. Neurol. Ass. 98: 297-298.

6. Salmons, S. (1975) In vivo tendon tension and bone strain measurement and correlation. J. Biomechanics 8: 87.

7. Morris, C. J. and Salmons, S. (1975) The innervation pattern of fast muscle fibres subjected to long-term stimulation. J. Anat.120: 412.

8. Salmons, S. and Sréter, F.A. (1975) The role of impulse activity in the transformation of skeletal muscle by cross-innervation. J. Anat. 120: 413.

9. Salmons, S., Sréter, F.A. and Morris, C.J. (1975) The response of fast skeletal muscle to a change in its pattern of activity. J. Anat. 120: 416.

10. Salmons, S. (1975) On the feasibility of using diaphragm muscle as a myocardial substitute. Med. & Biol. Engng. 13: 608-609.

11. Sjöström, M., Edman, A.-C. and Salmons, S. (1980) Changes in M-band structure accompanying the transformation of rat fast muscle by long-term stimulation. Muscle & Nerve 3: 277.

12. Salmons, S. (1980) Neural influences on skeletal muscle differentiation - a case for Catastrophe Theory? In: Abstracts 20th Anniv. Conf. of Biol. Engng. Society , London, pp. 360-363.

13. Salmons, S. (1987) Biochemical and morphological evidence of increased protein and nucleic acid synthesis in chronically stimulated rabbit skeletal muscle. J. Anat. 152: 229.

14. Salmons, S. (1987) Fibre types in and around fascicles. Muscle & Nerve 10: 85-86.

15. Pullen, L., Brownson, C., Brown, W.E. and Salmons, S. (1987) Gene re-expression in stimulated fast skeletal muscle. I. Methylation patterns of myosin genes. J. Muscle Res. Cell Motil. 8: 80-81.

16. Brown, W.E., Salmons, S., Pullen, L. and Brownson, C. (1987) Gene re-expression in stimulated fast skeletal muscle. II. Early changes in myosin heavy chain mRNA. J. Muscle Res. Cell Motil. 8: 81.

17. Salmons, S. (1987) Re-analysis: impulse activity and fibre type transformation: a reply. Muscle & Nerve 10: 839-840.

18. Jarvis, J.C., Mayne, C.N., Little, P., Sutherland, H., Brownson, C. and Salmons, S. (1991) Use of 2.5 Hz and 10 Hz stimulation to examine coordination in the phenotypic response of fast skeletal muscle to increased use. J. Musc. Res. Cell Motil. 13: 237.

19. Salmons, P.H. and Salmons, S. (1992) Psychological costs of high-tech heart surgery (Editorial) Br. J. Hosp. Med. 48: 707-709.

20. Salmons, S. (1992) Optimizing the benefits of cardiomyoplasty. (Invited comment on editorial) Br. J. Hosp. Med. 49: 137.

21. Jarvis, J.C., Mokrusch, T., Mayne, C.N., Kwende, M.M.N., Gilroy, S., Sutherland, H., and Salmons, S. (1993) Fast-to-slow fibre type conversion does occur in continuously stimulated rat hind limb muscle. J. Physiol. 467: 112P.

22. Salmons, S. (1994) Muscle damage (Editorial). Basic & Applied Myology (Special issue on Muscle Damage, ed. Salmons, S.) 4: 4.

23. Craven, A.J., Jarvis, J.C. and Salmons, S. (1994) Vascularisation of the latissimus dorsi muscle for cardiac assist. J. Anat. 185: 706-707.

24. Salmons, S. (1997) Delayed stimulation of the latissimus dorsi may result in disuse atrophy - Invited commentary. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 64: 408-409

25. Salmons, S. (1998) Improved function in muscles trained via interval stimulation—Letter. Basic Appl. Biol. 8: 181-182.

26. Salmons, S., Tang, A.T.M., Sutherland, H. and Jarvis, J.C. (1998) Long-term plasticity of motor unit properties and its application in man. J. Physiol. 506.P: 7S. (Abstract of invited lecture for Research Symposium, Human Physiology Special Interest Group of the Physiological Society, Cambridge, November 1997).

27. Salmons, S. (1999) A new method of double cardiomyoplasty: "contractile muscular sling" - Invited commentary. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 67:1344.

28. Salmons, S. (2001) Guest editorial for Special Issue: ‘The application and technology of implantable neuromuscular stimulators’. Med. Eng. Phys. 23: 1-2.

