- Germanism (linguistics)
Most words in a language other over when they in the foreign language a designation gap opens.
Many words from the German language has been borrowed, with the military or the government authority to do so (Russian: шпицрутены) =
spit rod running, in English:"blitz"= Blitzkrieg). A janitor called the Finns vahtimestari and borrowed this word from the German language.
It is regarded as a rough sound of the German language, which led to the dog in English and Russian on German often commanded. Examples include:"Here! Place! Hopp! Off! Seat! Fie! Search!"
Another group of word exports course describes things as the typical German to be (for example, the Oktoberfest beer festival or leather pants).
The English term"German angst"or"the French le waldsterben"may refer to the special Aufgeregtheit the Germans. The Czech word"hochstapler"or"the Swedish besserwisser"indicate the appearance of Germans abroad.
As a typical German words for phenomena,"gemuetlichkeit,'wanderlust"and"fingerspitzengefuel"(New Zealand) and schadenfreude"or"the words"wirtschaftswunder,'kindergarten"and" child".
In technology, there are many documents adopted for German workmanship. Examples are the English word"bremsstrahlung,"the Greek word"volkswagen"for vans, which in many countries of VW advertising term used fahrvergnuegen"and"the French word"le schnorchel the air"for an injection Submarine.
Examples in different languages
Afrikaans, the German word "Aberjetze" was formed because if they worked too slowly, they were frequently "but now!" driven.
Albanian immigrant workers, many German words back to their homeland. The beer mug is in the
Kosovokrikëll"however,"as it is,"Bavarian mugs (r) l"derives. It is interesting that the loan word"shalter" Albanian the double meaning of light switches and maintained post office counter.
German film directors were at the beginning of the 20th Century in the construction of the Egyptian cinema, and it concluded its work directed usually with the word "finished". Your local staff kept that word in the form"ferkisch "and used it soon in another context. Thus,"ferkisch"is still in the sense of "finished".
In connection with football World Cup is the German team"el farik team,"but"farik"in Arabic means team already and the Arab article"el"supplements. As for the football World Cup 2006, the German team lost against Italy,"said El khessret team!"( "The team has lost!")
In Sudan, the German word "colleague" a very unusual importance. It means there is straw, which is drying to a bundle together. The background to this important change is that colleagues in the context of the importance of cohesion looks.
Bassa, a tribal language in Cameroon, the word for "train station" is "banop", which recalls the Germans, in their colony where the first railway built.
In the Bosnian rikverc"means"the reverse of a vehicle that is best"to be"rostfraj.
Deutsche words, which remained in the Bulgarian language were, for example, "the drill" (бормашина), "exhaust" (ауспух), "the sunroof (шибидах) and the skiing area of" the shot (runs) "(Шус).
Even the German word"anzug"in Bulgarian. However, it then "tracksuit".
One of the very few German loan words in Chinese is the word for "
Gullyheads" (雨水口yushuikou = "rain water hole"), the Qingdao- away from the language usage in the rest of China - guli"" (骨沥) states. The Chinese learned Gullys with the sewage in the German lease area Jiaozhou. Among the some 40 German loan words that are in Qingdao still needed include the word"大嫚daman"for Ladies "(胶州大嫚Jiaozhou-women).
In addition, the
aspirinunder the Chinese name阿司匹林(āsīpǐlín), a pure sound transmission, which do not make sense, known.
Company names must usually be translated, with a good translation for business success is very important. Thus
Opelin China欧宝"Oubao"(= European treasure), Adidas爱迪达"Aidida," Puma AG彪马, Metro AG麦德龙Maidelong"and" Commerzbank商业银行"Shangye Yinhang"( "Commercial Bank"). The Koenig & Bauer AG, named after the first syllables with高宝Gaobao""(= high + treasure) translate. The Bayeris called in Chinese拜耳"Bai'er"(= "visit welcome" + "ear"). When Volkswagen,"大众汽车Dazhong qiche"( "Car of the large mass"), is however not a lautgemäße, but pure in spirit, translation, in which one but the similarity of the Chinese symbol for Crowd众"zhong"with the VW logo and abused this.
