Anwar Ibrahim


Anwar Ibrahim
Yang Berhormat Dato' Seri
Anwar Ibrahim MP
Leader of the Opposition of Malaysia

Leader of the People's Pact

Incumbent
Assumed office
28 August 2008
Monarch Mizan Zainal Abidin
Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi
Najib Tun Razak
Preceded by Wan Azizah Wan Ismail
Member of the Malaysian Parliament
for Permatang Pauh
Incumbent
Assumed office
28 August 2008
Preceded by Wan Azizah Wan Ismail
Majority 15,671
In office
1982–1999
Preceded by Zabidi Ali
Succeeded by Wan Azizah Wan Ismail
7th Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia
In office
1 December 1993 – 2 September 1998
Monarch Azlan Shah
Tuanku Ja'afar
Prime Minister Mahathir bin Mohamad
Preceded by Ghafar Baba
Succeeded by Abdullah Ahmad Badawi
Personal details
Born 10 August 1947 (1947-08-10) (age 64)
Cherok Tok Kun, Penang, Malayan Union
Political party PR – PKR (2006–present)

BN – UMNO (1982–1998)

Spouse(s) Wan Azizah Wan Ismail
Children Nurul Izzah Anwar
Ehsan Anwar
Nurul Nuha Anwar
3 others
Alma mater University of Malaya
Profession Politician
Religion Sunni Islam

Anwar bin Ibrahim (born 10 August 1947) is a Malaysian politician who served as Malaysian Deputy Prime Minister from 1993 to 1998. Early in his career, Anwar was a close ally of Prime Minister Mahathir bin Mohamad but subsequently emerged as the most prominent critic of Mahathir's government.

In 1999, he was sentenced to six years in prison for corruption, and in 2000, to another nine years for sodomy. In 2004, the Federal Court reversed the second conviction and he was released. In July 2008, he was arrested over allegations he sodomised one of his male aides, and faces new sodomy charges in the Malaysian courts.

On 26 August 2008, Anwar won re-election in the Permatang Pauh by-election and returned to Parliament as leader of the Malaysian opposition. He has stated the need for liberalisation, including an independent judiciary and free media, to combat the endemic corruption that he considers pushes Malaysia close to failed state status.[1]

Contents

Early career

From 1968 to 1971, as a student, Anwar was the president of a Muslim students organisation, Persatuan Kebangsaan Pelajar Islam Malaysia (PKPIM). Around the same time, he was also the president of Persatuan Bahasa Melayu Universiti Malaya (PBMUM). He was one of the protem committee of Angkatan Belia Islam Malaysia (ABIM) or Muslim Youth Movement of Malaysia which was founded in 1971. He was also elected President of the Malaysian Youth Council or Majlis Belia Malaysia (MBM). In 1974, Anwar was arrested during student protests against rural poverty and hunger. This came as a report surfaced stating that a family died from starvation in a village in Baling, in the state of Kedah, despite the fact that it never happened. He was imprisoned under the Internal Security Act, which allows for detention without trial, and spent 20 months in the Kamunting Detention Centre.

In 1968–1971, he was first groomed in the National Union of Malaysian Muslim Students (Persatuan Kebangsaan Pelajar Islam Malaysia, PKPIM) as the president of the Union. In 1982, Anwar, who was the founding leader and second president of a youth Islamic organisation called Angkatan Belia Islam Malaysia (ABIM), shocked his liberal supporters by joining the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), led by Mahathir bin Mohamad, who had become prime minister in 1981. He moved up the political ranks quickly: his first ministerial office was that of Minister of Culture, Youth and Sports in 1983; after that, he headed the agriculture ministry in 1984 before becoming Minister of Education in 1986. By then, speculation was rife about Anwar's ascent to the Deputy Prime Minister's position as it was a commonly-occurring phenomenon in Malaysia for the Education Minister to assume the position of Deputy PM in the near future.

During his tenure as Education Minister, Anwar introduced numerous pro-Malay policies in the national school curriculum. One of the major changes that he did was to rename the national language from Bahasa Malaysia to Bahasa Melayu. Non-Malays criticized this move as it would cause the younger generation to be detached from the national language, since they would attribute it to being something that belongs to the Malays and not to Malaysians.

