John E. Gingrich

John E. Gingrich

Infobox Military Person
name=John E. Gingrich
born= birth date|1897|2|23
died= death date and age|1960|5|26|1897|2|23

caption=Vice Adm. John E. Gingrich, circa 1953.
placeofbirth=Dodge City, Kansas
placeofdeath=New York City, New York
branch=U.S. Navy
battles=World War II
Korean War
awards=Distinguished Service Medal
Silver Star

Admiral John Edward Gingrich (February 23 1897–May 26 1960) was an officer in the United States Navy who served as the first chief of security for the United States Atomic Energy Commission from 1947 to 1949, and as Chief of Naval Material from 1953 to 1954. He retired from the Navy as a four-star admiral.

Early career

Born in Dodge City, Kansas, to Edward Grant Gingrich and the former Bertha Allen,citation
title = Who's Who In America
publisher = Marquis Who's Who
place = Chicago
volume = 31
year = 1960-1961
page = 1083
] he attended the University of Kansas before receiving an appointment to the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland, in 1915. He graduated from the Naval Academy on June 7 1919, and was commissioned an ensign in the United States Navy.

His first assignment was aboard the battleship "Pennsylvania", flagship of the Atlantic Fleet. From January 1920 to July 1921 he served as assistant communication officer on the staff of Admiral Henry B. Wilson, Jr., Commander in Chief, Atlantic Fleet. In August 1921 he was transferred from "Pennsylvania" to the newly commissioned battleship "Maryland", where he remained until June 1925, when he returned to the Naval Academy for a two-year tour as an instructor in the Department of Navigation.citation
title = U.S. Navy Biographical Dictionary
last = Schuon | first = Karl
publisher = Franklin Watts, Inc.
place = New York
date = 1964
page = 95-96

From May 1927 to July 1930 he served as gunnery officer aboard the armored cruiser "Rochester", which operated in the Caribbean Sea during interventions in Nicaragua and Haiti. He spent the next two years with the Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps Unit at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois. He commanded the fleet tug "Algorma" from June 1932 until April 1934, then served aboard the heavy cruiser "Indianapolis" until June 1935.

He next reported to Washington, D.C., for duty in the Navy Department's Hydrographic Office. During this tour, he helped complete a new set of precomputed tables to assist aviators and navigators in calculating their positions. Published in 1936, the new Aerial and Marine Navigation Tables were a vast improvement over the previous Ageton tables in terms of ease of calculation and accuracy, and were used for years afterward.citation
title = Navy Devises Direction Guide For Navigators
newspaper = The Washington Post
date = June 22 1936
page = 13
url =
] He served as head of the Hydrographic Office's research division until 1937.citation
title = Rear Admiral Olsen Transfers To Japan U.N. Blockade, Escort Post
newspaper = Newport Daily News
date = January 23 1953
page = 1
url =

From June 1937 to June 1939, he served afloat as aide and flag secretary on the staff of Commander Battleship Division 3, Battle Force, aboard the division flagship "Idaho". He remained with the fleet for a third year as navigator of the battleship "New Mexico".

World War II

Naval aide to James V. Forrestal

Returning to Washington, he served as secretary of the General Board of the Navy before being assigned as naval aide to the inaugural Under Secretary of the Navy, James V. Forrestal. Gingrich served as Forrestal's aide from August 1940 to July 1944.

The responsibilities of the Under Secretary and his staff had not yet been defined when Gingrich reported to the newly sworn-in Forrestal. Asked what he would like his naval aide to do, Forrestal replied, "Take off your coat and get to work." "Don't you want to check on my qualifications?" "No." Gingrich's first problem was to find the Under Secretary an office in the Main Navy Building; his solution was to evict the Chief of Naval Operations from the suite adjacent to the Secretary of the Navy's office.

Unlike the typical naval aide to a civilian secretary, whose duties are normally limited to managing the secretary's social schedule and office logistics, Gingrich quickly became a full-fledged policy assistant for military affairs. After Gingrich left his service, Forrestal wrote to President Harry S. Truman that "He was invaluable to me, being far above the ordinary officer in his understanding of the Navy's relations with the public and with civilians."