29. Salmons, S. (2001) Fatigue with kHz frequency stimulation—letter. Med. Eng. Phys. 23: 437.

30. Salmons, S. (2002) Cardiac assistance from skeletal muscle: therapeutic electrical stimulation in the management of heart failure. Web publication ‘Consumer Education’ by International Functional Electrical Stimulation Society: http://www.ifess.org/Services/Consumer_Ed/Cardiac.htm.

31. Salmons, S. (2002) Electrically stimulated skeletal muscle: an adaptive, functional biomaterial. International Journal of Artificial Organs 25: 625-26.

32. Jarvis, J., Capoccia, M., Sutherland, H., and Salmons, S. (2002) Counterpulsation with intra-aortic balloon pumps and skeletal muscle ventricles (abstract). International Journal of Artificial Organs 25: 673.

33. Salmons, S. (2003) Analysis of fiber type transformation and histology in chronic electrically stimulated canine rectus abdominis muscle island-flap stomal sphincters (Commentary). Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 111: 199-200.

34. Atherton, P.J., Sutherland, H., Jarvis, J., Salmons, S., Singh, J., and Wackerhage, H. (2004) Activated signal transduction pathways in rat extensor digitorum longus after six weeks of electrical stimulation. Journal of Physiology 555P: C171.

35. Atherton, P.J., Sutherland, H., Jarvis, J., Salmons, S., Singh, J., and Wackerhage, H. (2004) Concentrations of signal transduction proteins mediating adaptation to exercise in fast, slow and electrically stimulated rat muscles. Journal of Physiology 555P: C147.

36. Atherton, P.J., Sutherland, H., Jarvis, J.C., Salmons, S., Singh, J., Ratkevicius, A., and Wackerhage, H. (2004) The AMPK-PKB switch: a possible mediator of specific phenotype or growth adaptations in response to endurance and resistance training-like electrical stimulation. Journal of Physiology 557P: C90.

37. Salmons, S. (2004) Dynamic stiffness and damping of porcine muscle specimens (Letter). Medical Engineering & Physics 26: 261.38. Russold, M., Sutherland, H., Lanmueller, H., Bijak, M., Jarvis, J., and Salmons, S. (2004) Excitability of the common peroneal nerve in rabbits, rats, and mice. Artificial Organs 28: 758-759.

39. Ashley, Z., Sutherland, H., Lanmueller, H., Unger, E., Mayr, W., Kern, H., Jarvis, J., and Salmons, S. (2004) Determination of the chronaxie and rheobase of denervated limb muscles in conscious rabbits. Artificial Organs 28: 759.

40. Ramnarine, I., Capoccia, M., Ashley, Z., Sutherland, H., Russold, M., Summerfield, N., Salmons, S., and Jarvis, J. (2004) Comparison between the power output of a skeletal muscle ventricle and the left ventricle in the same circulation. Artificial Organs 28: 766-767.

41. Salmons, S. (2005) Cardiac assistance from skeletal muscle: should we be downhearted? (Editorial) Annals of Thoracic Surgery 79: 1101-1103.

The Muscle Research Group

Department of Human Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Liverpool.The Group is co-directed by Dr Jonathan C. Jarvis, Reader in the Department. Collaborations include research groups at University College London, Wayne State University, Detroit, U.S.A., Aalborg University, Denmark, and the University of Vienna, Austria.

Fiction

* Alexei’s Tree and Other StoriesPublished by "Troubador" [http://www.troubador.co.uk/shop.asp] ISBN 978-1904744719
* A Bit of Irish Mist Published by "The Medlar Press" [http://www.medlarpress.com/index.html] ISBN 978-1899600342
* Footprints in the Ash : A Pompeii MysteryPublished May 2008 by "The UKA Press" [http://www.ukapress.com] , ISBN 978-1-905796-17-5

External Links

[http://www.stanleysalmons.com/index.htm] Stanley Salmons Fiction website

[http://www.stanleysalmons.com/Publications_home.htm] Stanley Salmons Academic website

[http://www.chestereveningleader.co.uk/12177/24-HOURS-Stanley-Salmons.4285643.jp] Interview in The Chester Evening Leader, 14th July 2008.

[http://www.ukapress.com] The UKA Press, founded 2002

[http://www.medlarpress.com] Medlar Press, founded 1994

[http://www.troubador.co.uk] Troubador Publishing Ltd, founded 1997


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