- Tudor Rickards
=Creativity Contributions of Tudor Rickards=
Tudor Rickards is a British organizational theorist commonly known for his organizational creativity contributions within Europe since the 1970s, including the founding of Creativity and Innovation Management journal and The European Association for Creativity and Innovation. He is Professor of Creativity and Organizational Change at
Manchester Business School, Manchester, England
Development of interests in creativity
His interest in discovery processes were shaped by his education as a scientist, gaining a degrees in chemistry and radiation chemistry at the University of Wales, Cardiff, followed by post-doctoral research at the department of biochemistry of [http://www.nymc.edu/Medical/medical.asp New York Medical College] [Rickards, T., Herp, A., & Pigman, W., (1966) The kinetics of depolymerization of hyaluronic acid by l-ascorbic acid, and the inhibition of this reaction by anions of the lyotropic series, J of Polymer Science Part A-1 Polymer Chemistry, 5,4. pp 931-934]
R&D (Research and Development)
On returning from New York to the UK, he worked for
Unileveras a new-product development manager at [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UnileverUnilever's Port Sunlight Research Laboratory] . He became part of an innovation group including future Unilever director [http://www.liverpooldailypost.co.uk/views/obituaries/2008/09/18/richard-duggan-64375-21844124/ Richard Duggan] , [http://www.http://www.george-davies.co.uk/.com George Davies] and [http://0201342766 Mike Woods] [Whetten, D.A, Cameron, K.S., and Woods, M., (2000), Developing Management Skills for Europe, London: Pearson Education, ISBN 0201342766, 9780201342765 ISBN 0201342766, 9780201342765] who were to maintain an extended interest in applications of creative problem-solving systems such as [http://www.synecticsworld.com/system/ourheritage.htm Synectics] . [Prince, G.M., (1970) The practice of creativity, NY: Harper & Row] [10.1111/j.1467-9310.1984.tb00505.x]
Creativity Research Unit at Manchester Business School
Alan Pearson, founding editor of [http://www.rndmanagement.info/ R&D management journal] , had formed links with the R&D managers at Unilever, and in 1972 invited Rickards to join The R&D Research Unit at Manchester Business School MBS), to study
creativity techniquesin R&D laboratories. [Pearson, A., (1989) Twenty-one years of research into the Management of R&D, R&D Management, 19.2 99-102]
He was later appointed lecturer in creativity at MBS by its first Director [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/2872517.stm Grigor McClelland] , and established The Creativity Research Unit. This appears to have been run on an informal, self-funding arrangement, although by the mid 1970s it was attracting international recognition: George Prince cited Rickards, with De Bono, Koestler and Vernon, as European contributors towards a better understanding of creativity. [Prince, G., Mindspring: Suggesting answers to why productivity is low, Chemical Technology, 6,5, 290-294, citation on p294 ]
In the 1970s he visited with the Cambridge group of [http://www.religion-online.org/showchapter.asp?title=2597&C=2411 Epiphany Philosophers] who had become intrigued by the philosophical challenges posed by [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lateral_thinking lateral thinking] . [ Rickards, T., (1978) 'Teaching creativity', Theoria to theory, Vol. 12,pp175-190]
[http://www.antiqbook.co.uk/boox/javasl/0117W040.shtml Tom Lupton] , who succeeded McClelland as director of the Business School, encouraged Rickards to extend his research into organisational creativity and the management of change. As a consequence, he became influenced by colleagues such as [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthony_Stafford_Beer Stafford Beer] developing ideas around [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Management_cybernetics managerial cybernetics] .
Rickards began to examine creativity techniques as [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Variety_(cybernetics) variety generation and control systems] . Specifically, he argued that the divergence and convergence sub-stages of brainstorming systems were effective structures for teams in 'idea deficient situations'. [Rickards, T., & Freedman, B.L., (1978) 'Procedures for managers in idea-deficient situations', Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp 43-55; Rickards, T., & Freedman, B.L., (1978) 'A note on perceptions of brainstorming obtained from a cross-cultural study', Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 15, No. 3, pp 347-349; Rickards, T., & Freedman, B.L. (1979) 'A reappraisal of creativity techniques', Journal of European and Industrial Training, Vol 3 No 1, pp3-8]
Stafford Beer was to play a further part in the development of the organisational structure, and of the educational approach associated with Manchester Business School known as [http://www.ejel.org/volume-2/vol2-issue1/issue1-art23-drinkwater.pdf The Manchester Method] .
