Pudukkottai state


Pudukkottai state

Infobox Former Country
native_name =
conventional_long_name = Kingdom of Pudukkottai/Princely State of Pudukkottai
common_name = Mysore
continent = moved from Category:Asia to the South Asia
region = South Asia
country = India
status = Empire
status_text = Kingdom (Subordinate to Ramnad until 1800).
Princely state under the paramountcy of the British Raj(1800 - 1947)
government_type = Principality
event_start =
year_start = 1680
date_start =
event_end =
year_end = 1947
date_end =
event1 = Earliest records
date_event1 =
p1 = Madurai Nayaks
flag_p1 =
s1 = British India
flag_s1 =Flag_of_Imperial_India.svg
s2 = India
flag_s2 = Flag of India.svg


image_map_caption =
capital = Pudukkottai
national_anthem =
common_languages = Tamil, English
religion = Hindu
leader1 = Ragunatha Raya Tondaiman
leader2 = Rajagopala Tondaiman
year_leader1 = (first)1680-1730
year_leader2 = (first)1928-1947
title_leader = Ruler

Pudukkottai State was a kingdom in the Madras Presidency which existed from 1680 to 1947. It was one of the five states in political relations with the Government of Madras.

Location

The state of Pudukkottai comprised the whole of the modern district of Pudukkottai in Tamil Nadu and extended from 10 degress 7' to 10 degress 44'N latitudes and 78 degrees 25' and 79 degrees 12' E longitudes.Imperial Gazetteer of India 1908, Pg 230] It is bounded on the north and west by Tiruchirapalli district, on the south by Madurai district and on the east by Thanjavur district.Imperial Gazetteer of India 1908, Pg 231] It extended f0r 52 miles from east to west and 41 miles from north to south and encompassed an area of 1,178 square miles.Trichinopoly District Gazetteer 1907, Pg 350]

History

During the Sangam times, Pudukkottai had been ruled by the Chola kings. Later, it was under the occupation of an obscure people called the Kalabhrars. From the 6th to the 14th century AD, Pudukkottai was successively ruled by the Pallavas, Cholas and the Pandyas. When the Pandya kingdom was conquered by Malik Kafur, Pudukkottai came under the rule of Muslim sultans who held power for about 50 years before being vanquished by the Vijayanagar kings. When the Vijayanagar kingdom disintegrated, Pudukkottai came under the rule of the Nayaks of Madurai from whom Raghunatha Kilavan, the sethupathi of Ramnad wrested the country in 1680 and appointed Raghunatha Tondaiman as the viceroy.

Population

The popularion statistics for Pudukkottai state from 1871 to 1901Imperial Gazetteer of India 1908, Pg 233] are given below:

The state had one town (Pudukkottai) and 377 villages.

Religion

The kingdom was predominantly Hindu. However, there were significant Muslim and Christian populations.

According to the 1901 census, there were 353,723 Hindus who formed 95% of the state's population. Muslims who numbered 12,268 formed 3.2% of the poplation while the Christians numbering 14,449 formed 3.8% of the population.

Administration

Pudukkottai was administered by a council headed by the Raja.Imperial Gazetteer of India 1908, Pg 234] This Council was made up of the Raja, the Dewan and a Councillor.Imperial Gazetteer of India 1908, Pg 234] In 1902, a legislature was established comprising of 30 members nominated by the heads of departments and by public institutions. The Political Agent represented the Madras Government. From 1800, when the first Political agent was appointed, till 1840, the Poltical Agent was usually the Resident at Tanjore, from 1840 to 1865, the Agent was the Collector of Madurai and from 1865 to 1947 the agent was the Collector of Trichinopoly. All the decisions made by the Diwan are passed to the Madras Government for approval before they become the law.

Police

The Superintendent of police in Trichinopoly District is ex-officio Superintendent of the force within the State. In 1909, the police force of Pudukkottai state consisted of one chief inspector, 5 inspectors, 28 head constables, and 229 constables. There are 23 police stations.

Military

Sub-Divisions

For administrative purposes, the state wads divided into threee taluks: Kolattur, Alangudi and Thirumayam, each under the authority of a "Tahsildar" who was responsible for land revenue.

Judiciary

The judiciary of the state in under the control of the Dewan. There was one Chief Court in Pudukkottain town and ten Small Cause Courts in rural areas of Pudukkottai. Europeans were not subject to the jurisdiction of the courts. Offenses involving Europeans were handled by the Political Agent.

Revenue

In 1903-04, the revenue of the State amounted to Rs. 11,28,00 while the total expenditure was Rs.10,21,000.

Currency

The currency of the state was the British Indian rupee, but apart from British Indian coins, coins called "Amman kasu" which were locally minted were also used. The coin bears on onse side the motiff "Vijaya", the Telugu word for "victory", while on the other side of the coin is representation of goddess Brihadamba.

Agriculture, Industry and Manufacture

The chief products of Pudukkottai were silk, cotton, rush mats, bangles, bell-metal vessels and perfumes.

Trade

The chief exports of Pudkkottai were perfumes, groundnuts, "Nux vomica" seeds, "avaram" blocks used for tanning leather and "acacia" bark used in distilleries. The chief imports are salt, rice, European piece-goods, andtobacco.

Notes

References

* cite book | title=The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume XX| last=| first=| year=1908| pages=| publisher=Clarendon Press| location=London
* cite book | title=Trichinopoly District Gazetteer, Volume I| last=| first=| year=1907| pages=| publisher=Clarendon Press| location=London


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