- Battle of Baekgang
Infobox Military Conflict
conflict=Battle of Baekgang
date=August 27–28, 663
place=Lower reaches of the
Geum River, Korea
result=Decisive Tang and
combatant1=Tang Dynasty China and
combatant2=Yamato Japan and
King Munmu Liu Rengui Buyeo YungLiu Renyuan Sun Renshi Du Xuang
Abe no Hirafu Buyeo Pung
strength1=7,000 Tang troops170 Tang ships
5,000 Baekje restoration troops
casualties1=Unknown, but much lighter than opposing forces
casualties2=400 ships; 10,000 troops; 1,000 horses
The Battle of Baekgang, also known as Battle of Baekgang-gu or by the Japanese name Battle of Hakusukinoe (白村江の戦い "Hakusuki-no-e no Tatakai" or "Hakusonkō no Tatakai") [Although "suki" is used in the former reading as a kun reading, the
Kōjienstates that this was an ancient Korean word meaning "village".] , was a battle between Baekjerestoration forces, and its ally, Yamato Japan, against the allied forces of Sillaand the Tang Dynastyof China. The battle took place in the lower reaches of the Geum Riverin Jeollabuk-doprovince, Korea. The Silla-Tang forces won a decisive victory, forced Yamato Japan to withdraw completely from Korean affairs and crushed the Baekjerestoration movement.
In 660 A.D., the Korean peninsula was divided into three kingdoms, called
Baekje, Sillaand Goguryeo. These three kingdoms constantly fought with each other for control of the peninsula. Furthermore, Goguryeo had been engaged in constant wars with the Chinese Suiand Tang dynasties in addition to the aforementioned two Korean kingdoms.
Silla had an ongoing alliance with the
Tang Dynasty. The Tang made a series of assaults against Goguryeo, but were never able to conquer it. All the Tang invasions had been from the north attacking the south. Tang decided that the best strategy might be to attack Goguryeo from both the northern front and a southern front simultaneously with their ally Silla. However, in order to do this, they had to eliminate Goguryeo's nominal ally Baekje and secure a base of operations in southern Korea for a second front.
Together, Silla and Tang invaded Baekje and effectively eliminated it when they captured the capital of Sabi, as well as Baekje's last king, Uija, and most of the royal family. Soon afterwards, however, the Baekje people revolted and threw off Silla and Tang rule in large areas of northern Baekje. The Baekje general
Boksinattempted to take back the 40 lost counties. He also recalled Prince Buyeo Pung from Japan, sent 100 Tang prisoners to the Yamato court and requested military aid. General Boksin proclaimed Prince Buyeo Pung as the new king of Baekje. Although the restoration forces had some initial success against Tang and Silla troops, by 662, they were in serious trouble and their area of control was confined to the fortress of Churyu and its immediate surroundings. As their situation went from bad to worse, Buyeo Pung had Boksin killed for fear of insurrection.
Baekje and Yamato Japan had been long-standing allies and their royal houses had blood relations. The fall of Baekje in 660 came as a terrible shock to the Yamato royal court.
Empress Saimeihad said:
"We learn that in ancient times there have been cases of troops being asked for and assistance requested: to render help in emergencies, and to restore that which has been interrupted, is a manifestation of ordinary principles of right. The Land of Baekje, in its extremity, has come to us and placed itself in our hands. Our resolution in this matter is unshakable. We will give separate orders to our generals to advance at the same time by a hundred routes."
Crown Prince "Naka no Ōe", later to become
Emperor Tenji, and Empress Saimei decided to dispatch an expeditionary force led by Abe no Hirafu(阿倍比羅夫) to help the Baekje restoration forces. The troops were drawn from local strongmen ("kuni no miyatsuko") from mostly western Honshū, Shikoku, and especially from Kyūshū, though some warriors were also from Kantō and northeastern Japan.
Empress Saimei moved the capital to the Asakura temporary palace near the shipyards in northern
Kyūshūto personally oversee the military campaign. As the main fleet set sail, Empress Saimei composed a tanka (Japanese poem of thirty-one syllables) that many scholars believe shows a sense of hope as well as anxiety:
"Waiting for the moonrise to set sail at 'Nikitatsu', It fortunately become a high tide to put up to sea"
The Empress died shortly after the last waves of Yamato troops departed for Korea. The Crown Prince (Tenji) carried her remains back to Asuka. The Crown Prince, dressed in white mourning clothes, set up his residence in the Nagatsu temporary palace in Kyūshū, and continued to oversee the expeditionary operation.
Around August 661, 5,000 soldiers, 170 ships, and the general Abe no Hirafu, arrived in Baekje restoration controlled territory. Additional Japanese reinforcements, including 27,000 soldiers led by "Kamitsukeno no Kimi Wakako" (上毛野君稚子) and 10,000 soldiers led by "Iohara no Kimi" (廬原君), arrived in
In 663, Baekje restoration forces and the Yamato navy convened in southern Baekje with the intent to relieve the capital of the Baekje restoration movement in Churyu, which was under siege by Silla forces. The Yamato navy was to ferry ground troops to Churyu via the Geum river and lift the siege. However, Tang also sent 7,000 soldiers and 170 ships to blockade Yamato reinforcements from relieving the capital. On August 27, 663, the advance guard of the Japanese fleet tried to force their way, but Tang ships held firm, repelled the attacks and maintained disciplined ranks.
