- Ernesto Burzagli
Ernesto Burzagli (June 7, 1873 – September 13, 1944) was an prominent figure in the early 20th century
Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946). During a lifetime career in the Italian navy, he rose to the rank of admiral and Chief of the Staff of the Navy. In 1933, King Victor Emmanuel II appointed Burzagli as a Senator in Rome.Senato della Repubblica: [http://notes9.senato.it/web/senregno.NSF/1dbf7f5088956bebc125703d004d5ffb/e85245f1a9b500214125646f00596ade?OpenDocument biographical summary] ]
Despite his life service to the state, he was arrested in 1944 after clashing with Mussolini. A short time later, he was released; and he was forced to withdraw from public life.
Burzagli entered the Italian Naval academy ("Accademia Navale") in
Livornoin 1887; and he was commissioned as ensign in 1892. After serving on a number of ships in the Italian navy, he was transferred to a unique assignment in the Far East.
As military attaché with the Japanese Navy from May 1904, he was able to witness the Russo-Japanese War from the perspective of the ultimate victors of that conflict. He participated as an observer in the naval bombardment of Port Arthur. At war's end, Burzagli was awarded a Japanese War medal before leaving Japan for the return voyage to Italy.
In 1912, he was promoted to captain of an Intrepid class naval destroyer.
Promoted to commander in 1914, he saw combat in the First World war.
From May 1916 to March 1917, he served on the General Staff; and in 1917, Captain Burzagli sailed the RN "Libia" across the Atlantic to New York. [Malcolm, James. (1917). [http://books.google.com/books?id=dQsUAAAAIAAJ&q=ernesto+burzagli&dq=ernesto+burzagli&client=firefox-a&pgis=1 "State Service: An Illustrated Monthly Magazine Devoted to the Government of the State of New York and Its Affairs," p. 268.] ] Near the end of the conflict, he was promoted to higher rank.
In February 1918, he was awarded the military Order of Savoy.
At the end of the war in 1919, Burzagli was sent in Albania to command the naval base of Valona.
Burzagli was given command of the cruiser RN "Libia" from February 1921 to February 1923, and during this period, the ship circumnavigated the globe.
Burzagli was promoted to the rank of rear admiral; and he was promoted to head the "Accademia Navale" and the Italian Institute of Marine War.
He wrote a treatise in four volumes, "Manual of Navigation" (1927).
He left his place at the academy in 1927 in to accept the position of Chief of Staff of the Navy, [Segrè, Claudio G. (1990). [http://books.google.com/books?id=eblfCoh5Mh8C&pg=PA188&lpg=PA188&dq=ernesto+burzagli&source=web&ots=0xwcFh7wy6&sig=WBgDmuldVRgoECSxw2kQlodepkQ&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=7&ct=result#PPA188,M1 "Italo Balbo: A Fascist Life," p. 188.] ] a post he held until 1931. [Zivkovic, Georg. (1971). [http://books.google.com/books?id=ON8DAAAAMAAJ&q=ernesto+burzagli&dq=ernesto+burzagli&lr=&client=firefox-a&pgis=1 "Heer- und Flottenführer der Welt; Army and navy-leaders of the world," p. 587.] ]
He was a Technical Advisor in the Italian delegation at the
London Naval Conferenceof 1930 for the reduction of the armaments. [Great Britain Foreign Office. (1930). [http://books.google.com/books?id=-EsSAAAAYAAJ&q=ernesto+burzagli&dq=ernesto+burzagli&client=firefox-a&pgis=1 "Documents of the London Naval Conference, 1930," p. 96.] ] He was promoted to Admiral in 1926, and promoted again to Vice Admiral in 1928. He was Naval Chief of Staff from 1927-1931. He was promoted to Admiral of the Fleet in 1940.
In 1933, he was also named a Senator. In the Senate, he served as a member of the Commission for Examination of Law Conversion (1936-1939), a member of the Commission for Finances (1939-1943), and a member of the Commission for the High Court of Justice (1940-1943).
Burzagli withdrew from the active service in 1936. After the withdrawal to Montevarchi near his estate of Moncioni, he entered in friction with Mussolini for its clean opposition to Italy's entrance into the alliances which might lead to war.
In the spring of 1944, he refused to collaborate with the authorities of the Italian Social Republic; and he was arrested. However, he was released in consideration of his reputation and his advanced age.
He s buried in a monumental tomb in the cemetery of
* , Romania
* , 1920. [Presidencia da Republica, Chancelaria das Ordens Honoríficas Portuguesas. [http://www.ordens.presidencia.pt/pdf/EstrangeirosCondNacionais.pdf "Anuário: Ordens Honoríficas Portuguesas, Ciadadãos Estrangeiros, 1910-2006," p. 75.] ]
* • "Medaglia commemorativa delle campagne d’Africa," Italo-Abyssinian War, 1895-1895.
* , 1904-1905.
* • "Medaglia commemorativa delle guerra italo-turca," Italo-Turkish War, 1911-1912.