Gingrich's service as Forrestal's aide made him an enemy of Admiral Ernest J. King, Commander in Chief of the United States Fleet and Chief of Naval Operations, who resented Gingrich's outsized policy role and perceived Gingrich as being more loyal to Forrestal, a civilian political appointee, than to King, his uniformed superior. Gingrich crossed King more blatantly when Forrestal succeeded Frank Knox as Secretary of the Navy. King and his senior admirals had effectively excluded Knox from major war decisions by only showing him routine communications from the fleet and neglecting to present the important messages, which they handled themselves. Alerted to this practice, Gingrich advised Forrestal to go to the Navy Department communication room and examine all incoming telegrams for himself. Armed with this information, Forrestal was able to exert more influence over Navy Department operations than his predecessor, at King's expense.citation
title = The Washington Merry-Go-Round
first = Drew | last = Pearson
date = November 4 1949
url =

King eventually came to suspect that Gingrich was the "éminence grise" behind many of the actions taken in Forrestal's name. Whenever the admiral passed the aide in the hallway, King would greet Gingrich with a sarcastic "Good morning, Commander," and a deep, mocking bow.citation
first1 = Robert Greenhalgh | last1 = Albion
first2 = Robert Howe | last2 = Connery
publisher = Columbia University Press
place = New York
year = 1962
title = Forrestal and the Navy
page = 33-35

USS "Pittsburgh"

Forrestal finally released Gingrich to fight in the Pacific theater after Gingrich protested that he was being "kept out of the war." Assigned to fit out the new heavy cruiser "Pittsburgh", he served as "Pittsburgh"'s first commanding officer from that cruiser's commissioning on October 10 1944, until September 3 1945. For outstanding service in that role, he was awarded the Silver Star, the Legion of Merit, and a Gold Star in lieu of a second Legion of Merit.

On March 19 1945, the aircraft carrier "Franklin" was crippled by a kamikaze attack close to the Japanese mainland. Aflame and dead in the water, "Franklin" was still under attack by kamikaze planes and threatening to explode when Gingrich maneuvered "Pittsburgh" close enough to take the burning carrier under tow, protecting "Franklin" with antiaircraft fire until the carrier was able to work enough speed to proceed to Pearl Harbor under its own power. For helping to rescue "Franklin" at great risk to his own ship, Gingrich was awarded the Silver Star "for conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity".

As captain of "Pittsburgh", Gingrich became famous for sailing his ship safely to port after 15 percent of the cruiser's length was torn off by a typhoon, an act of seamanship dubbed a "miracle" by contemporary accounts. On June 5 1945, "Pittsburgh" was returning with the Third Fleet from a carrier strike against Kyushu when the fleet encountered heavy weather between Okinawa and the Philippine Islands. As winds rose to convert|70|kn|km/h and waves reached heights of convert|100|ft|m, "Pittsburgh" was buffeted by two enormous waves that ripped off convert|104|ft|m of the cruiser's bow, which tossed unpredictably in front of the ship. Gingrich immediately ordered the engines into reverse to pull "Pittsburgh" away from the dangerous obstacle, simultaneously trying to prevent the critically damaged ship from capsizing. "Pittsburgh" was saved from sinking by superlative damage control efforts by its crew, notably Gingrich's executive officer, future four-star admiral Horacio Rivero, Jr.citation
title = "Pittsburgh" III
periodical = Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships
publisher = Naval Historical Center
url =
] citation
title = Cruiser Pittsburgh's Prow Torn Off in 138-Mile Wind
newspaper = Associated Press
date = July 13 1945
page = 1
url =

Once the storm passed, "Pittsburgh" found itself in calm waters 900 miles from Guam. "There was nothing to it from then on," Gingrich recalled. "Pittsburgh" arrived at Guam five days after the storm and was equipped with a temporary bow, leaving two weeks later for permanent repairs at Puget Sound Navy Yard in Washington. A week after "Pittsburgh" departed, the ship's bow was discovered afloat and towed back to Guam. The 500-mile separation between the cruiser's stern and bow led contemporary news accounts to dub "Pittsburgh" "the longest ship in the Navy."