U.S. Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen (right) meets with Anwar Ibrahim (left) in his Pentagon office.

In 1991 Anwar was appointed Minister of Finance. In 1993, he became Mahathir's Deputy Prime Minister after winning the Deputy Presidency of UMNO against Ghafar Baba. There is report on Anwar using large cash payments to win support. Anwar is alleged to have resorted to money politics to secure his position as deputy president of UMNO. Anwar's followers were witnessed by even foreign journalists handing out packets of money to acquire support of UMNO division leaders. These followers are said to be working under Anwar's instructions.[2] Anwar was being groomed to succeed Mahathir as prime minister, and frequently alluded in public to his "son-father" relationship with Mahathir; in early 1997, Mahathir appointed Anwar to be acting Prime Minister while he took a two-month holiday.

Towards the end of the 1990s, however, the relationship with Mahathir had begun to deteriorate, triggered by their conflicting views on governance. In Mahathir's absence, Anwar had independently taken radical steps to improve the country's governing mechanisms which were in direct conflict with Mahathir's capitalist policies. Issues such as how Malaysia would respond to a financial crisis were often at the forefront of this conflict.

Anwar's frontal attack against what he described as the widespread culture of nepotism and cronyism within UMNO (and the ruling coalition as a whole) angered Mahathir, as did his attempts to dismantle the protectionist policies that Mahathir had set up. "Cronyism" was identified by Anwar as a major cause of corruption and misappropriation of funds in the country.

Teaching and non-profit work

Since his release from prison, Anwar has held teaching positions at St Antony's College, Oxford, where he was a visiting fellow and senior associate member, at Johns Hopkins University's School of Advanced International Studies in Washington DC as a Distinguished Senior Visiting Fellow, and in 2005–2006 as a visiting professor at the Prince Alwaleed Center for Muslim–Christian Understanding in the School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University, where he continues as a Senior Fellow.[3] In March 2006 he was appointed as Honorary President of the London-based organization AccountAbility (Institute of Social and Ethical AccountAbility).[4]

In July 2006, Anwar was elected Chair of the Washington-based Foundation For the Future.[5] In this capacity, he signed the 1 October 2006 letter to Robin Cleveland of the World Bank, requesting the transfer of the secondment of Shaha Riza from the US Department of State to the Foundation for the Future. This transaction led to Paul Wolfowitz's resignation as president of the organization.[6] He was one of the signatories of A Common Word Between Us and You in 2007, an open letter by Islamic scholars to Christian leaders, calling for peace and understanding.

Financial crisis

During the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis Anwar, as finance minister, supported the International Monetary Fund (IMF) plan for recovery. He also instituted an austerity package that cut government spending by 18%, cut ministerial salaries and deferred major projects. "Mega projects", despite being a cornerstone of Mahathir's development strategy, were greatly curtailed.

Although many Malaysian companies faced bankruptcy, Anwar declared: "There is no question of any bailout. The banks will be allowed to protect themselves and the government will not interfere." Anwar advocated a free-market approach to the crisis, including foreign investment and trade liberalisation. Mahathir blamed currency speculators like George Soros and supported currency controls and tighter regulation of foreign investment.[7]

In 1998 Newsweek magazine named Anwar the "Asian of the Year". However, in that year, matters between Anwar and Mahathir came to a head around the time of the quadrennial UMNO General Assembly. The Youth wing of UMNO, headed by Anwar's associate Ahmad Zahid Hamidi, gave notice that it would initiate a debate on "cronyism and nepotism".

Political prospects

In November 2006, Anwar announced he planned to run for Parliament in 2008, after his disqualification expired. Anwar has been critical of government policies since his release from prison, most notably of the controversial New Economic Policy (NEP), which provides affirmative action for the Bumiputras. The policy sets a number of quotas, such as for units of housing and initial public offerings, that must be met.[8]

He is also the Advisor of Parti Keadilan Rakyat, the party of which his wife Dr. Wan Azizah is president. He was in the forefront in organising a November 2007 mass rally, called the 2007 Bersih Rally, which took place in the Dataran Merdeka Kuala Lumpur to demand clean and fair elections. The gathering was organised by BERSIH, a coalition comprising political parties and civil society groups, and drew supporters from all over the country.