Creativity networking in Manchester (1970s-1990s)
A wider creativity network developed in Manchester including the Creativity Research Group at MBS, and a group at UMIST and its business department, Manchester School of Management, before a merger of the two Universities in 2004 led to the creation of a single Business School.
An active networker in the 1980s was [http://www.ISBN-13:9780471280453 Reg Talbot] who with [http://www.DOI:10.1080/095373299107618 Margaret Bruce] collaborated with the MBS group and added their interests in linking design and creativity.
Building an international research network
Since the 1980s, an international research network has formed of colleagues and former doctoral students researching creativity.
[http://www.isbn9780415773171 Susan Moger] collaborated from within Manchester Business School, specializing in creativity in networks and in creative leadership.
[http://www.routledge.com/books/Creative-Problem-Solving-for-Managers-isbn9780415345415 Tony Proctor] has studied and published on [http://www.routledge.com/books/Creative-Problem-Solving-for-Managers-isbn9780415345415 creative problem-solving] [Proctor, T., (1999) Creative Problem Solving for Managers 1st ed: Oxford, Routledge. ] including computerised approaches . [Proctor, T., (1989) 'Experiments with two computer assisted problem-solving aids' Omega, The International Journal of Management Science Vol 17 No 2, pp197-200]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9310.1988.tb00606.x Simon Aldridge] (d. 2007) pursued his interests in creativity in complex social systems such as the National Health Service. [Aldridge, S., A Study of Two Action Research Methodologies during Implementation of Technical Changes in the National Health Service., Victoria University of Manchester: Unpublished doctoral dissertation] [Rickards,T.,Aldridge,S.,Gaston,K, (1988) Factors affecting brainstorming: towards the development of diagnostic tool, for assessment of creative performance, R&D Management, 18,4,309-320]
[http://isb.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/20/4/395 Hernan Riquelme] has studied decision processes of venture capitalists. [Riquelme, H., & Rickards, T., (1992) 'Hybrid conjoint analysis: An estimation probe in new venture decisions', Journal of Venture Research, Vol. 7, No. 6, pp 505-518] , [http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a790767955~db=all creative imagery] , and [http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/119281872/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0 Simon's] cognitive model of creativity.
[http://www.linkedin.com/pub/0/60a/b97 Julie Hass] researched a creative climate inventory [Hass, J., An Investigation into the Organizational Change Processes Related to Environmental Issues] and extended the work into [http://www.unece.org/stats/documents/2007.03.sust-dev.htm sustainability auditing] .
[http://www.qu.edu.qa/doc/business/DR.%20MOHAMED%20ZAIN%20MOHAMED.pdf Zain Mohammed] applied Ekvall’s creative climate scale to organizations in Malaysia [Mohammed, Z., (1997) Successful Implementation of Innovation amongst Malaysian Firms, Manchester: Doctoral dissertation ]
[http://www.swan.ac.uk/sbe/People/decockc/Publications.pdf Christian de Cock] has developed a post-structural approach to studies of creativity.