In Danish, the German word "" in the form habengut""used to express, what you have and carry with them. The word came with hiking companions to Denmark, their whole property is contributed.
Bundesliga"hår"( "Bundesliga hair") is the Danish word for a
VokuhilaHair (" 'vorne kurz," 'hi' nten' 'la"'ng), because this type Hair (as well as in Hungary) as characteristic of the football Bundesligawas seen. Even the Italians saw this relationship and have the same facts for the expression"capelli alla tedesca"(Hair under German style).
The most famous German word English is the word "
kindergarten". The first kindergarten outside the German area was founded in 1851 in London. Five years later, Margarethe Schurz the first kindergarten in America Watertown. The language in the first kindergarten was German, as they are for the children of German immigrants thought. 1882, the number of kindergartens in the U.S. 348th Meanwhile, the majority of Americans of German origin of the word no longer aware. The kindergarten teacher was first called"kindergartner,"later"kindergarten teacher.""Child"Gartner is now the child who visited the kindergarten. The verb"to kindergarten"means the kindergarten method. Often, however, by the word"kindergarten"only the first letter"K"left,"a pre-K"is a not schulpflichtiges child.
In English, the German "on" sometimes (often referred to as"by") in composition,"as ubergeek,"to express extreme increase. In particular, the special feature of the German language, word from different tribes as many new compound nouns to form contributes to proliferation, but also interesting neologisms.
American students use for the table soccer game, the Germans in the English names Kicker, next to the name"table football, occasionally,"the word"foosball."
The supposedly English word"
mobile," added the German word is gradually establishing itself on the east coast of the United States as a designation for mobile phonee. As the English-speaking phone is not the word to refer to a mobile phone, but as an adjective "handy" translated, it is in the German language as a pseudo-anglicism classified. The traditional English terms for mobile phone denominated in American English cell (ular) phone, in English British mobile phone or shorter only portable or mobile. In Slang dictionaries will also have the term"mobile"in the German importance.
In German university English teacher and English is widely encountered the Germanismus"inhowfar"( "how"), with the correct"how far"or"to what extent"is played. The jump in the actual use of the word has managed"hopefully"( "hopeful", "hoffnungsvollerweise"), which the German "hopefully" and probably copied by German immigrants in America and was popularized by dortaus in the whole anglophone world has spread.
The Australians use the word"oom pah pah music"(derived from "Humtata") for
Wind Music, but not my pejorative. The Concise Oxford Dictionary is the German word"banned", defined as something that is prohibited by a public authority,"(forbidden by an authority)."
There are long-lasting contacts between Estonian and German languages. Estonia was conquered in the
Livonian crusadeby German and Danish crusaders already in the 13th century. Since then, Estonia was settled by priests, merchants and craftsmen from Germany. As a result, the Estonian language has borrowed nearly a third of its vocabulary from Germanic languages, mainly from German. Examples include: "vein" (wine), "klaver" (piano), "reis" (trip) and "kunst" (art). Modern loans from the Germans include "reisibüroo"(travel agency) and "kleit" (dress).
The German pair term"pompe petrol"is in Iran for petrol station needed.
The German word
coffeewas in Finland to kaffepaussi"and"means in Finland "break" or "currently out of service". This word has won the international tender for "words migration" of the German Language Council the first place. The winner discovered the word on an automated display of a regular bus, which otherwise indicates the destination. [http://www.businessportal24.com/de/Kaffepaussi_Wettbewerb_Woerterwanderung_81576.html] The Finnish language researcher Heikki Paukkonen immediately noted, however, that"Kaffepaussi"most likely stems from Swedish. That way, the fact that the word only with a"e"was written. The Finnish word for coffee break would have been kahvipaussi.
In French, there are some on the experience during the Second World War Germanismen successor, such witz"for"a bad joke or threatening"replacement"for spare coffee. The word"French"in the song says
Lied, as well as" song"in German a specific meaning.