The 2008 election date, however, was set for 8 March 2008, sparking criticisms that Barisan Nasional called for early elections in a bid to deny Anwar's plans for a return to Parliament. In response, Anwar's wife, Wan Azizah Wan Ismail, declared that she would step down should she retain her Permatang Pauh parliamentary seat to force a by-election in which Anwar himself would contest.[9]

When asked about the possibility of Anwar becoming the next Prime Minister, former leader Tun Dr. Mahathir reacted by saying rather sarcastically, "He would make a good Prime Minister of Israel".[10]

On 14 April 2008, Anwar celebrated his official return to the political stage, as his ban from public office expired a decade after he was fired as Deputy Prime Minister. One of the main reasons the opposition seized a third of parliamentary seats and five states in the worst ever showing for the Barisan Nasional coalition that has ruled for half a century, was due to him leading at the helm.[11] A gathering of more than 1,000 supporters greeted Anwar in a rally welcoming his return to politics. Police interrupted Anwar after he had addressed the rally for nearly two hours and called for him to stop the gathering since there was no legal permission for the rally.[12]

On 29 April 2008, after 10 years of absence, he returned to the Parliament, albeit upon invitation as a spouse guest of Wan Azizah Wan Ismail, People's Justice Party and the first female opposition leader in Malaysian Parliament's history.[13]

Permatang Pauh by-election

Anwar Ibrahim was victorious in the Permatang Pauh by-election held on 26 August 2008. Muhammad Muhammad Taib, information chief of the UMNO, stated: "Yes of course we have lost . . . we were the underdogs going into this race."[14] Anwar won by a large majority against Arif Shah Omar Shah of the Barisan Nasional coalition, according to Election Commission officials.[15] Reuters reported "Anwar Ibrahim has won with a majority of 16,210 votes"; according to news website Malaysiakini (http://www.malaysiakini.com), Anwar won 26,646 votes, while the government's Arif Omar won 10,436 votes.[16] People's Justice Party spokeswoman Ginie Lim told the BBC: "We won already. We are far ahead."[17]

Final results announced by the Election Commission revealed that Anwar Ibrahim won 31,195 of the estimated 47,000 votes cast in the district, while Arif Shah Omar Shah received 15,524 votes and a third candidate had 92 votes.[18][19]

On 28 August 2008, Anwar, dressed in a dark blue traditional Malay outfit and black "songkok" hat, took the oath at the main chamber of Parliament house in Kuala Lumpur, as MP for Permatang Pauh at 10.03 am before Speaker Tan Sri Pandikar Amin Mulia. He formally declared Anwar the leader of the 3-party opposition alliance. With his daughter Nurul Izzah Anwar, also a parliamentarian, Anwar announced: "I'm glad to be back after a decade. The prime minister has lost the mandate of the country and the nation."[20][21] At that time Anwar needed 30 government lawmakers to defect to the Opposition in order to form the next government.[22][23][24]

Member of Parliament

Anwar Ibrahim speaks at an election campaign

Petition against Najib Razak

Anwar continued to attack Najib first day as prime minister, stating he found inconsistencies in the latter's decision to release 13 Internal Security Act detainees. He said as long as the ISA existed, Barisan Nasional could still detain citizens at will.[25]

Struggle to assemble a majority coalition

Anwar has already missed several deadlines he himself set for the transfer of power, each of which came and went: the most recent was Tuesday 16 September 2008.[26] Anwar said he would need more time, and the recalibration of his message has not gone unnoticed: Deputy Prime Minister Najib Razak chose that day to initiate a broadband internet program Anwar opposes, saying that he had not doubted that the government would still be in office on 16 September.[27] Prime Minister Abdullah Badawi too pointed out that Anwar had missed his own deadline, and dismissed his claim to have secured the defection of 30 MPs.[28]

By 25 September Anwar had still not amassed enough votes, creating doubts for Malaysians about whether he was really ready to take power,[29] particularly in light of his failure to meet his own 16 September deadline for the transition of power. In the interim, UMNO had its own party meeting[30][31] to broker Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi's step down from power in June 2009, a year earlier than previously promised[32]

