- Juho Kusti Paasikivi
Infobox President|name= Juho Kusti Paasikivi
President of Finland
March 8, 1946
March 1, 1956
Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Prime Minister of Finland
November 17, 1944
March 3, 1946
order3=Chairman of the Senate of Finland
May 27, 1918
November 27, 1918
Pehr Evind Svinhufvud
death_date=Death date and age|1956|12|14|1870|11|27
party=National Coalition Party (KOK)
spouse=Anna Matilda Forsman (desc.)
Allina (Alli) Valve
Juho Kusti Paasikivi [IPA: juho kusti pɑ:sikiʋi] (
November 27, 1870– December 14, 1956) was the 7th President of Finland (1946–1956). He also served as Prime Minister of Finland (1918 and 1944–1946), and was generally an influential figure in Finnish economics and politics for over fifty years. He is particularly remembered as a main architect of Finland's foreign policy after the Second World War.
He was born as Johan Gustaf Hellsten in 1870 at Koski in
HämeProvince, Finland, the son of August Hellsten, a merchant, and Karolina Wilhelmina Selin. He Finnicized his name to "Juho Kusti Paasikivi" in 1885.
Early life and political career
Paasikivi was orphaned at the age of 14 and was raised by his aunt. The young Paasikivi was an enthusiastic athlete and gymnast. He received most of his elementary education in
Hämeenlinna, where he exhibited an early appetite for reading, and was the best pupil in his class. He entered the University of Helsinkiin 1890, graduating with a Bachelor's degreein 1892, and as a lawyerin 1897. That year he married his first wife, Anna Matilda Forsman (1869-1931). They had four children, Annikki (1898–1950), Wellamo (1900–1966), Juhani (1901-1942), and Varma (1903-1941). In 1901, Paasikivi became a Doctor of Law, and was associate professor of Administrative Law at Helsinki University 1902-1903.
He left this post to become Director-in-Chief of Treasury of the
Grand Duchy of Finland, a position he retained until 1914. For practically all of his adult life, Paasikivi moved in the inner circles of Finland's politics. He supported greater autonomy and an independent Cabinet("Senate") for Finland, and resisted Russia's panslavic intentions to make Russian the only official language everywhere in the Russian Empire. He belonged, however, to the more complying Fennomanor "Old Finn" Party, opposing radical and potentially counter-productive steps which could be perceived as aggressive by the Russians. Paasikivi served as a Finnish Partymember of Parliament 1907-1909 and 1910-1913. He served as a member of the Senate 1908-1909, as Head of the Finance Division.
Independence and Civil War
During the First World War Paasikivi began to have doubts about the Fennoman Party's obedient line. In 1914, after resigning his position at the Treasury, and also standing down as a member of Parliament, Paasikivi left public life and office. He became Chief General Manager of the "Kansallis-Osake-Pankki" (KOP) bank, retaining that position until 1934. Paasikivi also served as a member of Helsinki City Council 1915-1918.
February Revolutionin Russia 1917, Paasikivi was appointed to committee that began to formulate new legislation for a modernized Grand Duchy. Initially he supported increased autonomy within the Russian Empire, in opposition to the Social Democrats in the "coalition-Senate," who in vain strived for more far-reaching ; but after the Bolshevik October RevolutionPaasikivi championed full independence — albeit in the form of constitutional monarchy.
During the Civil War in Finland Paasikivi was firmly on the side of the White government. As Prime Minister May-November 1918 he strived for continued
constitutional monarchywith Frederick Charles of Hesse(a German Prince) as king, intending to ensure Finland of German support against Bolshevist Russia. However, as Germany lost the World War, monarchy had to be scrapped for a Republic more in the taste of the victorious Entente. Paasikivi's "Senate" resigned, and he returned to the KOP bank.