In French dictionaries, the word"vasistas"as
skylightrecorded. Originally, the word probably in the Napoleonic wars, when French soldiers at the sight of houses built in German folding window on German asked "What is it?". This question was then the French word for this type of windows.
Schubladiser""( "schubladisieren") is the French term for when you have something to the files or put on the back slide. The word means"as a noun schubladisation"( "Schubladisierung").
Swiss French, there is some of the (Swiss) Germans derived terms such as poutzer""instead of"nettoyer"or"speck"instead of"lard."
In the German-French border have inherent many words the language is exceeded, for example, in
Lorraine: It means, for example, to inject the "ça"mixture"(instead of"ça éclabousse"). "Spray"in the meaning of "Moulded exist in France.
The (new) Greek, especially by gastarbáiter'γκασταρμπάιτερ (guest workers), a part of their life in Germany or Austria have spent, borrowed words from the Germans. These include words such as"bira μπίρα"(beer),'snitsel σνίτσελ (Schnitzel)"and"froilain φροϊλάιν (Miss), but also words that other languages also from the Germans have taken over, like ' "'lumben λούμπεν (Prolet or "Lumpenpack").
The colloquial Hebrew has several Germanismen, through the detour of the
Yiddishhave taken hold. In the artisanal sector, some German phrases such as"plug"and"dübel,"which, however - because of the lack of OB Loud -"diebel"is pronounced. Just as in Greek is also the Hebrew word "chips" as שניצל known on the menus often from Hebrew into the Latin alphabet is returned, but then in the adapted to the English spelling"shnitzel."The court, his Anglisierte name and spelling were then turn to families from Israel and Jewish restaurants in residential areas outside the country, such as New York.
The German word " strudel" (שטרודל) for the character
@(after the shape of the pastry) for the indication of
The Hebrew word for
Siesta, especially on Shabbat in many religious families after lunch shall be"schlafstunde,"although it is not clear whether the Jeckes in this habit Israel accepted or brought them from Germany.
The modern month names in Israel correspond to the German names: January, February, March, etc. The only variation is the month of August, "Ogust" is pronounced, because the vocal connection "au" in Hebrew and unusual in the Hebrew inscription is not representable .
Interestingly, when linguistic communities for the same term a word from the other's language. This is what the Germans with the Italian word
raid(originally Arab غزوة ghazwa = "raid") described in Italy il"blitz"(named after the German word "Flash", "Blitzkrieg"). Un"warehouses"in Italian - unlike in English - no lager, but the shortening of "concentration camps".
German tourists spent their demand"wurstel il," 'the sausage ", brought to Italy,"even the best wurstel con il krauti."
In Japanese, there are some words that come from the Germans, for example,"
work"(or"arbaito,"which, however, a minor activity.)アルバイト( meaning "sideline", "student").
Other words transferred into Japanese come from the area of the
climbing('hyutteヒュッテfor "mountain cabin","gerende"ゲレンデfor " site,"aizenアイゼン" " crampons,"ēderuwaisu"エーデルワイス Edelweiß,"ryukkusakku"リュックサックfor" backpack "and probably also shurafu'シュラフ" Sleeping bag)". In this context also that the main mountain chain in the country named " Japanese Alpsgot.
During the Second World War were in Japanese weekly newsreels often the military successes of the German Generalfeldmarschalls
Erwin Rommelcelebrated in Africa, which had the effect that"rommel"as the Japanese term for "victory" or "success" established. Even today called Japanese football mascot so.
Since the medical education initially influenced by German teachers were affected, many German medical terms from the entrance into the Japanese language. These include"kurankeクランケ"as a term for the sick, the patient,'karuteカルテ,
cardwithin the meaning of "health card" to record the medical history,'gipusuギプス cast,"Arerugī"アレルギーfor "allergy" noirōze"and"ノイローゼfor "neurosis". Even the word "orugasumusu"オルガス orgasm"was removed from the Germans.
Kirundi, the language of the East African country Burundi, the former German colony. The word "dagi" is borrowed from the German language. The word is derived from the greeting "Good day" (often shortened to "day").