Regaling the press after "Pittsburgh"'s safe arrival in port, Gingrich declared, "I'm sorry I can't give you an immortal phrase to hand down to posterity. But all I said was 'reverse engines'."citation
title = Bow, Stern Split, Make Pittsburgh 'Largest Ship'
first = Kenneth | last = McCaleb
newspaper = International News Service
date = October 8 1945
url =
] He did not believe the fracture could be blamed on a structural fault. "It just took two heavy seas. It couldn't possibly have held any longer. She's a fine staunch ship. We'll get the bow fixed and go right back out again."citation
title = Twenty Risked Lives To Save Pittsburgh
date = June 11 1945
newspaper = United Press
url =
] "Pittsburgh" remained under repair at Puget Sound when the war ended in August.

Director of Naval Reserve

Gingrich departed "Pittsburgh" in September 1945 and served briefly as chief of staff and aide to Vice Admiral John H. Towers, Commander, Second Carrier Task Force, Pacific Fleet, before being abruptly reassigned to the much less significant role of chief of personnel in Miami, Florida. The sudden transfer was viewed as a punitive exile imposed by outgoing Chief of Naval Operations King and Chief of Naval Personnel Randall Jacobs to deny Secretary Forrestal an ally in the bureaucratic battle King and Jacobs were waging against Forrestal over the direction of the postwar Navy. Forrestal resolved the conflict by replacing Jacobs with Vice Admiral Louis E. Denfeld and recalling Gingrich to Washington as Denfeld's assistant.citation
title = The Washington Merry-Go-Round
first = Drew | last = Pearson
date = October 3 1945
url =

Promoted to rear admiral, Gingrich reported to the Bureau of Naval Personnel on October 24 1945, where he was assigned to create the postwar structure for the Naval Reserve by the incoming chief of naval operations, Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz. Gingrich was designated assistant chief of personnel (reserves) on December 7 1945, and in August 1946 received the additional title of director of Naval Reserve. His plan for the postwar Naval Reserve was designed to mobilize the active and reserve fleets for an emergency within ten days, using 1,000,000 reservists of whom 200,000 would be drawn from an Organized Reserve and 800,000 from a Volunteer Reserve.citation
title = 1,000,000 Reserve Proposed By Navy; Plan as Drafted for Congress Is Designed to Mobilize for Emergency Within 10 Days
newspaper = The New York Times
date = March 3 1946
page = 14
url =

Atomic Energy Commission

On August 18 1947, Gingrich was appointed the first director of the Division of Security and Intelligence at the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). As AEC security chief, he was responsible for the physical security of AEC installations, control of classified information, development and operation of security clearance procedures, and coordination with the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI).citation
title = Admiral Gingrich Gets New Atom Post
newspaper = The New York Times
date = August 8 1947
page = 4
url =
] Gingrich found the job very frustrating. Shortly after leaving the position, he testified before the Joint Congressional Committee on Atomic Energy that he lacked confidence in the AEC security program, complaining that the security organization was too decentralized and its headquarters too powerless for the director to be effective.citation
title = Science At Its Best; Security At Its Worst: A Report on Security Problems at the U.S. Department of Energy
last = President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board
date = June 1999
url =

Gingrich was an early ally of AEC commissioner and security hawk Lewis Strauss. Like Strauss, Gingrich felt that his efforts to tighten security were being unjustly blocked by irresponsibly idealistic AEC leaders.citation
title = A Matter of Energy
periodical = TIME Magazine
date = September 21 1953
url =,9171,890631-3,00.html
] He submitted numerous written protests against the employment of individuals with questionable associations, but found his reports overruled or ignored by superiors who refused to consider political ideologies such as being an "advanced 'liberal'" as disqualifying scientists from work in the atomic energy programs, and who demanded proof of membership in the actual Communist Party for evidence of a poor security risk, not just membership in organizations deemed subversive by the Attorney General. Resentful AEC security officers believed they were being caricatured as military men without a scientific background who were jumping at ghosts by considering atomic workers unsafe if they "did not share antiquated political beliefs," a caricature perhaps grounded in incidents such as the interview of a suspended Oak Ridge National Laboratory chemist during which Gingrich "personally advised [the chemist] against the unfortunate practice of scientists acting outside their own field," and went on to disparage scientists' "attitude toward security and the fuss being raised over the Negro question."citation
title = Security Chief Quit Atomic Commission Because Scientists Over-Ruled Warnings
first = Constantine | last = Brown
newspaper = Valley Morning Star
date = May 27 1949
page = 4
url =
] citation
first = Jessica | last = Wang
title = American Science in an Age of Anxiety: Scientists, Anticommunism, & The Cold War
publisher = University of North Carolina Press
year = 1999
page = 152-153
url =,M1