Paasikivi, as politically conservative, was a firm opponent of Social Democrats in the cabinet, or Communists in the Parliament. Tentatively he supported the semi-
fascist Lapua movementwhich requested radical measures against the political Left. But eventually the Lapua movement radicalized further, assaulting also Ståhlberg, the Liberal former President of Finland, and Paasikivi like many other supporters turned away from the radical Right. In 1934 he became chairman for the Conservative Kokoomus party, as a champion of democracy, and achieved the party's rehabilitation after its suspicious closeness to the Lapua movement and the failed coup d'état, the Mäntsälä Rebellion.
Ambassador in Stockholm
Widowed in 1931, he re-married Allina (Alli) Valve (1879–1960) in 1934 and resigned from politics. However, he was persuaded to accept the position as Ambassador to Sweden, at this time regarded as Finland's most important embassy. Authoritarian regimes seizing power in
Germany, Polandand Estoniamade Finland increasingly isolated while the Soviet Union threatened. After the gradual dissolution of the League of Nations, and as it turned out that France and the United Kingdom were uninterested, Swedenwas the only regime left who possibly could give Finland any support at all. Approximately since the failed Lapua coup, Paasikivi and Mannerheim had belonged to a close circle of Conservative Finns discussing how this could be achieved.
StockholmPaasikivi strived for Swedish defence guarantees, alternatively a defensive alliance or a defensive union between Finland and Sweden. Since the Civil War the relations between Swedes and Finns had been frosty. The revolutionary turmoil at the end of the World War had in Sweden led to Parliamentarism, increased democracy, and a dominant role for the Swedish Social Democrats. In Finland, however, the result had been a disastrous Civil War and a total defeat for Socialism. At the same time as when Paasikivi arrived in Stockholm, it became known that President Svinhufvud retained his aversion for Parliamentarism and (after pressure from Paasikivi's Conservative Party) had declined to appoint a Cabinet with Social Democrats as Ministers. This didn't improve Paasikivi's reputation among the Swedish Social Democrats dominating the government, who were sufficiently suspicious due to his association with Finland's Monarchist orientation in 1918, and the failed Lapua coup in 1932.
Things actually improved, partly due to Paasikivi's efforts, partly since President Kallio had been elected. As President, Kallio approved of
Parliamentarismand appointed Social Democrats to the Cabinet. But the suspicions between Finland and Sweden were too strong: During the Winter WarSweden's support for Finland was considerable, but short of one critical feature: Sweden neither declared war on the Soviet Union nor send regular troops to Finland's defense. This made many Finns, including Paasikivi himself, judge his mission in Stockholm to have been a failure.
Ambassador in Moscow
Prior to the
Winter War, Paasikivi became the Finnish representative in the negotiations in Moscow. Seeing that Stalindid not intend to change his policies, he supported compliance with some of the demands. When the war broke out, Paasikivi was asked to enter Risto Ryti’s Cabinet as a Minister without portfolio—in practice in the role of a distinguished political advisor. He ended up in the Cabinet's leading triumvirate together with Risto Rytiand Foreign Minister Väinö Tanner(chairman of the Social Democrats). He also led the negotiations for an armisticeand the peace, and continued his mission in Moscow as an ambassador. In Moscow he was, by necessity, isolated from the most secret thoughts in Helsinki, and when he found out that these thoughts ran in the direction of revanche with Germany's aid, he resigned. Paasikivi retired for the second time.
Prime Minister and President
In the summer of 1941, when the
Continuation Warhad begun, he took up writing his memoirs. By 1943 he concluded that Germany was going to lose the war and that Finland was in great danger as well. However, his initial opposition against the pro-German politics of 1940-41 was too well known, and his first initiatives for peace negotiations were met with little support both from Field Marshal Mannerheim and from Risto Ryti, who now had become President.
Immediately after the war, Mannerheim appointed Paasikivi Prime Minister. For the first time in Finland a Communist,
Yrjö Leino, was included in the Cabinet. Paasikivi's policies were realist, but radically different than those of the previous 25 years. His main effort was to prove that Finland would present no threat to the Soviet Union, and that both countries would gain from confident peaceful relations. He had to comply with many Soviet demands, including the War Crimes trial. When Mannerheim resigned, Parliament selected Paasikivi to succeed him as President of the Republic. Paasikivi was then aged seventy five.
