- String trio
A string trio is a group of three
string instruments or a piece written for such a group. The earliest string trio form consisted of two violins and cello, a grouping which had grown out of the baroque trio sonata.
Since the early classical period, the most common string trio configuration in classical
chamber musichas consisted of a violin, a violaand a cello. One of the first great masterworks for string trio is the Divertimento in E-flat, K.563, by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. In it Mozart sublimely melds together the concertante style typical of composers such as Luigi Boccherini, Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf, Felice de Giardini, and Alessandro Rollawith the more dynamically conversational style of composition perfected by Haydn in his string quartets. Ludwig van Beethovenwrote five string trios. His first, Op.3 in E-flat, is an ambitious six-movement work that was very likely inspired by Mozart's K.563. His second, the Serenade in D, Op.8, shows Beethoven experimenting with more extreme characters and unusual uses of form. In Beethoven's final three trios, Op.9 Nos.1-3, the young composer speaks with both intense passion and stunning authority. They are considered to be highlights of his early style and masterpieces in their own right.
Writing for a violin, viola and cello trio provides a wide palette of textures and colors for a skilled composer. The leaner instrumentation (as compared to the more common
string quartet) also poses compositional challenges especially within a musical tradition typified by four-part harmony writing. In the 19th and 20th centuries countless composers after Mozart and Beethoven have successfully taken up this challenge, including Franz Schubert, Heinrich von Herzogenberg, Richard Strauss, Sergei Taneyev, Ernst von Dohnányi, Max Reger, Eugène Ysaÿe, Alexis Roland-Manuel, Miklós Rózsa, Arnold Schoenberg, Anton Webern, Paul Hindemith, E J Moeran, Bohuslav Martinů, Darius Milhaud, Henry Cowell, Gideon Klein, Jean Francaix, Lennox Berkeley, William Schuman, Robert Simpson and Heitor Villa-Lobos. More recently, string trios have been written by Alfred Schnittke, Krzysztof Penderecki, Iannis Xenakis(Ikhoor), Krzysztof Meyer, Wolfgang Rihm, Brian Ferneyhough, Karlheinz Essl, Murray Adaskin, Robert Carl, Talivaldis Kenins, Nick Norton, David Macbride, Thomas Schuttenhelm, and James Wintle.
While string trio ensembles are certainly more rare than string quartets, there have been and continue to be ensembles dedicated to performing and recording the string trio repertoire. The
Pasquier Trioand the Trio Italiano d'Archiwere internationally renowned in the twentieth century and currently groups such as the Adaskin String Trioand the Leopold String Triocarry on this tradition.
Examples of more unusual string trio configurations include
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's trio for two violins and double bass, and Antonín Dvořák's trio for two violins and viola. This sort of trio is known as a terzet or terzetto, and others who have written trios for this combination including Robert Fuchs(three, two in his opus 61 and one in his opus 107) and Sergei Taneyev(his op. 21.) The Masada String Trio, a group that performs the music of John Zorn, is configured for violin, 'cello and double bass.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
String Trio of New York — Allgemeine Informationen Genre(s) Creative Jazz Gründung 1977 Gründungsmitglieder … Deutsch Wikipedia
String Trio of New York — The String Trio of New York is an American jazz chamber ensemble.The group was founded in 1977 by bassist John Lindberg, violinist Billy Bang, and guitarist James Emery. Though they initially worked on improvisational playing and on their own… … Wikipedia
Masada String Trio — Masada Pour l’article homophone, voir Massada. Masada est le nom d un groupe de jazz créé par John Zorn, Joey Baron, Greg Cohen et Dave Douglas durant l été 1993 à l occasion de la composition de la musique du film Thieves Quartet. Le… … Wikipédia en Français
Janaki String Trio — The Janaki String Trio was founded at the Colburn School in 2005. The string trio is based in Los Angeles, California. The Janaki quickly rose to prominence with a repertoire displaying a vast range from Beethoven to Penderecki.In 2006, the… … Wikipedia
Octagon (String Trio of New York album) — Octagon Studio album by String Trio of New York Released 1992 Recorded November 5 … Wikipedia
Arcado String Trio — Das Arcado String Trio war ein zunächst amerikanisch, später international besetztes Jazztrio, das von 1989 bis 1993 aktiv war. Das Ensemble wurde gegründet von dem Cellisten Hank Roberts, dem Bassisten Mark Dresser und dem Violinisten Mark… … Deutsch Wikipedia
String quartet — A string quartet is a musical ensemble of four string players – usually two violin players, a violist and a cellist – or a piece written to be performed by such a group. The string quartet is one of the most prominent chamber ensembles in… … Wikipedia
String quintet — A string quintet is a musical composition for a standard string quartet (two violins, a viola, and a cello) supplemented by a fifth string instrument, usually a second viola (a so called viola quintet ) or a second cello (a cello quintet ), but… … Wikipedia
trio — /tree oh/, n., pl. trios. 1. a musical composition for three voices or instruments. 2. a company of three singers or players. 3. any group of three persons or things. 4. a subordinate division of a minuet, scherzo, march, etc., usually in a… … Universalium
Trio for Violin, Viola & Cello in E flat major, K. 563 (Mozart) — The Divertimento in E flat, K. 563, is a string trio, written by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in 1788, the year in which he completed his last three symphonies and his Coronation Piano Concerto. It is widely regarded as separate from his other… … Wikipedia