- Services for mental disorders
Services for mental disorders offer treatments,
supportand/or advocacyto people judged to have mental disorders(mental illnesses).
Family practice( general practice) centers in communities are commonly the first line for assessment of mental health conditions, and may prescribe psychiatric drugsand sometimes provide basic counselingor therapyfor "common mental disorders". Secondary medical services may include psychiatric hospitals, although since deinstitutionalizationthese have been restricted in favor of wardswithin general hospitals, and community mental health servicesbased more locally.
Such services may be provided on an
inpatientor, more commonly, outpatientbasis. They may offer a range of treatments, usually centered around psychiatric drugs, and be provided by a range of mental health professionals, notably psychiatristsand psychiatric and mental health nurses. Non-medical professions may also be involved, such as clinical psychologists, social workersand various kinds of therapistsor counselors. Usually headed by psychiatrists and therefore based on a medical model, multidisiplinary teams may be involved in Assertive community treatmentand "Early intervention", and may be coordinated via a case managementsystem (sometimes referred to as "service coordination").
Individual therapy services
Numerous services exist exclusively for the
therapyof mental disorders/distress. They may offer Integrative Psychotherapy(an eclectic tailored mix of approaches) or a particular approach, such as cognitive behavioral therapy.
ocial care services
Community services often include
Supported housingwith full or partial supervision, including " halfway houses". Social workersand Support workersprovide support and advocacy.
Many Consumer/Survivor/Ex-patient organizations provide services for those labeled as having a mental disorder. A number of charities providing services are "consumer-led". There are self-help/mutual support groups and day centers or clubhouses. [McLean, A. (2003). [http://www.psychosocial.com/IJPR_8/Recovering1-McLean.html Recovering Consumers and a Broken Mental Health System in the United States: Ongoing Challenges for Consumers/ Survivors and the New Freedom Commission on Mental Health. Part I: Legitimization of the Consumer Movement and Obstacles to It.] International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation. 8, 47-57] [McLean, A. (2003) [http://www.psychosocial.com/IJPR_8/Recovering1-McLean.html Recovering Consumers and a Broken Mental Health System in the United States: Ongoing Challenges for Consumers/ Survivors and the New Freedom Commission on Mental Health. Part II: Impact of Managed Care and Continuing Challenges] International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation. 8, 58-70.]
Traditional healing centers
Traditional healering centersprovide a popular and accessible service across the African continent and other areas of the world, and often deal with mental disorders. [Ngoma MC, Prince M, Mann A (2003) [http://bjp.rcpsych.org/cgi/content/abstract/183/4/349 Common mental disorders among those attending primary health clinics and traditional healers in urban Tanzania.] Br J Psychiatry. 2003 Oct;183:349-55.] [Center for Advocacy in Mental Health [http://www.camhindia.org/hhwm_project.html Role of Traditional Healing Centers (THCs) in Mental Health Service Delivery] ]
Legal services exist to regulate and supervise the
involuntary commitmentor outpatient commitmentof those judged to have mental disorders and to be a danger to themselves or others. Some legal organizations provide specialized services for those diagnosed with mental disorders who may be challenging discriminationor involuntary commitment. Mental health courtsare specialized court dockets exist in some places to provide community treatment and supervision in lieu of incarceration for criminal offenders with mental illness.
A Global Mental Health Group in coordination with the
World Health Organizationhas called for an urgent scaling up of the funding, staffing and coverage of services for mental disorders in all countries, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. [Lancet Global Mental Health Group, Chisholm D, Flisher AJ, Lund C, Patel V, Saxena S, Thornicroft G, Tomlinson M. (2007) [http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0140673607612422 Scale up services for mental disorders: a call for action] Lancet. Oct 6;370(9594):1241-52.] [World Health Organization [http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2007/pr45/en/index.html WHO urges more investments, services for mental health] WHO website, September 2007]
According to the
Recovery model, services must always support an individual's personal journey of recovery and independence, and a person may or may not need services at any particular time, or at all.
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