[http://www.anpad.org.br/periodicos/arq_pdf/a_595.pdf Fernando Gimenez] has examined the strategic decision-making of Brazilian entrepreneurs
[http://strategicmanagement.net/pdfs/conference_files/1999program.pdf Frederic Hsu] has studied modes of rationality in strategic decision-making
[http://www.gcumsd.edu.pk/html/msd_direc.htm Faisal Q Khokhar] has researched leadership and entrepreneurship in Pakistan
[http://www.mbs.ac.uk/research/academicDirectory/viewProfile.aspx?sid=2002396 Nathan Proudlove] researches group decision systems [Nathan Proudlove (1999) The Support of Group Decision Making using Judgemental Modelling: An Exploration of the Contributions of Behavioural Factors]
[http://www.linkedin.com/pub/4/845/884 Ming-Huei Chen] collaborated on the two-barrier model of team development, and on the validation of its team factor inventory. She has also researched [http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1008071 creativity of entrepreneurs] in Taiwan, [Chen, Ming-Huei,Entrepreneurial Leadership and New Ventures: Creativity in Entrepreneurial Teams. Creativity and Innovation Management, Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 239-249, September 2007] and [http://www.yzu.edu.tw/admin/rd/files/rdso/G04/93/G04061(1).doc team creativity]
[http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/viewContentItem.do;jsessionid=0D79430E35887B7FC917951ED9D07F4D?contentType=Article&hdAction=lnkpdf&contentId=868599 Abdulla Al-Bereidi] has studied creativity in Saudi Arabian organizations [Albereidi, A., & Rickards, T., (2003) Creativity in a big-five accounting office: A Saudi Arabian case study, Managerial auditing journal, 18: 1/2]
European Networks for Creativity and Innovation (1987-1993)
The study of creativity stimulation in business became formalized in MBS within The Creativity Research Unit, one of the earliest of such centers to be established in Europe. [Freedman, B.L., (1976) Relationships between theoretical constructs and two major practical techniques of creative problem-solving, Unpublished MSc dissertation, Manchester: University Proctor, T., (1989) 'Experiments with two computer assisted problem-solving aids' Omega, The International Journal of Management Science Vol 17 No 2, pp197-200]
His contacts from Unilever Research in the 1970s [Woods, M.F., & Davies G.B., (1973) Potential problem analysis: A systematic approach to problem prediction and contingency planning;an aid to the smooth exploitation of research, R&D Management, 4,1, 25-32] had helped form links with creativity practitioners in Holland. [Abels, J.J, (1974) Generating new product ideas, a systematic approach, Netherlands: Markartikelen BV; Melis, T. (1991), The innovative packager. Singapore: Octogram Books] An early contact in Holland was [http://www.io.tudelft.nl/live/ServeBinary?id=28dc528d-b376-4c96-a860-1105907f3493&binary=/doc/ionews-2007-27s.pdf Jan Buijs] who was to become a leading scholar internationally in the design field at the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delft_University_of_Technology Technology University of Delft] .
By 1986, The Creativity Research Unit at MBS had links with creativity centres that were emerging elsewhere in Europe.
TNO, The Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research , supported an international conference [http://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&id=bg0jw7d5hXcC&dq=Creativity+Innovation+towards+European+Network&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=gh5PcHZzRr&sig=BGJnO4w6oeTwkT43WzHxve-i3ac&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=1&ct=result Creativity and Innovation: towards a European Network] with the intention of helping ‘build a greater understanding of innovation and creative processes’ across Europe.
The steering group for the conference was Hans Smeekes of TNO for the Netherlands, Tudor Rickards for the United Kingdom, Per Groholt of the Norwegian Centre for Leadership Development acting as a liasion person for Scandinavia, and Patrick Colemont [COCD] for Belgium [Colemont, P., Groholt, P., Rickards, T. & Smeekes, H., Eds, (1988) Creativity & Innovation: Towards a European Network, Amsterdam: Kluver, p vi]
In December 1987 the conference took place in Noordwick, The Netherlands, attracting 160 participants from 16 different countries. The steering group was assisted by representatives of groups from Germany and Greece, as well as delegates from outside Europe.