It later emerged that Gingrich had only been hired as AEC security chief because of a lack of viable candidates. Testifying before the Joint Congressional Committee on Atomic Energy, AEC chairman David E. Lilienthal conceded that Gingrich had no relevant background in security. Asked why the FBI had not been solicited for better qualified candidates, Lilienthal said that it had been hard to find anyone willing to accept the "thorny" task. "So you selected a man who had no experience of background in this work," stated committee chairman Bourke B. Hickenlooper. "We were very pleased with the selection," Lilienthal replied, adding that Gingrich had been "a real patriot in undertaking so difficult a task when he knew other men were unwilling to undertake it."citation
title = Wide Shift in Atom Personnel Cited as Lilienthal 'Failure'; Hickenlooper, Opening Case Against Head of Commission, Puts Turnover at 87%
newspaper = The New York Times
first = John D. | last = Morris
date = June 2 1949
page = 1
url =

As a high-ranking AEC official, Gingrich was occasionally called upon to explain atomic energy to the public. Addressing the Annapolis Chapter of the Military Order of the World Wars on April 19 1949, Gingrich assured his audience that there had been no significant violation of security regulations in the past year and a half, and decried "sensational and grossly exaggerated tales" about "spies stealing atomic secrets" and about the hazards of atomic energy. "One prominent university president stated that three atomic bombs could destroy the United States. That is not true. It has been said that radioactivity will kill everyone in a city not killed by the blast of a bomb. That is not true. The effect of atomic radiation need not be fatal at all. It needs care and treatment. There is less mystery about radiation than is realized."citation
title = Industrial Know How Held Secret Of Atomic Bomb; Exaggerated Tales Of Atomic Power Cited By Speaker
newspaper = The Capital
date = April 20 1949
page = 1
url =

Forrestal death

On March 30 1949, Chief of Naval Operations Louis E. Denfeld and Vice Chief of Naval Operations Arthur W. Radford received word that former Secretary of Defense James Forrestal was experiencing a nervous breakdown in Hobe Sound, Florida. Gingrich, who had remained close to Forrestal since serving as his wartime aide, was immediately dispatched to Forrestal's side, along with Navy psychiatrist George N. Raines. After their departure, Forrestal's friend Ferdinand Eberstadt asked the Navy not to send anyone, fearing that the arrival of too many people would overexcite Forrestal. Recalled Radford, "I assured Mr. Eberstadt that we could rely on John Gingrich to see that nothing of that kind happened but that it was too late to recall him. In fact, the Secretary seemed to trust Johnny and to be more relaxed with him present, and Dr. Raines stayed in the background. Johnny kept Admiral Denfeld and me informed of the situation." Eberstadt arrived himself on April 1 1949 with Dr. William C. Menninger, who recommended immediate hospitalization. "Jim Forrestal flew back to Washington with Johnny Gingrich and Dr. Raines; Johnny seemed to be able to exercise more control over him than anyone else." Forrestal was admitted to Bethesda Naval Hospital for psychiatric treatment.citation
title = From Pearl Harbor to Vietnam: The Memoirs of Admiral Arthur W. Radford
first = Stephen, Jr. | last = Jurika
publisher = Hoover Institution Press
place = Stanford, California
year = 1980
page = 145-146

Radford left Washington later that month to become Commander in Chief, United States Pacific Command, and Commander in Chief, United States Pacific Fleet. Offered a position as Radford's chief of staff, Gingrich jumped at the opportunity to resume his naval career, submitting his resignation as AEC security chief on April 10 1949, effective April 30. His letter of resignation stated that "the security division has been completely reorganized, adequately staffed with highly capable personnel whose duties have been properly set forth."citation
title = Lilienthal Calls For A Full Inquiry; He Says Charges of Atomic Mismanagement Create World Fears, and Facts Belie Them
newspaper = The New York Times
first = Harold B. | last = Hinton
date = May 26 1949
page = 1
url =
] Aware of Gingrich's previous discontent, Senator William E. Jenner speculated on the floor of the Senate that Gingrich had actually "quit in disgust." Asked by the press to comment, Gingrich claimed, "I resigned to accept duty as Chief of Staff in the Pacific. I was not disgruntled and I did not leave precipitately."