As President, Paasikivi kept Finland's foreign relations in the foreground, trying to ensure a stable peace and wider freedom of action. Paasikivi concluded that, all the fine
rhetoricaside, Finland had to adapt to superpower politics and sign treaties with the Soviet Union to avoid a worse fate. Thus he managed to stabilize Finland's position. This "Paasikivi doctrine" was adhered to for decades, and was named Finlandizationin the 1970s.
Paasikivi stood for re-election in the Presidential election of 1950, where he won 171 out of the 300 electoral college votes. The priorities of his second term were centred largely on domestic politics, in contrast to his first term. Stalin's death made Paasikivi's job easier. As a lover of sports, and a former athlete and gymnast, Paasikivi had the pleasure, during his second term of office, of opening the
1952 Summer Olympicsheld in Helsinki.
By the end of Paasikivi's second six-year term, Finland had gotten rid of the most urgent political problems resulting from the lost war. The
Karelian refugees had been resettled, the war reparationshad been paid, rationinghad ended and in 1955 the Soviet Union removed its troops from Porkkalamarine base at Helsinki.
He did not actively seek re-election when his second term ended in 1956, ending his term on March 1, 1956, at the age of eighty five. He died in December, not yet having finished his memoirs.
Paasikivi in banknotes
President J.K. Paasikivi, who had strong background in banking, was featured in various Finnish banknotes. He is one of the three presidents of Finland who had appeared in markka-denominated banknotes of Finland.
* [http://ra.yle.fi/ramgen/opinportti/etalukio/historia/Klip17.rm] Paasikivi's greeting message for the 1952 Summer Olympics (Audio and Visual [English] )
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Juho Kusti Paasikivi — [ˈjuhɔ ˈkusti ˈpɑːsikivi] (* 27. November 1870 in Koski Hl, heute Hämeenkoski; † 14. Dezember 1956 in Helsinki), früherer schwedischer Name (bis 1885): Johan Gustaf Hellsten, war ein … Deutsch Wikipedia
Juho Kusti Paasikivi — Mandats 7e président de la Finlande 8 mars 1946 – … Wikipédia en Français
Juho Kusti Paasikivi — Juho Kusti Paasikivi. Juho Kusti Paasikivi (1870 1956), político finlandés, séptimo presidente de la República de Finlandia (1946 1956). Además ejerció como primer ministro en 1918 y en 1944 1946. Predeceso … Wikipedia Español
Juho Kusti Paasikivi — (1870 1956), político finlandés, séptimo presidente de la República de Finlandia (1946 1956) … Enciclopedia Universal
Paasikivi, Juho Kusti — born Nov. 27, 1870, Tampere, Fin. died Dec. 14, 1956, Helsinki Finnish statesman. He served in the Finnish parliament (1907–13), as minister of finance (1908–09), and as independent Finland s first prime minister in 1918. After World War I, he… … Universalium
Paasikivi, Juho Kusti — (27 nov. 1870, Tampere, Finlandia–14 dic. 1956, Helsinki). Estadista finlandés. Fue parlamentario (1907–13), ministro de hacienda (1908–09) y el primer ministro de Finlandia independiente en 1918. Después de la primera guerra mundial, fue un… … Enciclopedia Universal
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Juho (name) — Infobox Given Name Revised name = Juho imagesize= caption= pronunciation= gender = Male meaning = region = origin = related names = John footnotes = Juho is a male given name. It is a Finnish variation of John. Juho s name day in Finland is on… … Wikipedia
Paasikivi — Paasikivi, Juho Kusti, finnischer Politiker, * Tampere 27. 11. 1870, ✝ Helsinki 14. 12. 1956; 1918 Ministerpräsident, führte 1920 die Friedensverhandlungen mit Sowjetrussland, 1940 mit der UdSSR (zur Beendigung des »Winterkriegs«). Nach… … Universal-Lexikon
Paasikivi — biographical name Juho Kusti 1870 1956 Finnish businessman; president of Finland (1946 56) … New Collegiate Dictionary