The conference was to be the first in an unbroken series of events held biennially in Europe. In alternative years a similar sequence of conferences were held in North American venues, with collaboration between the steering groups. [Gryskiewicz, S., (1992) Letter from America (With respectful acknowledgement to Alistair Cooke), Creativity and Innovation Management, 1,4, 214-215]
Over the period 1987-1994 four European conferences took place. Proceedings were published for each conference. Tudor Rickards provided continuity within the editorial teams for these:
1988: Colemont, P., Groholt, P., Rickards, T. & Smeekes, H., Eds, (1988) Creativity & Innovation: Towards a European Network, Kluwer, Amsterdam
1990: Rickards, T., Colemont, P., Groholt, P., Parker, M., & Smeekes, H., Eds, Theory in Practice: Proceedings of the Second European Conference on Creativity and Innovation, TNO, Delft
1992: Rickards, T., Moger, S.T., Colemont, P., & Tassoul, M., Eds Creativity and Innovation: Quality Breakthroughs, TNO, Delft
1995: Geschka, H., Moger, S.T, & Rickards T., Eds (1995) Creativity and Innovation: The Power of Synergy, Geschka Associates, Darmstadt
The proceedings of the 1994 conference announced the formation of The European Association for Creativity and innovation with support from the province of Limburg and the city of Heerlan.
European Association for Creativity and Innovation
The newly-established EACI group arranged the next conference in
Vaals, The Netherlands (April 28th - May 2nd, 1996). The conference addressed the theme of generating and sustaining the impact of impact of creativity . It opened with a keynote speech by Edward de Bono, who argued that the mystique of creativity can be removed if perception is regarded as behaviour associated with a self structuring system. [ De Bono, E., (1997) Preface, in Rickards, T., Moger, S., Tassoul, M., van de Kimmenade, I, & van den Beuken, J., Eds., (Creativity and Innovation: Impact, Maastricht: EACI v-vi]
Creativity and Innovation Network and Management
Section to be added here
tructures for stimulating creativity
Early work examining the nature of structured aids to creativity, appeared in [http://www.bookfinder.com/dir/i/Problem-Solving_Through_Creative_Analysis/0716102145/ Problem-solving through creative analysis] . [Rickards, T., (1974) Problem-Solving through Creative Analysis, Epping, Essex: Gower]
It was a theme returned to in studies of [http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=416126 synectics] [Synectics: Reflections of a Little-s Practitioner, Creativity and Innovation Management, 12, 28-31, March 2003] , [http://www.amazon.com/Creativity-Problem-Solving-Business-Enterprise/dp/0566079615 Creativity at Work] , [Rickards, T., (1990) Creativity and Problem-Solving at Work, Gower, Farnborough, UK] Industrial new-product development, [Carson, J.W., & Rickards, T., (1979) Industrial New-Product Development, Gower Press, ] [http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/119281864/abstract electronic brainstorming] , [Rickards, T., (1994) 'Electronic brainstorming: Asking the right questions', Creativity and Innovation Management, Vol 3, No 2, pp110-114] [Rickards, T., (1999) ‘Brainstorming revisited: A question of context’ International journal of management reviews, Vol 1 No 1, pp 91-110] and (with Susan Moger) [https://www.ashgate.com/default.aspx?page=1751&calctitle=1&pageSubject=1177&pagecount=2&title_id=5167&edition_id=5480 Handbook for creative team leaders] [Rickards, T., & Moger,S.T., (1999) Handbook for creative team leaders, Aldershot, Hants: Gower]
His advocacy of structured aids to creativity addresses a presumption which he has described as the [http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/119309970/abstract fallacy of unconstrained action] .
The work has been criticised by critical theorists such as [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m4339/is_5_21/ai_68536952 Martin Wood] who noted in a review article that Rickards is ‘claiming to speak on behalf of creativity whilst discussing only a percentage of the literature’ [ Wood, M., (2000) Review of Creativity and the management of change, Organisation Studies]
However, Rickards is not an unreflective advocate of creativity techniques. In empirical studies in 1970s with co-worker Brian Freedman [Rickards, T., & Freedman, B.L., (1978) 'Procedures for managers in idea-deficient situations', Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp 43-55] [Rickards, T., & Freedman, B.L., (1978) 'A note on perceptions of brainstorming obtained from a cross-cultural study', Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 15, No. 3, pp 347-349] [Rickards, T., & Freedman, B.L. (1979) 'A reappraisal of creativity techniques', Journal of European and Industrial Training, Vol 3 No 1 pp3-8] he explored the mechanisms, scope and limitations of industrial brainstorming, concluding
'There seem two main reasons for utilizing [brainstorming] processes. The first is as an aid to creativity. The second is as an effective means of amassing ideas. These underlying principles have not been satisfactorily validated in the literature, but use of the technique for the latter, variety generating purpose, may be easier to justify than use as a creativity-spurring device'. ]
Models and diagnostics
Rickards with his co-workers have developed and validated diagnostics for exploring individual and team level creativity. Early studies led to diagnostics assessing the creative climate of work teams, drawing on the work of [http://www.cpsb.com/research/fellows/ekvallG.html Goran Ekvall]
A climate measure known as [http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/120053107/abstract The Creativity Audit] was developed in conjunction with John Bessant.