On May 22 1949, Forrestal committed suicide at Bethesda Naval Hospital. As Forrestal's long-time friend, Gingrich accompanied Forrestal's casket from the Naval Hospital to Arlington National Cemetery and stood with the Forrestal family at the graveside during the official funeral on May 25 1949.citation
title = The Last Salute: Civil And Military Funerals, 1921-1969
first1 = B.C. | last1 = Mossman
first2 = M.W. | last2 = Stark
publisher = Government Printing Office
place = Washington, D.C.
year = 1971
page = 45-49
url =
] He joined the Pacific Fleet staff as Radford's chief of staff and aide in July 1949.

Korean War

United Nations Blockade and Escort Force

Gingrich was designated Commander Training Command, U.S. Pacific Fleet in October 1951. On May 31 1952, he became Commander, United Nations Blockade and Escort Force.

The Blockade and Escort Force (Task Force 95) was a subordinate command of United States Naval Forces, Far East, under the operational control of the Seventh Fleet. Ships from nine nations comprised the West Coast Blockade Group (Task Group 95.1), the East Coast Blockade Group (Task Group 95.2), the Escort Group (Task Group 95.5), the Minesweeping Group (Task Group 95.6), and the Republic of Korea Navy (Task Group 95.7). In addition to interdicting Korean waters against hostile and unauthorized shipping, Task Force 95 conducted shore bombardment and naval airstrikes on both coasts and maintained a continuous blockade of the North Korean port of Wonsan, the longest naval blockade of modern times.citation
title = Korean War Order of Battle: United States, United Nations, and Communist Ground, Naval, and Air Forces, 1950–1953
first = Gordon L. | last = Rottman
publisher = Praeger Publishers
place = Westport, Connecticut
year = 2002
page = 92-93
url =,M1
] citation
title = Power at Sea: The Violent Peace, 1946-2006
first = Lisle Abbott | last = Rose
publisher = University of Missouri Press
place = Columbia, Missouri
year = 2007
page = 113-114
url =,M1

Gingrich stressed efficient use of warfighting resources. When he took over Task Force 95, he discovered that his ships were firing 51,700 rounds of 5-inch ammunition per month, mostly in unobserved fire. Worried about the massive expenditure, Gingrich insisted that targets be observed to evaluate the effect of the bombardment. "I wanted to know specifically what damage was done, not that 'great damage' was done." The resulting improvement in targeting efficiency reduced the monthly firing rate to 15,000 rounds, representing a savings of approximately $40,000,000 over the course of a year. "The cost of a 5-inch shell at the end of the Korean pipeline was approximately $200," he noted, so "unless it did that much damage, we were hurting ourselves more than the enemy."citation
first1 = Myres S. | last1 = McDougal
first2 = Florentino P. | last2 = Feliciano
title = The International Law of War: Transnational Coercion and World Public Order
publisher = New Haven Press
place = New Haven, Connecticut
year = 1994
page = 53n
url =,M1

For commanding the Blockade and Escort Force, Gingrich was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal and decorations from the United Kingdom, South Korea, and Thailand. He was relieved by Rear Admiral Clarence E. Olsen on February 13 1953.citation
title = New Chief Commands Blockade, Escort Force
newspaper = Pacific Stars & Stripes
date = February 13 1953
page = 3
url =

Chief of Naval Material

Promoted to vice admiral, he became deputy chief of naval operations for administration in February 1953. On August 1 1953, he was appointed Chief of Naval Material (CNM), in which role he was responsible for all Navy procurement activities.citation
title = Lists of Commanding Officers and Senior Officials of the US Navy - Office of Naval Material
publisher = Naval Historical Center
url =

Gingrich believed that the worst procurement problems stemmed from faulty requirement planning. "No matter how well we place a contract, if there was no need for the material in the first place, our procurement effort and our money have been wasted. Yet an inordinate amount of our procurement effort has been wasted in buying unneeded material and equipment."

