Ijma


Ijma

Ijmā (إجماع) is an Arabic term referring ideally to the consensus of the ummah (the community of Muslims, or followers of Islam).

The hadith of Muhammad which states that "My community will never agree upon an error" is often cited as support for the validity of ijma. Sunni Muslims regard ijma as the third fundamental source of Sharia law, after the divine revelation of the Qur'an, the prophetic practice or Sunnah. The analogical reasoning or qiyas is described as fourth source in Sunni Islam, whereas Shi'a Islam uses 'aql (intellect). Many conservative Muslim writers have claimed that the use of ijma' makes Islamic law compatible with democracy. Usuli Shia accepts Ijam under restricted conditions as a source of Islamic law. Technically it is “the unanimous doctrine and opinion of the recognized religious authorities at any given time”.

Various proponents of liberal movements within Islam criticize the traditional view that ijma' is only a consensus among traditional Islamic scholars (Arabic ulema). They claim that truly democratic consensus should involve the entire community rather than a small and conservative clerical class, especially since there is no hierarchical system in Islam.

See also

* Islamic democracy
* Deliberative democracy
* Precedent
* Qiyas
* Ijtihad
* Ulema
* Usul al-fiqh
* Ashab al-Ijma'

External links

* [http://globalwebpost.com/farooqm/writings/islamic/ijma.html The Doctrine of Ijma': Is there a consensus?] by Dr. Mohammad Omar Farooq


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  • Ijma — Ijmā (إجماع) es un término árabe que se refiere al consenso ideal de la Ummah (comunidad islámica o conjunto de seguidores del islam). El hadit de Mahoma que proclama que Mi comunidad nunca estará de acuerdo en un error se cita como apoyo a la… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Ijma — Ijma, Nebenfluß des Petschora in Rußland …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Ijmâ' — « Ijma » redirige ici. Pour le cours d eau de Russie, voir Ijma (rivière). L ijma (arabe : إِجْمَاع [ijma ], unanimité; consensus) est une des sources du droit musulman, après le Coran et la sunna. Les écoles juridiques (madhhabs)… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • ijmāʿ — ▪ Islam       (Arabic: “agreeing upon,” or “consensus”), the universal and infallible agreement of the Muslim community, especially of Muslim scholars on any Islāmic principle, at any time. The consensus based on the Ḥadīth (sayings of Muḥammad) …   Universalium

  • Ijma — Idjmâ Religion religions abrahamiques : judaïsme · christianisme · islam C …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Ijma` — Idjmâ Religion religions abrahamiques : judaïsme · christianisme · islam C …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Ijmâ — Idjmâ Religion religions abrahamiques : judaïsme · christianisme · islam C …   Wikipédia en Français

  • ijma' — /ij mah /, n. Islam. the consensus of all believers on the rightness of a belief or practice. [ < Ar ijma ] * * * …   Universalium

  • ijma' — /ij mah /, n. Islam. the consensus of all believers on the rightness of a belief or practice. [ < Ar ijma ] …   Useful english dictionary

  • ijma' — noun the consensus of ummah (legal scholars) representing all Muslims; one of the sources of Sunni jurisprudence …   Wiktionary


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