- The Legend of Good Women
"The Legend of Good Women" is a
poemin the form of a dream visionby Geoffrey Chaucer.
The poem is the third longest of Chaucer’s works, after "
The Canterbury Tales" and " Troilus and Criseyde" and is possibly the first significant work in English to use the iambic pentameteror decasyllabic couplets which he later used throughout the "Canterbury Tales". This form of the heroic coupletwould become a significant part of English literatureno doubt inspired by Chaucer.
The prologue describes how Chaucer is reprimanded by the god of love and his queen, Alceste, for his works—such as "Troilus and Criseyde"—depicting women in a poor light. Criseyde is made to seem inconstant in love in that earlier work, and Alceste demands a poem of Chaucer extolling the virtues of women and their good deeds.
:For thy trespas, and understond hit here::Thou shalt, whyl that thou livest, yeer by yere,:The moste party of thy tyme spende:In making of a glorious Legende:Of Gode Wommen, maidenes and wyves,:That weren trewe in lovinge al hir lyves;:And telle of false men that hem bitrayen,:That al hir lyf ne doon nat but assayen
The poet recounts ten stories of virtuous women in nine sections. The legends are:
Cleopatra, Thisbe, Dido, Hypsipyle, Medea, Lucrece, Ariadne, Philomela, Phyllisand Hypermnestra. The work is a similar structure to the later Monk's Tale and like that tale, and many of his other works, seems to be unfinished. Chaucer's sources for the legends include: Virgil's " Aeneid", Vincent of Beauvais, Guido delle Colonne's " Historia destructionis Troiae", Gaius Julius Hyginus' "Fabula" and Ovid's "Metamorphoses" and " Heroides".
The incomplete nature of the poem is suggested by
Chaucer's Retractionfrom the "Canterbury Tales" which calls the work the "xxv. Ladies". Fifteen and nineteen are also numbers used to describe the work. In the prologue several women are mentioned— Esther, Penelope, Marcia Catonis(wife of Cato the younger), Lavinia, Polyxenaand Laodamia—whose stories are not recorded and the nineteen ladies in waiting of Alceste mentioned in the prologue might suggest an unfulfilled structure.
The command of queen Alceste is said, by
John Lydgatein " The Fall of Princes", to be a poetic account of an actual request for a poem by Anne of Bohemiawho came to England in 1382to marry Richard II. If true this would make Chaucer an early poet laureate. Joan of Kent, Richard's mother, is also sometimes considered a model for Alceste. The supposed royal command is one suggested reason for the poem's unfinished state as Chaucer got bored with the task and gave up. Several passages hint at Chaucer's dissatisfaction:
:But for I am agroted [stuffed] heer-biforn:To wryte of hem that been in love forsworn,:And eek to haste me in my legende,:Which to performe god me grace sende,:Therfor I passe shortly in this wyse;
These lines, late in the poem, could simply be "occupatio" or
paralipsis, the rhetorical devicecommon in Chaucer of bringing up a subject up merely to say you will not mention it.
Whether the poem's state is due to Chaucer becoming bored with it is uncertain, but it not now regarded among his best work, despite being popular when first written. One early fan is Chaucer's own character the Man of Law who praises Chaucer and the poem which he calls "Seintes Legende of Cupide". The work is rather inconsistent in tone, with tragedy mixed rather uncomfortably with comedy and the legends are all rather similar with little of the characterisation which is key to the "Canterbury Tales". Some scholars have conjectured that the work is deliberately poorly written and the work is actually a
satireagainst women although this is not widely agreed with. Another idea is that it is a satire on the idea of taking stories of classical origin and twisting them to give them contemporary moral meanings. This would suggest that the poem is not only an early use of heroic couplets but also one of the first mock-heroicworks in English.
The nature of the poem with its separate legends makes dating it difficult but it is clearly placed between "Troilus" and the "Tales" around
1386/ 1388. Chaucer seems to have returned to the work a decade later to rewrite the prologue, but the latter text, which survives in only one manuscript, is generally considered inferior to the original.
:A thousand tymes have I herd men telle,:That ther is Ioye in heven, and peyne in helle;:And I acorde wel that hit is so;:But natheles, yit wot I wel also,:That ther nis noon dwelling in this contree,:That either hath in heven or helle y-be,
Tennyson used the poem as theme for his own poem "
A Dream of Fair Women".
* [http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/OMACL/GoodWomen/ Text of the poem]
* [http://www.umm.maine.edu/faculty/necastro/chaucer/lgw Original Text, Modern Prose Translation, and Other Resources for The Legend of Good Women at eChaucer]
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