"Placing a price tag and a material expenditure tag on the bullets we fire may represent a somewhat new concept in our modern thinking," he concluded, "but success in future wars depends greatly upon the economy measures we utilize."citation
title = Publication No. 154-54: Military Procurement
date = November 18 1953
first = John E. | last = Gingrich
publisher = Industrial College of the Armed Forces
place = Washington, D.C.
url =

Personal life

He retired from the Navy on October 1 1954, as a full admiral, having been automatically advanced one grade on the retired list on the basis of combat citations. One month later, he was elected a vice president of the International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation (I.T.&T.).citation
title = General Promoted, Admiral to Retire
newspaper = United Press
date = August 15 1954
url =
] citation
title = Retired Admiral Elected I.T. & T. Vice President
newspaper = The New York Times
date = November 1 1954
page = 44
url =
] In February 1957, as part of a corporate reorganization, he was appointed president of the Federal Telephone and Radio Company, an I.T.&T. division which produced electronic equipment and components for government, military, and commercial use.citation
title = I.T. & T. Names Two High Officials
newspaper = The New York Times
date = February 15 1957
page = 36
url =
] He eventually returned to the parent corporation, serving as an I.T.&T. vice president until his death. He died at his home in New York City at the age of 63, after a long illness, and was buried in Arlington National Cemetery.citation
title = J.E. Gingrich Dies; Retired Admiral
newspaper = The New York Times
date = May 28 1960
page = 21
url =

He married Florence Benson in 1925 and they had one son, John Edward, Jr. He remarried to Vanetta Oliphant on July 3 1939, and they had one daughter, Susan Alice.citation
title = Mrs. John E. Gingrich
newspaper = The New York Times
date = March 24 1968
page = 92
url =
] citation
title = Old Axiom's Truth Proved in Capital
first = Virginia Weldon | last = Kelly
newspaper = Long Beach Press-Telegram
date = January 11 1954
page = B-5
url =

His decorations include the Distinguished Service Medal, awarded for commanding the Blockade and Escort Force; the Silver Star, awarded for assisting the damaged aircraft carrier "Franklin"; two awards of the Legion of Merit for commanding the cruiser "Pittsburgh"; and decorations from the United Kingdom, South Korea, and Thailand.


External links

[ John E. Gingrich's FBI File]

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • John Garner — John Nance Garner John Nance „Cactus Jack“ Garner (* 22. November 1868 bei Detroit, Texas; † 7. November 1967 in Uvalde, Texas) war unter Franklin D. Roosevelt der 32. Vizepräsident der USA. Leben In Clarksville stu …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • John William McCormack — John W. McCormack John William McCormack (* 21. Dezember 1891 in Boston, Massachusetts; † 22. November 1980 in Dedham, Massachusetts) war ein US amerikanischer Politiker. Inhaltsverzeichnis …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • John Boehner — Portrait de John Boehner. Mandats 61e président de la Chambre des représentants des États Unis …   Wikipédia en Français

  • John W Taylor — John W. Taylor (1784 1854), zehnter Sprecher des Repräsentantenhauses John W. Taylor (* 26. März 1784 in Charlton, Saratoga County, NY; † 18. September 1854 in Cleveland, Ohio) war ein US amerikanischer Politiker und von 1820 bis 1821 und von… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • John James Flynt, Jr. — John James Flynt, Jr. (* 8. November 1914 in Griffin, Georgia; † 24. Juni 2007 in Griffin, Georgia) war ein US amerikanischer Politiker und vertrat den Bundesstaat Georgia als Abgeordneter im US Repräsentantenhaus. Werdegang John James Flynt, Jr …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • John James Flynt junior — John James Flynt Jr. (* 8. November 1914 in Griffin, Georgia; † 24. Juni 2007 ebd.) war ein US amerikanischer Politiker. Er vertrat den Bundesstaat Georgia als Abgeordneter im US Repräsentantenhaus. Werdegang John Flynt besuchte die öffentliche… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • John Porter (sociologist) — John Arthur Porter (November 12, 1921 June 15, 1979) was one of Canada s most important sociologists during the period from 1950 to the late 1970 s. His work in the field of social stratification opened up new areas of inquiry for many… …   Wikipedia

  • John R. Bolton — 25th United States Ambassador to the United Nations In office August 1, 2005 – December 9, 2006 President George W. Bush Preceded by …   Wikipedia

  • John McCain presidential campaign, 2008 — John McCain for President 2008 Campaign U.S. presidential election, 2008 Candidate John McCain (President) U.S. Senator 1987–Present …   Wikipedia

  • John Nance Garner — 32nd Vice President of the United States In office March 4, 1933 – January 20, 1941 President Franklin D. Roosevelt …   Wikipedia