- Pudukkottai state
Infobox Former Country
conventional_long_name = Kingdom of Pudukkottai/Princely State of Pudukkottai
common_name = Mysore
continent = moved from Category:Asia to the South Asia
region = South Asia
country = India
status = Empire
status_text = Kingdom (Subordinate to
Princely stateunder the paramountcyof the British Raj(1800 - 1947)
year_start = 1680
year_end = 1947
event1 = Earliest records
p1 = Madurai Nayaks
s1 = British India
s2 = India
flag_s2 = Flag of India.svg
common_languages = Tamil, English
religion = Hindu
leader1 = Ragunatha Raya Tondaiman
leader2 = Rajagopala Tondaiman
year_leader1 = (first)1680-1730
year_leader2 = (first)1928-1947
title_leader = Ruler
Pudukkottai State was a kingdom in the
Madras Presidencywhich existed from 1680 to 1947. It was one of the five states in political relations with the Government of Madras.
The state of Pudukkottai comprised the whole of the modern district of Pudukkottai in
Tamil Naduand extended from 10 degress 7' to 10 degress 44'N latitudes and 78 degrees 25' and 79 degrees 12' E longitudes.Imperial Gazetteer of India 1908, Pg 230] It is bounded on the north and west by Tiruchirapalli district, on the south by Madurai districtand on the east by Thanjavur district.Imperial Gazetteer of India 1908, Pg 231] It extended f0r 52 miles from east to west and 41 miles from north to south and encompassed an area of 1,178 square miles.Trichinopoly District Gazetteer 1907, Pg 350]
During the Sangam times, Pudukkottai had been ruled by the Chola kings. Later, it was under the occupation of an obscure people called the
Kalabhrars. From the 6th to the 14th century AD, Pudukkottai was successively ruled by the Pallavas, Cholas and the Pandyas. When the Pandya kingdom was conquered by Malik Kafur, Pudukkottai came under the rule of Muslim sultans who held power for about 50 years before being vanquished by the Vijayanagar kings. When the Vijayanagar kingdom disintegrated, Pudukkottai came under the rule of the Nayaks of Madurai from whom Raghunatha Kilavan, the sethupathi of Ramnad wrested the country in 1680 and appointed Raghunatha Tondaiman as the viceroy.
The popularion statistics for Pudukkottai state from 1871 to 1901Imperial Gazetteer of India 1908, Pg 233] are given below:
The state had one town (Pudukkottai) and 377 villages.
The kingdom was predominantly Hindu. However, there were significant Muslim and Christian populations.
According to the 1901 census, there were 353,723 Hindus who formed 95% of the state's population. Muslims who numbered 12,268 formed 3.2% of the poplation while the Christians numbering 14,449 formed 3.8% of the population.
Pudukkottai was administered by a council headed by the Raja.Imperial Gazetteer of India 1908, Pg 234] This Council was made up of the Raja, the Dewan and a Councillor.Imperial Gazetteer of India 1908, Pg 234] In 1902, a legislature was established comprising of 30 members nominated by the heads of departments and by public institutions. The Political Agent represented the Madras Government. From 1800, when the first Political agent was appointed, till 1840, the Poltical Agent was usually the Resident at
Tanjore, from 1840 to 1865, the Agent was the Collector of Madurai and from 1865 to 1947 the agent was the Collector of Trichinopoly. All the decisions made by the Diwan are passed to the Madras Government for approval before they become the law.
The Superintendent of police in Trichinopoly District is ex-officio Superintendent of the force within the State. In 1909, the police force of Pudukkottai state consisted of one chief inspector, 5 inspectors, 28 head constables, and 229 constables. There are 23 police stations.
The judiciary of the state in under the control of the Dewan. There was one Chief Court in Pudukkottain town and ten Small Cause Courts in rural areas of Pudukkottai. Europeans were not subject to the jurisdiction of the courts. Offenses involving Europeans were handled by the Political Agent.
In 1903-04, the revenue of the State amounted to Rs. 11,28,00 while the total expenditure was Rs.10,21,000.
The currency of the state was the
British Indian rupee, but apart from British Indian coins, coins called "Amman kasu" which were locally minted were also used. The coin bears on onse side the motiff "Vijaya", the Telugu word for "victory", while on the other side of the coin is representation of goddess Brihadamba.
Agriculture, Industry and Manufacture
The chief products of Pudukkottai were silk, cotton, rush mats, bangles, bell-metal vessels and perfumes.
The chief exports of Pudkkottai were perfumes, groundnuts, "Nux vomica" seeds, "avaram" blocks used for tanning leather and "acacia" bark used in distilleries. The chief imports are salt, rice, European piece-goods, andtobacco.
* cite book | title=The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume XX| last=| first=| year=1908| pages=| publisher=Clarendon Press| location=London
* cite book | title=Trichinopoly District Gazetteer, Volume I| last=| first=| year=1907| pages=| publisher=Clarendon Press| location=London
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