Lexicography is divided into two related disciplines:

  • Practical lexicography is the art or craft of compiling, writing and editing dictionaries.
  • Theoretical lexicography is the scholarly discipline of analyzing and describing the semantic, syntagmatic and paradigmatic relationships within the lexicon (vocabulary) of a language, developing theories of dictionary components and structures linking the data in dictionaries, the needs for information by users in specific types of situation, and how users may best access the data incorporated in printed and electronic dictionaries. This is sometimes referred to as 'metalexicography'.

A person devoted to lexicography is called a lexicographer.

General lexicography focuses on the design, compilation, use and evaluation of general dictionaries, i.e. dictionaries that provide a description of the language in general use. Such a dictionary is usually called a general dictionary or LGP dictionary (Language for General Purpose). Specialized lexicography focuses on the design, compilation, use and evaluation of specialized dictionaries, i.e. dictionaries that are devoted to a (relatively restricted) set of linguistic and factual elements of one or more specialist subject fields, e.g. legal lexicography. Such a dictionary is usually called a specialized dictionary or LSP dictionary and following Nielsen 1994, specialized dictionaries are either multi-field, single-field or sub-field dictionaries.

There is some disagreement on the definition of lexicology, as distinct from lexicography. Some use "lexicology" as a synonym for theoretical lexicography; others use it to mean a branch of linguistics pertaining to the inventory of words in a particular language.

It is now widely accepted that lexicography is a scholarly discipline in its own right and not a sub-branch of applied linguistics, as the chief object of study in lexicography is the dictionary (see e.g. Bergenholtz/Nielsen/Tarp 2009).




Coined in English 1680, the word "lexicography" derives from the Greek "λεξικογράφος" (lexikographos), "lexicographer",[1] from "λεξικόν" (lexicon), neut. of "λεξικός" (lexikos), "of or for words",[2] from "λέξις" (lexis), "speech", "word",[3] (in turn from "λέγω" – lego, "to say", "to speak"[4]) + "γράφω" (grapho), "to scratch, to inscribe, to write".[5]


Practical lexicographic work involves several activities, and the compilation of well crafted dictionaries require careful consideration of all or some of the following aspects:

  • Profiling the intended users (i.e. linguistic and non-linguistic competences) and identifying their needs
  • Defining the communicative and cognitive functions of the dictionary
  • Selecting and organizing the components of the dictionary
  • Choosing the appropriate structures for presenting the data in the dictionary (i.e. frame structure, distribution structure, macro-structure, micro-structure and cross-reference structure)
  • Selecting words and affixes for systematization as entries
  • Selecting collocations, phrases and examples
  • Choosing lemma forms for each word or part of word to be lemmatized
  • Defining words
  • Organizing definitions
  • Specifying pronunciations of words
  • Labeling definitions and pronunciations for register and dialect, where appropriate
  • Selecting equivalents in bi- and multilingual dictionaries
  • Translating collocations, phrases and examples in bi- and multilingual dictionaries
  • Designing the best way in which users can access the data in printed and electronic dictionaries

One important goal of lexicography is to keep the lexicographic information costs incurred by dictionary users as low as possible. Nielsen (2008) suggests relevant aspects for lexicographers to consider when making dictionaries as they all affect the users' impression and actual use of specific dictionaries.

Theoretical lexicography (or metalexicography) concerns the same aspects as lexicography, but is meant to lead to the development of principles that can improve the quality of future dictionaries, for instance in terms of access to data and lexicographic information costs. Several perspectives or branches of such academic dictionary research have been distinguished: 'dictionary criticism' (or evaluating the quality of one or more dictionaries, e.g. by means of reviews (see Nielsen 2009)), 'dictionary history' (or tracing the traditions of a type of dictionary or of lexicography in a particular country or language), 'dictionary typology' (or classifying the various genres of reference works, such as dictionary versus encyclopedia, monolingual versus bilingual dictionary, general versus technical or pedagogical dictionary), 'dictionary structure' (or formatting the various ways in which the information is presented in a dictionary), 'dictionary use' (or observing the reference acts and skills of dictionary users), and 'dictionary IT' (or applying computer aids to the process of dictionary compilation).

One important consideration is the status of 'bilingual lexicography', or the compilation and use of the bilingual dictionary in all its aspects (see e.g. Nielsen 1994). In spite of a relatively long history of this type of dictionary, it is often said to be less developed in a number of respects than its unilingual counterpart, especially in cases where one of the languages involved is not a major language. Not all genres of reference works are available in interlingual versions, e.g. LSP, learners' and encyclopedic types, although sometimes these challenges produce new subtypes, e.g. 'semi-bilingual' or 'bilingualised' dictionaries such as Hornby's (Oxford) Advanced Learner's Dictionary English-Chinese, which have been developed by translating existing monolingual dictionaries (see Marello 1998).