On 24 October 2008, Anwar admitted problems with his stalled bid to topple the UMNO's majority, saying that Pakatan Rakyat is running out of options to create a majority.[33] His "credibility among ordinary Malaysians has been somewhat dented after Sept 16 and the new promise of forming the Government has not generated the sort of anticipation or excitement as before."[34] Media within the country have taken an increasingly hostile view towards Anwar's protestations and failed threats to assemble a majority government.[35]

On 30 March 2010, Anwar Ibrahim alleged in the Dewan Rakyat the 1Malaysia was mirrored after “One Israel” concept and designed by Mindteams Sdn Bhd, a branch in Malaysia of Apco Worldwide, an international public relations company engaged by the Malaysian government that also created the One Israel concept in 1999 for then Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak.[36] Barisan Nasional government has claimed it was false and its lawmakers have tabled a motion to censure Anwar for misleading the Parliament over his 1Malaysia-One Israel allegations which was passed by the Parliament on 22 April 2010.[37]

Political Conspiracy

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At the UMNO General Assembly, a book, 50 Dalil Kenapa Anwar Tidak Boleh Jadi PM ("50 Reasons Why Anwar Cannot Become Prime Minister") was circulated containing graphic allegations as well as accusations of corruption against Anwar. The book was written by Khalid Jafri, an ex-editor of the government-controlled newspaper Utusan Malaysia and former editor-in-chief of a failed magazine, Harian National. Anwar obtained a court injunction to prevent further distribution of the book and filed a lawsuit against the author for defamation. Police charged the author of the book with malicious publishing of false news.[38] Among the allegations in the book was that Anwar is homosexual. The police were instructed to investigate the veracity of the claims. In what the Sydney Morning Herald termed a "blatantly political fix-up",[39] Anwar was charged with sodomy, convicted and given a 15-year prison sentence.

In 1999, Anwar brought suit against Prime Minister Mahathir for defamation for allegedly uttering accusations of immoral acts and calling Anwar a homosexual at a news conference in Malaysia.[40]

This verdict was partially overturned in 2004, resulting in Anwar's release from prison. The original author of the book died in 2005 of complications from diabetes but not before the High Court found that he had committed libel and awarded Anwar millions of ringgit in compensation.[41] The Federal Court on 8 March 2010 ruled that the 1998 dismissal of Anwar from his Cabinet posts by Mahathir was constitutional and valid, meaning Anwar had failed in his bid to challenge his sacking.[42][43][44]

Release from prison

On 2 September 2004, a panel of three judges of the Federal Court (Malaysia's highest court) overturned the sodomy conviction by 2 to 1, finding contradictions in the prosecution's case.

Anwar completed his term for corruption after his sentence was being reduced for good behaviour. Although the point was by now moot, an appeal on the corruption charges was heard on 6 September 2004. Under Malaysian law a person is banned from political activities for five years after the end of his sentence. Success in this appeal would have allowed him to return to politics immediately. On 7 September, the court agreed to hear Anwar's appeal. However, on 15 September, the of Court of Appeal ruled unanimously that its previous decision to uphold a High Court ruling that found Anwar guilty was in order, relegating Anwar to the sidelines of Malaysian politics until 14 April 2008. The only way for Anwar to be freed from this stricture would have been for him to receive a pardon from the Yang di-Pertuan Agong.

New allegations of sodomy

­­

On 29 June 2008, online news portal Malaysiakini reported that an aide of Anwar Ibrahim had lodged a police report claiming that he had been sodomised by Anwar. The news has since been updated with reports that SMS messages are being distributed claiming that the person who made the report is Anwar's aide, Mohd Saiful Bukhari Azlan, who was arrested and allegedly forced to make a false confession. The same text message also claimed the possibility of Anwar being arrested.[45] Anwar has said that the possibility of a prison sentence as a result of these allegations could be seen as an attempt to remove leadership and transference of power issues caused by his growing support and by-election victories. He also reaffirms his innocence and cites proof in the form of medical reports.[1]

