- William Russell, 1st Duke of Bedford
Early Life, 1616-40
He was the son of
Francis Russell, 4th Earl of Bedfordand his wife Catherine, the daughter and coheir of Giles Brydges, 3rd Baron Chandos.
Russell was educated at
Magdalen College, Oxford, and then, in 1635 went to Madridwhere he hoped to learn Spanish. He returned by July 1637, at which point he concluded a marriage (initially against his father's wishes), to Anne, the sole heir of Robert Carr, 1st Earl of Somerset.
Career during the
English Civil War, 1640-44
=Bedford as Parliamentarian, 1640-42=
From 1640 to 1641, Russell served as MP for Tavistock in first the Short and then the
Long Parliament. John Pymwas the other MP for Tavistock. Russell followed his father's lead and sided with Parliament in its emerging conflict with Charles I which would shortly lead to the English Civil War.
In May 1641, Russell's father died unexpectedly of
smallpoxand he succeeded him as 5th Earl of Bedford. Although he was only 24 at the time, Parliament gave Bedford considerable responsibilities, naming him a commissioner to treat with the king in 1641 and naming him Lord Lieutenant of Devonand Lord Lieutenant of Somersetin 1642. He was made General of the Horse in the Parliamentary Service on 14 July 1642 and in September he led an expedition in western England against royalist forces under the command of the marquess of Hertford. Although Bedford's forces outnumbered Hertford's, Bedford's troops were poorly trained and many deserted and, upon his return to London, Bedford was criticized for his performance.
The next month, he joined
Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essexand fought with the Parliamentarians in the Battle of Edgehillon 23 October 1642.
Bedford as Royalist, 1643
By summer 1643, Bedford had aligned himself with the parliamentary "peace party" headed by
Henry Rich, 1st Earl of Hollandand John Holles, 2nd Earl of Clare, which advocated a settlement with Charles I. When Essex rejected the peace party's advice, Bedford became one of the "peace lords" who abandoned the Parliamentary cause and joined Charles I at Oxford: the king pardoned Bedford for his previous offense.
Bedford returned to battle, this time on the side of the Royalists, with his participation in the
Siege of Gloucester(August 3 - September 5, 1643) and the first Battle of Newbury( 20 September 1643).
Bedford attempts to return to the Parliamentary side, 1643-44
Although Charles I fully pardoned Bedford, Charles' inner circle remained wary of Bedford and was therefore reluctant to give him anything but minor responsibilities. Disillusioned, Bedford returned to the Parliamentary side in December 1643, claiming that he had only been attempting to negotiate a settlement with the king and had never intended to abandon the Parliamentary cause. Parliament, however, remained wary of a man who had abandoned them and refused to allow Bedford to retake his seat in the
House of Lords.
Withdrawal from public life, 1644-60
At any rate, the increasingly radical course pursued by the army in the mid-1640s alienated Bedford and he withdrew to his estate at Woburn. Although he took the Engagement in 1650, Bedford would not play any significant public role during the
Career at the Restoration, 1660-83
the Restorationof 1660, Bedford resumed his seat in the House of Lords, becoming a leader of the Presbyterianfaction. Bedford bore the sceptre at Charles II's coronation in 1661, but he was never close to the king.
In an attempt to win Bedford's support in the run-up to the
Third Anglo-Dutch War, Charles II made Bedford Governor of Plymouthin 1671 and, on 29 May 1672, the day after the Battle of Solebay, had him invested as a Knight of the Garter (K.G.). He held the office of Joint Commissioner for the office of Earl Marshalin 1673. Charles' courtship of Bedford ended shortly thereafter when his overtures to the Dissentersproved fruitless.
Although Bedford attended services in the
Established Church, he also kept a Presbyterian chaplainin his household and his wife was arrested in 1675 for attending a conventicle. This made Bedford a natural ally of Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesburyin opposition to the Earl of Danby's plans to create royalist and Anglican dominance. As such, Bedford supported Shaftesbury and the Whigs during the Exclusion Crisis. As such the king turned against Bedford, and, in 1682, the family borough of Tavistock lost its charter.
econd withdrawal from public life, 1683-88
In 1683, Bedford's son,
William Russell, Lord Russellwas implicated in the Rye House Plotand was executed. Following his son's execution, Bedford withdrew from politics.
Career under William and Mary, 1688-1700
Bedford returned to public life at the time of the
Glorious Revolution. He again carried the sceptre at the coronation of William and Mary, and was made a member of the Privy Council. He was made Recorder of Cambridgein 1689. He was Lord Lieutenant of Cambridgeshireand Lord Lieutenant of Bedfordshirebetween 1689 and 1700 and Lord Lieutenant of Middlesexbetween 1692 and 1700.
He was invested as a Privy Counsellor (P.C.) on
14 February 1689and created Duke of Bedford and Marquess of Tavistock on 11 May 1694. He was created Baron Howland of Streatham on 13 June 1695, with remainder to his grandson, Wriothesley Russell.
Bedford died on
7 September 1700at age 84 at Bedford House, Londonand was buried on 17 September1700 at Chenies, Buckinghamshire.
Marriage and Family
Russell married Anne Carr, daughter of the Earl of Somerset, on
11 July 1637, bringing him a fortune of £12,000. They had seven children:
*Lord James Russell (d. 1712), married Elizabeth Lloyd and had issue.
*Lady Margaret Russell, married her first cousin,
Edward Russell, 1st Earl of Orford
*John Russell, died in infancy.
*Francis Russell, Lord Russell (1638–1678), died unmarried.
William Russell, Lord Russell(1639–1683), married Lady Rachel Wriothesley and had issue.
*Lord Edward Russell (c. 1642–1714), married Frances Williams.
*Lady Diana Russell (c. 1652–1701), married firstly,
Greville Verney, 9th Baron Willoughby de Brokeand had issue. She married secondly, William Alington, 3rd Baron Alingtonof Killard and had issue.
tyles from birth
*Lord Russell (1627–1641)
*The Rt Hon. The Earl of Bedford (1641–1672)
*The Rt Hon. The Earl of Bedford, KG (1672–1689)
*The Rt Hon. The Earl of Bedford, KG, PC (1689–1694)
*His Grace The Duke of Bedford, KG, PC (1694–1700)
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