A measure of barriers to creativity was also reported. [Rickards, T., Jones, L. (1991), "Towards the identification of situational barriers to creative behaviors: the development of a self report inventory", Creativity Research Journal, Vol. 4 No.4, pp.303-15.] In the 1990s, further diagnostic work attempted to establish relationships between creativity, leadership and team effectiveness.
Their two-barriers model of team effectiveness was developed, which challenged the accepted [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bruce_Tuckman Tuckman model] of team development. Rickards and co-workers suggest a modification to this theory, which they labelled the two-barriers model of team effectiveness. It was initially sketched out in Handbook for Creative Team Leaders. The model proposes two barriers to team effectiveness. The first barrier is claimed to restrict development of the poorest teams at the storm stage of team development. The second barrier, at the norm stage of team development, inhibits a further proportion of teams. Only by breaking out of the accepted norms is a team able to establish new ‘creative’ norms.
[http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118989424/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0 The Team Factors Inventory] (TFI) was developed as an investigative tool for exploring the two-barriers model.
Discovery learning and The Manchester Method
[http://www.ejel.org/volume-2/vol2-issue1/issue1-art23-drinkwater.pdf The Manchester Method] is an educational innovation which grew out of attempts to provide more experience-linked learning within business degree programmes at Manchester Business School. In a recent [http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/119411599/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0 keynote presentation] Rickards represented the Manchester Method as occurring with the application of structured aids to enhance creativity within project team work. However, The Manchester Method is also reported as being applied in situations without interventions designed to stimulate creativity. [Rickards, T., Hyde, P.J., & Papamichail, K.N., (2005) ‘The Manchester Method: A Critical review of a learning experiment’ in C. Wankel & R. De Fillippi (Eds) Educating managers through real world projects, Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing, 241-254]
Other direct and indirect contributions to The Manchester Method were made by an eclectic group of researchers including [http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/2002/apr/17/guardianobituaries.obituaries Eric Miller] of the [http://www.tavinstitute.org/ Tavistock Institute] , [http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/2006/may/03/guardianobituaries.obituaries Enid Mumford] , and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reg_Revans Reg Revans] [ Reg Revans, pioneer of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Action_learning action learning] ] .
In Handbook for Creative Team Leaders Rickards & Moger suggest that creative leaders reconfigure the structures under which team members operate [by] reducing the impact of negative behaviour patterns of team members and providing a more benign structuring of work patterns. [ Rickards t., & Moger, S., Handbook for creative team leaders (1999), Aldershot: Gower Press ]
The connection between creative leadership and introduction of creative problem-solving technique systems for enhanced team creativity is supported by studies by [http://www.sagepub.co.uk/authorDetails.nav?contribId=531915 Puccio and colleagues] [Puccio, G.J., Murdoch, M.C. & Mance, M., Creative Leadership: Skills That Drive Change ] at The International Center for Studies in Creativity, Buffalo, and [http://www.basadur.com/system/index.htm Basadur and colleagues] at McMasters University, Toronto [Wilson, P., (1997) Simplex Creative Problem Solving, Creativity and Innovation Management, 6,3, 161-167]
Broadening The Manchester Method
More recently he has been instrumental in introducing leadership and creativity into the blended learning courses offered by Manchester Business School. These courses, offered to employed senior professionals, enable learning and development in leadership themes, creativity and team working in a way that is directly applicable back to the workplace. This route is also highly international, raising further considerations regarding culturality in teamworking and leadership.
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