Hidden sex tape allegation

On 21 March 2011 a sex video appeared which claimed to feature Anwar Ibrahim. A day after that, Anwar Ibrahim declined his involvement in the incident and filed a police complaint.[46] The police are currently conducting investigations against a trio of men dubbed the Datuk T trio, who screened the sex video in the first place. They are former Malacca chief minister Tan Sri Abdul Rahim Thamby Chik, businessman Datuk Shazryl Eskay Abdullah and former Perkasa treasurer Datuk Shuaib Lazim.[47][48]

Salahuddin Ayub vice president of the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party ruled out suspending ties with Pakatan Rakyat stating that,"Everything is wrong about the whole scandal. The way the video was revealed was wrong and watching it is wrong. Islam does not accept this,".[49] However the chief of PAS's Ulama council has stated that if the video is authentic they would consider reviewing ties with PKR.[49] Lim Kit Siang, head of the Democratic Action Party stated that the Barisan Nasional reached "new depths in character assassination" and that the scandal was manufactured just in time for the Sarawak Elections.[49] Chairman of UMNO's youth wing, Khairy Jamaluddin stated that the Barison National never said that it was Anwar in the video, and that it was odd that the opposition automatically took a defensive attitude.[50] Barisan Nasional MP, Abdul Rahman Dahlan stated that the matter should remain personal, and not be used for political purposes.[50] On 4 April, part of the sex clip with a running time of nearly two minutes, was leaked online on anti-PKR blogsites and Youtube. A second part of the sex video was released on Youtube and a pro-UMNO blog website.[51][52] The police and the government have been criticized for their slow response by the opposition in prosecuting the culprits who showed the sex video.

Remarks on Israel, APCO and 1Malaysia

Anwar has made numerous remarks about a supposed conspiracy among the Malaysian government, APCO (a public relations firm retained by the Malaysian government), Israel, and the United States. Anwar has condemned the Malaysian government for seeking advice from APCO. He claims that the firm is linked to the “murder of Muslims in Palestine.” He further claims to have given proof that APCO is a front for the Israeli government to a disciplinary committee of the Malaysian parliament investigating his comments. On another occasion, Anwar, speaking from the parliament, claimed that the firm was controlled by Jews and working on behalf of the American government to influence Malaysian foreign policy. He further implied that changes in Malaysian foreign policy could only be explained if Jews were manipulating Malaysia for the United States.[53]

On 22 April 2010 Anwar was censured by Malaysia's parliament for remarks he made during a press conference in parliament on 30 March 2010. During the press conference, Anwar claimed to have documents linking 1Malaysia, One Israel, and the public relations firm APCO but refused to allow access to the documents when challenged[36] The Malaysian government and APCO have both strongly denied Anwar's allegations. The censure motion passed by the House of Representatives referred Anwar's case to the Rights and Privileges Committee which will recommend a punishment for approval by the full chamber. Such punishment could include being banned from parliament.[37][54][55] However Anwar retaliated against the Malaysian government attacks by producing the two documents to back up his statements and refute the government's denials of links between APCO and 1Malaysia.[56][57]

In a press conference at the London School of Economics Anwar made comments about Zionists and "nasty Jews". In the press conference he also stated that, "There are good Jews, there are bad Jews, there are good Muslims and bad Muslims."[58]

In May 2010, B'nai B'rith International, a prominent Jewish human rights organization condemned Anwar in a letter to the United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, claiming that Anwar was a "purveyor of anti-Jewish hatred" and asked the American government to suspend all contact with Anwar.[59]

In Malaysia, Anwar has often been mocked for having "Jewish friends." Najib's mentor and predecessor, Mahathir, even went so far as to say Anwar "would make a good prime minister for Israel." In return, Anwar seized Najib's hiring of APCO as a chance to issue inflammatory remarks on the firm's supposed ties to Israel.

Personal life

Anwar was born in Cherok Tok Kun, a village on the mainland side of the northern Malaysian state of Penang, to an Indian Muslim hospital porter, Ibrahim Abdul Rahman (later to join politics and retire as Parliamentary Secretary in the Ministry of Health) and Che Yan, a housewife (and later UMNO politician). He undertook his secondary education at the Malay College Kuala Kangsar. He was educated at the University of Malaya, where he read Malay Studies.

