- Valentin Turchin
Valentin Fyodorovich Turchin ( _ru. Валенти́н Фёдорович Турчи́н, born
1931) is a Russian-American cybernetician and computer scientist. He developed the Refal programming language, the theory of metasystem transitions and the notion of supercompilation. As such he can be seen as a pioneer in Artificial Intelligenceand one of the visionaries at the basis of the Global brainidea.
Turchin was born in 1931 in Russia. In 1952, he graduated from Moscow University in Theoretical Physics, and got his Ph.D. in 1957. After working on neutron and solid-state physics at the Institute for Physics of Energy in Obninsk, in 1964 he accepted a position at the
Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematicsin Moscow. There he worked in statistical regularization methods and authored REFAL, one of the first AI languages and the AI language of choice in the Soviet Union.
In the 1960s, Turchin became politically active. In 1968 he authored "The Inertia of Fear and the Scientific Worldview", [cite book|title=The Inertia of Fear and the Scientific Worldview|author=Valentin F. Turchin|publisher=Columbia University Press |location=New York|date=1981|isbn=978-023104622-0] a scathing critique of totalitarianism supported by an emerging cybernetic social theory. Following its publication in the underground press, he lost his research laboratory.Fact|date=January 2008 In 1970 he authored "The Phenomenon of Science", [cite book|title=The Phenomenon of Science|author=Valentin F. Turchin|publisher=Columbia University Press|location=New York|date=1977|isbn=978-023103983-3|url=http://pcp.vub.ac.be/POSBOOK.html] a grand cybernetic meta-theory of universal evolution, which broadened and deepened the earlier book. By 1973, Turchin had founded the Moscow chapter of
Amnesty Internationaland was working closely with the well-known physicist and Soviet dissident Andrei Sakharov. In 1974 he lost his position at the Institute, and was persecuted by the KGB. Facing almost certain imprisonment, he and his family were forced to emigrate from the Soviet Unionin 1977.
He came to
New Yorkwhere he joined the faculty of the City University of New Yorkin 1979. In 1990, together with Cliff Joslyn and Francis Heylighen, he founded the Principia Cybernetica Project, a world-wide organization devoted to the collaborative development of an evolutionary-cybernetic philosophy. In 1998, he co-founded the software start-up [http://www.supercompilers.com/ SuperCompilers, LLC] . He retired from his post of Professor of Computer Science at City Collegein 1999.
Peter Turchin, is a world known specialist in population dynamicsand mathematical modelingof historical dynamics.
The philosophical core of Turchin's scientific work is the concept of the
metasystem transition, which denotes the evolutionary process through which higher levels of control emerge in system structure and function.
Turchin uses this concept to provide a global theory of
evolutionand a coherent social systems theory, to develop a complete cybernetics philosophical and ethical system, and to build a constructivist foundation for mathematics.
REFALlanguage he has implemented a Supercompiler, a unified method for program transformation and optimization based on a metasystem transition. [citation|chapter=Supercompilation: Techniques and results|title=Perspectives of System Informatics|pages=227–248|author=Valentin F. Turchin|series=Lecture Notes in Computer Science|publisher=Springer|location=Heidelberg|url=http://www.supercompilers.com/html/supercompilation.html|date=1996 |issn=0302-9743|isbn=978-3-540-62064-8]
*cite book|title=The Phenomenon of Science|author=Valentin F. Turchin|publisher=Columbia University Press|location=New York|date=1977|isbn=978-023103983-3|url=http://pcp.vub.ac.be/POSBOOK.html
*cite book|title=The Inertia of Fear and the Scientific Worldview|author=Valentin F. Turchin|publisher=Columbia University Press |location=New York|date=1981|isbn=978-023104622-0
*citation|title=The concept of a supercompiler|author=Valentin F. Turchin|publisher=ACM|location=New York|journal=ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems|volume=8|issue=3|date=July 1986|pages=292–325|issn=0164-0925
*citation|title=A constructive interpretation of the full set theory|author=Valentin F. Turchin|journal=Journal of Symbolic Logic|date=March 1987|pages=172–201|volume=52|issue=1|doi=10.2307/2273872
* [http://www.supercompilers.com/html/refal_content.html Refal-5: Programming Guide and Reference Manual] , New England Publishing Co. Holyoke MA, 1989
* [http://pcp.vub.ac.be/ Principia Cybernetica Web] (as editor, together with F. Heylighen and C. Joslyn) (1993-2005)
* [http://pcp.vub.ac.be/TURCHIN.html Turchin's home page] on Principia Cybernetica web
* [http://www.goertzel.org/benzine/turchin.htm Profile of Valentin Turchin] by
* [http://www.ets.ru/turchin/index.htm Russian edition. The Phenomenon of Science] The Phenomenon of Science. A cybernetic approach to human evolution. ETS Publishing House. Moscow - 2000, 398 pp, ISBN 5-93386-019-0
* [http://www.refal.ru/ refal.ru - REFAL and Supercompilation community]
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