On the second day of the battle, the arrival of Japanese reinforcements made their forces several times larger than the Tang fleet arrayed against them. However, the river was narrow enough where the Tang fleet could cover their front and protect their flanks as long as they maintained their ordered battle lines. The Japanese were confident in their numerical superiority and attacked the Tang fleet at least three times throughout the entire day, but the Tang fought off each attack. Towards the end of the day the Japanese became exhausted and their fleet lost cohesion through their repeated attempts to break through Tang lines. Sensing the right moment, the Tang fleet moved reserves and counterattacked, breaking both the left and right flanks of the Japanese, enveloping their fleet and crowding in the ships so they could not move or retreat. Many Japanese fell into the water and drowned and many of their ships were burned and sunk. The Yamato general
Echi no Takutsuwas killed after striking down more than a dozen men in close quarters combat.
Japanese, Korean and Chinese sources all point to heavy Japanese casualties. According to the "
Nihon Shoki", 400 Japanese ships were lost in the battle. Chinese sources claim 10,000 Japanese deaths.
Silla participation in the battle involved cavalry forces that defeated Baekje restoration ground troops that were supporting the Yamato navy on the banks of the river. It is unclear as to whether or not this took place before the Japanese navy went to battle Tang ships or during.
Without Yamato troops to lift the siege, the fortress of Churyu surrendered to Silla and Tang forces in September 7, 663. Buyeo Pung took a boat and fled with several followers to Goguryeo.
The Battle of Baekgang was Japan's greatest defeat in its premodern history. Japan's losses were enormous and there would be no state-sponsored troop deployments to Korea for over 900 years (until Hideyoshi's invasions of Korea in the late 16th century). Japan also lost a key ally on the East Asian continent in Baekje as well as a direct link to continental technology and culture. Due to the scale and severity of their defeat, the Yamato court would fear an invasion from Tang or Silla or both and built a huge network of shore fortifications throughout the rest of the 600's. In 664, the Yamato court established frontier guards and signal fires in Tsushima Island, Iki Island, and northern Kyushu. Also embankments storing water were built around the fortresses in Kyushu which were called the Water Fortress. In 665, the Yamato court sent Baekje generals and artisans to construct a rampart in
Nagato province, and two ramparts in Kyūshū. In 667, a rampart was constructed in the Yamato region, another one at Sanuki, and yet another at Tsushima island. The Japanese would continue to build fortifications until 701.
For Baekje, the battle was the knockout blow that ended any hope of reviving the kingdom. Many Baekje people defected to either Goguryeo or Japan. Baekje royalty who fled to Japan were given the same ranks and titles in the Yamato court and Baekje refugees were given defacto citizenship status or special artisan status.
The victory gave Silla complete control of all former Baekje lands and a secure base in southern Korea to launch a two pronged invasion of Goguryeo. It also allowed Silla to assist Tang troops in their southern invasion of Goguryeo. Tang first launched their attacks from the south in 661 and the Goguryeo capital at
Pyongyangfinally fell in 668.
The battle also introduces interesting questions regarding Japan's relations with the Korean states and their level of development at the time. For example, why did the Japanese fair so badly against Silla and Tang armies? According to several scholars, it is clear that in the 7th century, the Chinese and Koreans had better weapons and more importantly, their troops and officers were better trained and disciplined. Despite years of continental-influenced reforms, the Yamato armies did not adopt the and organized infantry tactics of Chinese and Sillan armies. Furthermore, Yamato Japan was still a nascent and developing state run by local strongmen and without any form of unified command. In addition, Japanese soldiers were drawn from many corners by local "strongmen" that controlled their own territories. It is also doubtful that, among the Japanese, there was a decent level of standardization in either weapons or unit tactics.
Another interesting question that has puzzled many scholars is why did Yamato go through so much effort to protect Baekje? Bruce Batten sums it up by saying:
"Why the Japanese should have thrown themselves with such vigor into a war that, if not quite an intramural Korean conflict, had at least no direct bearing on Japanese territory, is not easy to answer."
The battle, as well as all the preparation behind it, shows that there were strong ties between Yamato Japan and Baekje of Korea that might have been beyond the obvious military, political and economic interests that are regularly shared between states, namely that either they were the same country or that there had been a tributary relationship.
Notes & References
* Aston, W.G. (translated by) 1972 Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A.D. 697. Published by Charles E. Tuttle Company: Toyko, Japan.
* Farris, William Wayne 1995 Heavenly Warriors: The Evolution of Japan's Military, 500-1300 AD. United States of America: Published by The Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University, Cambridge.
* Jamieson, John Charles. “The Samguk sagi and the Unification Wars.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 1969.
Naval history of Korea
Naval history of China
Naval history of Japan
Largest naval battle in history
* [http://museum.wonkwang.ac.kr/kor/edu/edu-pro/pro-04.htm Beakgang Battle]
* [http://www004.upp.so-net.ne.jp/teikoku-denmo/no_frame/history/honbun/hakusuki.html The end of the Battle of Hakusukinoe]
* [http://youngkwang.newsk.com/sub/view.asp?com_id=614&n_id=313012 Baekgang Battle]
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