He is married to Dr Wan Azizah Wan Ismail and they have four daughters and a son. His eldest daughter, Nurul Izzah Anwar, is also a member of Parliament. In 2010 Anwar underwent two separate LASIK operations which rendered him with 20-20 vision, one of which was to treat an eye injury sustained when he was beaten by the then-chief police inspector in 1998.[60]

Publications and speeches

Anwar giving a speech in 2005.

Articles

Op-ed

Speeches

Media and news

Interviews

Articles

References

  1. ^ a b Interview with Anwar Ibrahim
  2. ^ Ian Stewart, The Mahathir Legacy: A Nation Divided, a Region at Risk, Allen & Unwin, 2003, p 22-24 :"(Anwar) used ... large cash payments to win enough support to secure the position of UMNO deputy president and replace veteran leader Ghafar Baba as deputy prime minister.... Anwar used the payment and patronage system to his advantage.... Anwar's followers — as witnessed by myself and other journalists- were handing out packets of money to acquire support of UMNO division leaders in his 1993 campaign against Ghafar Baba... They were not only working for Anwar but under his instructions."
  3. ^ Anwar Ibrahim http://acmcu.georgetown.edu/119089.html
  4. ^ "AccountAbility". http://www.accountability.org.uk/. Retrieved 16 July 2008. 
  5. ^ Foundation for the Future Holds its First Board Meeting in Doha, Qatar, 15 July 2006
  6. ^ Ethics Committee Case No2 and President's Paper, p.102, 2 Jun 2005, World Bank
  7. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/1998/12/06/business/he-s-seen-the-enemy-it-looks-like-him.html?scp=5&sq=george soros public enemy&st=cse&pagewanted=1
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  28. ^ "Malaysian PM calls opposition bluff". Al Jazeera English. 16 September 2008. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/asia-pacific/2008/09/200891643451339289.html. Retrieved 16 September 2008. 
  29. ^ "Anwar Out of Steam?". nst.com.my (New Strait Times). 25 September 2008. http://www.straitstimes.com/Breaking%2BNews/SE%2BAsia/Story/STIStory_282324.html. Retrieved 29 September 2008. 
  30. ^ "Malaysia's ruling party set to discuss PM's future". Radio Australia (Australian Broadcasting Corporation). 25 September 2008. http://www.radioaustralia.net.au/news/stories/200809/s2374688.htm?tab=latest. Retrieved 29 September 2008. 
  31. ^ "Umno meets tomorrow on transition". MI (The Malaysian Insider). 25 September 2008. http://www.themalaysianinsider.com/index.php/malaysia/9573-umno-meets-tomorrow-on-transition. Retrieved 29 September 2008. 
  32. ^ "Source says Malaysia PM may step down early". Reuters UK (Reuters UK). 25 September 2008. http://uk.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idUKTRE48O2D220080925. Retrieved 29 September 2008. 
  33. ^ "Anwar: No hurry to take over govt". The New Straits Times Online. 24 October 2008. http://www.nst.com.my/Current_News/NST/Friday/Frontpage/2384279/Article/index_html. Retrieved 24 October 2008. [dead link]
  34. ^ "Still waiting in the wings". The Star. 9 November 2008. http://thestar.com.my/columnists/story.asp?col=joceline&file=/2008/11/9/columnists/joceline/2459947&sec=Joceline. Retrieved 9 November 2008. 
  35. ^ "DEWAN DISPATCHES: Anwar Ibrahim’s obsession with Najib the ‘Dictator’ may be good for the nation". New Straits Times. 12 November 2008. http://www.nst.com.my/Misc/Parliament/dispatch/story/20081112222733/Article/index1_html. Retrieved 13 November 2008. [dead link]
  36. ^ a b Parliament: Anwar claims Apco was in M’sia before 1Malaysia concept was announced, The Star, 30 March 2010
  37. ^ a b Malaysia parliament votes to censure Anwar, Reuters, 22 Apr 2010
  38. ^ "Judge gives reasons for ruling in favour of Anwar". Daily Express (UK). 26 January 2005. http://www.dailyexpress.com.my/news.cfm?NewsID=32237. Retrieved 3 February 2010. 