To last vestiges of the Japanese occupation period to repay, in
South Korea, but also Japanese loan words from the vocabulary. This is without prejudice to the word"아르바이트 areubaiteu,"the Korean continue with the Japanese language in common. Arubaito""アルバイトis derived from the word "work", and means the summer of a student or student.
The Austro-Hungarian monarchy were often specifically over Austrian words such as paradajz'(
tomato", the verbatim translation"rajčica"is increasingly used),"špajza"(" food "pantry),"knedli"(" Dumplings " ),'Putar ( "butter", actually maslac'),"ribizli"( "Ribisel, currants),"šnicla"(" chips ", actually odrezak') ,"Fijaker"( Fiacre"),"foranga"( "curtains"),"herceg"( "Duke"),"majstor"( "master") or ' tišljar ( "carpenter", actually postolar').
Similarly, names such as"pleh"( "tin"),"cajger"( "pointer"),"žaga"( "Saw"),"šalter"( "switch")," šrafciger"(ugs. "screwdriver", actually odvijač"") or"curik"or"rikverc"( "back" or "backwards" for the reverse gear the car) in Croatia generally common . Especially in the technical field dominated almost no phonetic differences with the Germans, most
Croat, these German trade names without good language skills.
Very rarely, the terms"špajscimer" ("dining room"),"badecimer"( "bathroom"),"forcimer"( "hall"),"šlafcimer"( "Bedroom") and ' 'cimer fraj"( "free room") in the colloquial language used (newer loans to tourist understanding with German-speaking).
The washing machine is often referred to colloquially"vešmašina"(actually"perilica za rublje"). It is interesting about the term"cušpajz"( "Zuspeise"), of a kind Gemüseeintopf used.
In Macedonian is for the word"appropriate"joke"виц importance"as well as in French.
The Dutch e has a few words from the Germans over, for example "at all,'anyway,'Fingerspitzengefühl."These are long established.
The word"unheimisch"(from "scary") is used when something is not a geheuer. This is a word that is in the German does not exist, because it is a wrong composition from the German words"sinister"and"home."
In the field of sport were the words" swallow"(a vorgetäuschtes
foulfootball),"alone"(also in the figurative sense),"connection hits' 'And"The Crew"(for the German national football team).
An entirely different meaning, the words"vorspiel"and"nachspiel."You have no sexual connotation, but stand for the consumption of alcoholic beverages before or after a visit disco bars or night.
The German language has also to the Polish and other Slavic languages eingewirkt, for example kajuta""(
cabin),"sztorm"( Sturm),"burmistrz"( Mayor),"szynka"( ham) Or"trade"( trade).A sleepyhead- even in the figurative sense - is a Polish szlafmyca"and"in analogy to a sleep suit"szlafrok."
A Polish craftsmen uses a"waserwaga"(water balance),"śruba"(screw) and"klajster"(paste). If it is expedient but is not, as the tool is that he just needs, he can"after the wihajster"(
Dingsbums,"German What is he?") And will require but understood::"Podaj mi ten mały wihajster!"("Give times the small Dingsda her!")His tool of course he brings before"fajerant"(evening) from the"baumarket"(DIY).
In a Zechgelage can bruderszaft""(Fraternity) zutrinken and afterwards with a"rausz"(Noise) apart.
Portuguese used German words such as"diesel"and"kitsch."
In Brazilian Portuguese is the word"blitz"for a traffic control.
The"malzbier,"the"quark"and the "pint"(chopp)"are well known.In Brazil, the German "Streuselkuchen" a cuca","the spread of lubricating""to"chimia."
In the Romanian names for craft items such as"bormaşină"(drill),"ştecher"(male),"şurub"(screw) and"şurubeniţă"(screwdriver), but also helfgott" "(Austro for "health!").There is also:cartof""(potato),"predictable"(beer),"şubler"(Shear teaching),"şanţ"(hill),"hingher"(executioner),"galben" (yellow),"şmirghel"(Emery).