Recommended reading

  • Atkins, B.T.S. & Rundell, Michael (2008) The Oxford Guide to Practical Lexicography, Oxford U.P. ISBN 978-0-19-927771-1
  • Bejoint, Henri (2000) Modern Lexicography: An Introduction, Oxford U.P. ISBN 9780198299516
  • Bergenholtz, H., Nielsen, S., Tarp, S. (eds.): Lexicography at a Crossroads: Dictionaries and Encyclopedias Today, Lexicographical Tools Tomorrow. Peter Lang 2009. ISBN 978-3-03911-799-4
  • Bergenholtz, Henning & Tarp, Sven (eds.) (1995) Manual of Specialised Lexicography: The Preparation of Specialised Dictionaries, J. Benjamins. ISBN 978-9027216120
  • Green, Jonathon (1996) Chasing the Sun: Dictionary-Makers and the Dictionaries They Made, J. Cape. ISBN 0-7126-6216-2
  • Hartmann, R.R.K. (2001) Teaching and Researching Lexicography, Pearson Education. ISBN 978-0582369771
  • Hartmann, R.R.K. (ed.) (2003) Lexicography: Critical Concepts, Routledge/Taylor & Francis, 3 volumes. ISBN 978-0415253659
  • Hartmann, R.R.K. & James, Gregory (comps.) (1998/2001) Dictionary of Lexicography, Routledge. ISBN 978-0415141444
  • Kirkness, Alan (2004) "Lexicography", in The Handbook of Applied Linguistics ed. by A. Davies & C. Elder, Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 54–81. ISBN 978-1405138093
  • Landau, Sidney (2001) Dictionaries: The Art and Craft of Lexicography, Cambridge U.P. 2nd ed. ISBN 052178512X
  • Marello, Carla (1998) "Hornby's biligualized dictionaries", in International Journal of Lexicography 11,4, pp. 292–314.
  • Nielsen, Sandro (1994) The Bilingual LSP Dictionary, G. Narr. ISBN 978-3823345336
  • Nielsen, Sandro (2008) "The effect of lexicographical information costs on dictionary making and use", in Lexikos (AFRILEX-reeks/series 18), pp. 170–189.
  • Nielsen, Sandro (2009): "Reviewing printed and electronic dictionaries: A theoretical and practical framework". In S. Nielsen/S. Tarp (eds): Lexicography in the 21st Century. In honour of Henning Bergenholtz. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 23-41.ISBN 978-90-272-2336-4
  • Ooi, Vincent (1998) Computer Corpus Lexicography, Edinburgh U.P. [1] ISBN 074860815X
  • Zgusta, Ladislav (1971) Manual of lexicography (Janua Linguarum. Series maior 39). Prague: Academia / The Hague, Paris: Mouton. ISBN 978-9027919212

See also


  1. ^ λεξικογράφος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek–English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
  2. ^ λεξικός, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek–English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
  3. ^ λέξις, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek–English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
  4. ^ λέγω, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, An Intermediate Greek–English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
  5. ^ γράφω, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek–English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Lexicography — Lex i*cog ra*phy (l[e^]ks [i^]*k[o^]g r[.a]*f[y^]), n. [Cf. F. lexicographie.] The art, process, or occupation of making a lexicon or dictionary; the principles which are applied in making dictionaries; as, with so many words lexicography can be… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • lexicography — 1670s, from LEXICO (Cf. lexico ) + GRAPHY (Cf. graphy). Related: Lexicographic; lexicographical …   Etymology dictionary

  • lexicography — ► NOUN ▪ the practice of compiling dictionaries. DERIVATIVES lexicographer noun lexicographic adjective …   English terms dictionary

  • lexicography — [lek΄sə käg′rə fē] n. [< Gr lexikon, LEXICON + GRAPHY] the act, process, art, or work of writing or compiling a dictionary or dictionaries lexicographic [lek΄si kə graf′ik] adj. lexicographical lexicographically adv …   English World dictionary

  • lexicography — [[t]le̱ksɪkɒ̱grəfi[/t]] N UNCOUNT Lexicography is the activity or profession of writing dictionaries. Derived words: lexicographer plural N COUNT A lexicographer s job is to describe the language …   English dictionary

  • lexicography — noun Date: 1680 1. the editing or making of a dictionary 2. the principles and practices of dictionary making • lexicographical or lexicographic adjective • lexicographically adverb …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • lexicography — См. lessicologìa …   Пятиязычный словарь лингвистических терминов

  • lexicography — lexicographic /lek si koh graf ik, si keuh /, lexicographical, adj. lexicographically, adv. /lek si kog reuh fee/, n. 1. the writing, editing, or compiling of dictionaries. 2. the principles and procedures involved in writing, editing, or… …   Universalium

  • lexicography — noun a) The art or craft of compiling, writing and editing dictionaries. b) The scholarly discipline of analyzing and describing the semantic, syntagmatic and paradigmatic relationships within the lexicon (vocabulary) of a language and developing …   Wiktionary

  • lexicography — Synonyms and related words: criticism, cryptanalysis, cryptography, cryptology, diagnostics, epigraphy, exegetics, glossography, hermeneutics, lexicology, lexigraphy, literary criticism, metoposcopy, oneirology, onomasiology, onomastics,… …   Moby Thesaurus

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