  39. ^ Hartcher, Peter (23 February 2010). "Outdated political thuggery embarrasses Malaysia". The Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/opinion/politics/malaysia-embarrassed-by-outdated-political-thuggery-20100222-ornl.html. 
  40. ^ "Anwar vs Dr M: 2 judges recuse themselves". Malaysian Mirror. 1 March 2010. http://www.malaysianmirror.com/homedetail/45-home/32074-anwar-vs-dr-m-2-judges-recuse-themselves. Retrieved 1 March 2010. 
  41. ^ "What is RM100 million?". Malaysian Insider. 28 May 2009. http://www.themalaysianinsider.com/index.php/opinion/jameschin/27869-what-is-rm100-million. Retrieved 30 January 2010. 
  42. ^ "Court: Anwar's sacking from cabinet posts is valid". The Malay Mail. 8 March 2010. http://www.mmail.com.my/content/29538-court-anwars-sacking-cabinet-posts-valid. Retrieved 8 March 2010. 
  43. ^ "Anwar's Sacking From Cabinet Posts In 1998 Is Valid, Federal Court Rules". Bernama. 8 March 2010. http://www.bernama.com/bernama/v5/newsindex.php?id=480510. Retrieved 8 March 2010. 
  44. ^ "Update Anwar's sacking was lawful, rules Federal Court". TheEdge. 8 March 2010. http://www.theedgemalaysia.com/political-news/161024-anwars-sacking-was-lawful-rules-federal-court-.html. Retrieved 8 March 2010. 
  45. ^ "Aide alleges sodomy: Report lodged". Malaysiakini (Mkini Dotcom Sdn Bhd). 28 June 2008. http://www.malaysiakini.com/news/85246. Retrieved 28 June 2008. 
  46. ^ Malaysian Leader Anwar Ibrahim denies involvement in Sex Video
  47. ^ http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2011/4/18/nation/8503179&sec=nation Cops probing those behind screening of sex video
  48. ^ http://www.bernama.com/bernama/v5/newsindex.php?id=580022 Sex Video: "Datuk T" Trio May Be Charged
  49. ^ a b c Meiking, Yuen (22 March 2011). "PAS and DAP stand by Anwar". The Star. http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2011/3/22/nation/20110322205213&sec=nation. Retrieved 23 March 2011. 
  50. ^ a b Sivanandam, Hemananthan (21 March 2011). "Sex clip: Don't look at us, says BN". The Sun Daily. http://www.thesundaily.com/article.cfm?id=59034. Retrieved 23 March 2011. 
  51. ^ Second part of sex video released http://www.freemalaysiatoday.com/2011/04/27/second-part-of-sex-video-released/
  52. ^ Sex video: Police tracing blogger who uploaded 2nd part onto YouTube http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2011/4/28/nation/20110428142117&sec=nation
  53. ^ [The reversal of Anwar Ibrahim, The New Ledger, 10 April 2010, http://newledger.com/2010/04/the-reversal-of-anwar-ibrahim]
  54. ^ Anwar produces APCO documents, Malaysian Mirror
  55. ^ Anwar produces documents on APCO-Israel-1M'sia link, Malaysiakini
  56. ^ Anwar produces APCO documents, Malaysian Mirror
  57. ^ Anwar produces documents on APCO-Israel-1M'sia link, Malaysiakini
  58. ^ Press Conference at the London School of Economics (LSE) 18 March 2010
  59. ^ [1]
  60. ^ Who will succeed Anwar?, Aidila Razak, 2 March 2010, Malaysiakini
  61. ^ Articles at Misbahalhuriyya.org
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  63. ^ الإسلام الراديكالي في جنوب شرق آسيا
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Other references

External links

Home pages

Affiliations and appointments

Political offices
Preceded by
Ghafar Baba
Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia
1993–1998
Succeeded by
Abdullah Ahmad Badawi
Preceded by
Wan Azizah Wan Ismail
Leader of the Opposition of Malaysia
2008 – present
Incumbent
Parliament of Malaysia
Preceded by
Zabidi Ali
Member of Parliament for Permatang Pauh
1988–1999
Succeeded by
Wan Azizah Wan Ismail
Preceded by
Wan Azizah Wan Ismail
Member of Parliament for Permatang Pauh
2008 – present
Incumbent
Party political offices
Preceded by
Wan Azizah Wan Ismail
Leader of the People's Pact
2008 – present
Incumbent

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