With the return of the Tsar
Peter the Greatfrom Western Europe in the year 1698, the loan words are no longer from the Greek and Polish. With Peter, the Polish acquisitions replaced by words from Western languages. For the drastic reforms in the military and administration were economic and administrative experts recruited from Germany. 1716 he ordered that the official German writers should learn::" 'You Send to Konigsberg… some 30 young officials for the purpose of learning the German language so that it more suitable for the college. "In some handicraft sectors outweighed the proportion of Germans; towards the end of the 18th Century worked in Petersburg 30 German watchmaker against three Russian.
The Russian has many words from the military sector over, for example Schlagbaum""(шлагбаум) and"road map"(маршрут). Also expressions like"backpack"(рюкзак),"scale"(масштаб),"penalty"(штраф, in the sense of "fine", "fine"), or"dial"(циферблат) are also included here.
Mikhail Lomonosov, MarburgFreiberg had studied and learned, is regarded as the founder of Russian mining science, mineralogy and geology. In his representations on mining and metallurgy, he uses German words, the names of metals and minerals Висмут"vismut,"Вольфрам"volfram,"Гнейс"gneis,"Кварц"kvarc,"Поташ potasch" ,'Цинк cink шпаты"and"late,"and the mining expression"schteiger"(supervisors in the pit, Steiger). The terms"geolog"(geologist),"glacier,'metallurgia,""nikel"(nickel),"schichta"(Erzschicht and shift in the blast furnace) and schlif" ' '( Cut) fall into this category.
Strikingly, the terms of the chess as"
zugzwang"(цугцванг)," Zeitnot"(цейтнот)," Final"(эндшпиль )," Central game"(мительшпиль)," Grand Master"(гроссмейстер).
Modern expressions are"bar code"(штрихкод) and"sandwich"(бутерброд) or even"fire wall"for the term of the Germans
Шрам (schram) "Scar" and goes on the word "
scratch". A штольня"(schtol'n'a)"is an tunnels in the mining industry. A шпагат"(schpagat)"as the German split, a шпинат"(schpinat)"a spinach and a шпион"(schpion)"a spy.
Even the hockey term for " puck", шайба"(schajba),"comes from the German word "wheel" in the sense of "
washer". Digestion kingdom is also the word шланг"(wrapped)"for "garden hose", which differs from the German word "snake" is derived. Similarly, the word comes штепсель"(schtepsel)"for a plugfrom the German word "plugs".
Swedish = =
Sweden will use the German word"but"in the sense of "obstacle" or "objection". A gulaschbaron""is a Neureicher, which is enriched with dark shops.
For the covert search style in the way of
Günter Wallraffused the verb"wallraffa,"even in the word list of the Swedish Academy was.
Serbian = =
An exhibition in Vienna on the guest workers in Austria, the Serbian gastarbajteri"title."Also in Serbia is a particularly avid student as"štreber". "Shock,"the Austrian
Schlagobers"is in its abbreviated form for" sweet cream ".
From the Austrian word "
tomato" influenced, says the tomato in Serbia"Парадајз""(paradajs)."
Slovak = =
In the 19th Slovak century artisans working in the field of
Danube monarchyand over borrowed words from craft fields:"plech"(plate),"drôt"(wire),"schuble"(drawer),"schroubovák ' '(Screwdriver), and"virhank"(curtain).
The Slovenian has mainly from the Germans, the Austrian version of English words. This includes the word"for"nagelj
clove(from the words "spice nail"). However, krompir comes from the Palatinate word "Grumbeer" (basic pear) for "potato".
In Spanish some South American countries there is Germanismen that German immigrants were introduced. For example, there are in Chile"cake"and"Frankfurt in Uruguay."latter, however, sometimes - as Scheingermanismus - with the importance"Hot Dog". It is interesting to the Argentine name Pancho":"This word is in Argentina as the popular nickname for the names"or""Francisco Franco"and therefore used in the sausage rolls"Frank"furter sausages.
In Chile, the German word"search"(pronounced "sutsche") for house staff (gardeners, running messengers). After the German immigrants to a certain prosperity came, they in their budgets and local forces hängten for this purpose often vacancy notice, with the conspicuous written large German word "search" began.The Chileans speak"cake"as in German, not "kutschen", as it is actually based on the Spanish debate would be used.
In Mexico, the German word
fairin the form kermes for a non-neighborhood festival.
The prevailing traffic in East Africa Swahili language has borrowed many words from Arabic and English. The Germans came, however, the word"shule"for the
The Czech, German dialects from neighbouring over words such as"hajzl"(Häusl) for toilet".'Is hardly recognizable from the German hřbitov'cemetery."
German imports were word so often that even
Jan Hus1412 vehemently opposed wetterte. There were words like"hantuch,'šorc"(apron),'dumplings (dumplings),"hausknecht"and"forman"(Fuhrmann). But he therefore had no success. Knedlíky continue to be served, and 1631, the Schulreformer Jan Amos Komenský(Comenius) no concerns, the biblical concept of"Paradise"with"to"lusthaus.
In the late 19th Century, many Czech craftsmen worked in the German-speaking area of the Danube monarchy. The Czech language fell to servants language down and took over many loan words from this category:"ermloch"(sleeves hole),"flikovat"(fix) and"piglovat"(iron).
In domestic disputes, the German language as a supplier of Schimpfwörtern.
Václav Havelused the word"glajchšaltace,"equal to denounce circuit, and called his counterpart Václav Klausas a"oberkašpar."This, in turn, have called a"lump."Sometimes change Counterparty completely into German, ungehemmter to insult them. Such an insult can then "you stupid duck".
Other (sometimes used colloquially) Germanismen in Czech:
*"haksna:"legs (by Haxen Austria)
*"stangla:"top tube (Rod) on the bicycle
Even the Kreolsprache
Tok Pisinin the former German colony Papua New Guinea has words borrowed from the Germans. These include"balaistift"for "pencil", which today by the English pensil'will be suppressed. "Out"means "Go!" Or "From the way." This is derived rausim'meaning "empty, dismissed away."
The missionary by German Catholic lay brothers remember the words "bruda" and "prista"(priests). At the onset of German colonial remember how Naming "rinfi"(beef cattle).
The Turkish word "fertik", meaning departure signal at the railway, goes back to the
Baghdad train, which initially operated with German personnel. The Germans commanded "ready" to the Turkish "fertik" and originally referred to the train itself.
Trained doctors in Germany used the terms "şivester" (nurse). Indigenous nurses were with the borrowed from the Arabic word "hemşire".
More Germanisms are Ootoban (highway),Sibidak(sliding) and"Aysberg"(iceberg).
Even as the state's founder, in the year 996 the princess
Gisela of Bavariamarried, took over the German Wortgut Hungary. This includes the word Duke. To form the Hungarian herceg""were caused by Vokalharmonie, the alignment of vowels in a word. For this Hungarian word was later borrowed landscape name Hercegovina.
German clergy, Hofleute, farmers and craftsmen were particularly in the 13th and 18 Century. They all brought their terminology. These include the job titles"bakter"(night watchman, train guards),"suszter"(Schuster) and"sinter"(
Schinder) as well as the terms"kuncsaft"(customer) and ' 'majszter"(master). In some professions, a large part of the terms accepted there in the field of carpentry"lazur"( glaze),"firnisz"(varnish),"lakk"(paint), ' 'smirgli"(sandpaper) and"colstok"( Zollstock).
Later loans were mainly used during the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy. This merger explains the variety of words that are used mainly in Austria. These include the words"krampusz"(companion of
Nicholas Krampus),"partvis"(hand brooms, "Bartwisch"),"nokedli"(dumpling, " [  "), Cam"smarni"(flour food, " worthless"and"ribizli (gooseberry," Ribisel")."Eszájg"derives from "Esszeug." Second-hand goods dealers are handlé""."Kleingehacktes is fasírt"(Austria faschiert "),"knődli hot dumplings."
Even a whole sentence was a Hungarian word.Vigéc","derived from the German greeting "How are you?" Is the Hungarian word for a door-to-door salesman, and the word"spaijs"stands for the pantry. Like the French, the German question"What sentence-is-it?"As a word. However, it is in Hungarian"art"or"trick."In the first sentence it looks like this::"Ez olyan nagy what-is-it?"("Is it a great piece of art?""Within the meaning of "Is that really so difficult ?"
Trade and administration in Belarus were the heyday of the
Hanseatic(14th century) strongly influenced by Germans. This show words such as"čynš"(чынш) for "interest","handal"(гандаль) for "trade" and"štempel"(штэмпэль) for "stamp". Here hiešeft"includes"(гешэфт) "Business" and"falšavać"(фальшаваць) "fake".
Impact on Grammar
That Germanismen not only to lexikalisches material, but also to the
grammarmay relate, for example, a German feature in the word clearly, which has been translated into Polish:"Syn ale przyszedl never.""( The son but did not come.)"The usual Polish word"would never przyszedl Ale syn."
The name neuhebräische"iton"for "newspaper" is modeled on the German word"and"= 'time'.
Abwandlungen deutscher Wörter
Germanismen in Fremdsprachen können gegenüber dem Deutschen einen
Bedeutungswandelerfahren haben und erscheinen den Lernenden dann als falsche Freunde. So ist im Russischen ein галстук "galstuk" kein Halstuch, sondern eine Krawatte, und ein парикмахер "parikmacher" (Perückenmacher) ein Frisör.
Ebenso ist ein "Messer" im Japanischen nicht etwa ein Messer, sondern ein Skalpell in der Chirurgie. "Arbeit," im Japanischen アルバイト "Arubaito" geschrieben, wird oft zu バイト "Baito" abgekürzt, ebenso der Rucksack リュックサック "Ryukkusakku" zu リュック "Ryukku."
Peregrinismus, Wortexport, Entlehnung, Lehnwort
*Eine umfangreiche Liste von Germanismen findet sich in der
Liste deutscher Wörter in anderen Sprachen.
*Karl-Heinz Best: "Deutsche Entlehnungen im Englischen". In: "Glottometrics." H. 13, 2006, S. 66–72.
*I. Dhauteville: "Le français alsacien. Fautes de prononciation et germanismes." Derivaux, Strasbourg 1852. ( [http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k50531n Digitalisat] )
Jutta Limbach: "Ausgewanderte Wörter". Hueber, Ismaning 2007, ISBN 978-3-191-07891-1. (Beiträge zur internationalen Ausschreibung „Ausgewanderte Wörter“)
*Andrea Stiberc: "Sauerkraut, Weltschmerz, Kindergarten und Co. Deutsche Wörter in der Welt". Herder, Freiburg 1999, ISBN 978-3-451-04701-5.
* [http://www.sueddeutsche.de/panorama/artikel/596/31565/ www.sueddeutsche.de] ,
Süddeutsche Zeitung: "„Deutsche Wörter erobern die Welt“," 11. Mai 2004
* [http://www.sueddeutsche.de/panorama/artikel/226/97129/ www.sueddeutsche.de] , Süddeutsche Zeitung: "„Die Fremdgeher“," 7. Januar 2001
* [http://www2.rz.hu-berlin.de/japanologie/studium/dohlus.pdf www2.rz.hu-berlin.de/japanologie] , (Phonologische Angleichung deutscher Lehnwörter im Japanischen)
* [http://suny.yonsei.ac.kr/~choikec/Alleingang%20und%20Rudi%20Ratlos.htm suny.yonsei.ac.kr] –
Die Welt: "„Deutsche Fremdwörter setzen sich in Holland zunehmend durch“," 7. Oktober 1995
* [http://www.etymologie.info/~e/d_/de-ismen_.html www.etymologie.info] (Eine Liste Wörter deutschen Ursprungs in anderen Sprachen)
* [http://www.rundschau.mv.ru/sprache_d.htm www.rundschau.mv.ru] (Von „kaffeklatsching“ bis „wischi-waschi“)
* [http://www.spiegel.de/kultur/zwiebelfisch/0,1518,358589,00.html www.spiegel.de] (Foresprug durk Tecnic)
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