* , 1912.
* • "Medaglia commemorativa della guerra 1915-1918," 1919.
* • "Medaglia commemorativa della guerra italo-austriaca, 1915–1920."
* • "Medaglia commemorativa dell' Unità d' Italia."
* • "Medaglia interalleata della Vittoria," Kingdom of Italy, 1919.
* • Medal of the Centenary of the Independence of Peru, 1821-1921, Peru
* • "Croce d' argento per anzianità di servizio."
* • "Croce d' oro per anzianità di servizio."
* • "Medaglia d'onore per lunga navigazione."
* • "Medaglia Mauriziana al merito di dieci lustri di carriera militare," Kingdom of Italy
* Burzagli, Ernesto. (1927). "Manuale dell'Ufficiale di Rotta." Genoa:
** __________ and A Grillo. (1932). "Manual del oficial de derrota" ("Navagation Manual" translated from Italian to Spanish). Barcelona: G. Gilli
* Bernotti, Romeo. (1971). "Cinquant'anni nella Marina militare." Mursia: .
* Canevari, Emilio. (1948). "La guerra italiana, retroscena della disfatta," Tosi.
* Ceva, Lucio. (1981). "Le forze armate," Torino: UTET.
* Great Britain Foreign Office. (1930). [http://books.google.com/books?id=-EsSAAAAYAAJ&q=ernesto+burzagli&dq=ernesto+burzagli&client=firefox-a&pgis=1 "Documents of the London Naval Conference, 1930: Consisting of the Treaty Signed on April 22, the Minutes of Plenary Meetings, Memoranda Submitted by the United States, French, United Kingdom, Italian and Japanese Delegations of Their Position at the Conference, the Report of the First Committee ...."] London: His Majesty's Stationery Office.
* Leva, Fausto. (1936). "Storia delle campagne oceaniche della R. Marina." Rome: Ufficio Storico della Marina.
* Malcolm, James. (1917). [http://books.google.com/books?id=dQsUAAAAIAAJ&q=ernesto+burzagli&dq=ernesto+burzagli&client=firefox-a&pgis=1 "State Service: An Illustrated Monthly Magazine Devoted to the Government of the State of New York and Its Affairs."] Albany, New York: State Service Magazine Co., Inc.
* Ministry of Foreign Affairs ("Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores de Peru"). (1922). [http://books.google.com/books?id=aSHc5fjhkGEC&q=ernesto+burzagli&dq=ernesto+burzagli&lr=&client=firefox-a&pgis=1 "Discursos y documentos oficiales en el primer centenario de la Independencia."] República del Perú. Lima: Impressa Torres Aguirre.
* Po, Guido. (1929). [http://books.google.com/books?id=l_kEAAAAMAAJ&q=ernesto+burzagli&dq=ernesto+burzagli&lr=&client=firefox-a&pgis=1 "L'opera della R. Marina in Eritrea e Somalia (dall'occupazione, alla visita di S.A.R. il Principe Ereditario" ("The Action of the Italian Royal Navy in
Eritreaand Somaliafrom the Occupation through the Visit of H.R.H. Crown Prince Umberto").] Introduzione, Ernesto Burzagli. Rome: Istituto Poligrafico dello Stato (Italian State Printing Office).
* Rea, Alberto. (1977). "L'Accademia aeronautica: cronistoria dalle origini al 1975." Rome: Ufficio Storico SMA.
* Sadkovich, James J. (1994). [http://books.google.com/books?id=ngFnAAAAMAAJ&q=ernesto+burzagli&dq=ernesto+burzagli&client=firefox-a&pgis=1 "The Italian Navy in World War II."] Westport, Connecticut:
Greenwood Press. 10-ISBN 0-313-28797-X; 13-ISBN 978-0-313-28797-8
* Segrè, Claudio G. (1990). [http://books.google.com/books?id=eblfCoh5Mh8C&dq=ernesto+burzagli&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 "Italo Balbo: A Fascist Life."] Berkeley:
University of California Press. 10-ISBN-10 0-520-07199-9; 13-ISBN 978-0-520-07199-5 (paper)
*. (1991). [http://books.google.com/books?id=BjcnAAAAMAAJ&dq=ernesto+burzagli&lr=&client=firefox-a nihongo|"Meiji Period Foreign Decoration History Compilation"|明治期外国人叙勲史料集成|"Meijiki gaikokujin jokun shiryō shūsei".] Kyoto: Shibunkaku Shuppan (思文閣出版). 10-ISBN 4-784-20666-3; 13-ISBN 978-4-784-20666-7
* Vitale, Massimo Adolfo. (1959). " Vitale, L'Italia in Africa: serie storico-militare." Rome: Istituto Poligrafico dello Stato (Italian State Printing Office).
* Wright, Herbert Francis. (1931). "Proceedings of the London Naval Conference of 1930 and Supplementary Documents."Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.
* Zivkovic, Georg. (1971). [http://books.google.com/books?id=ON8DAAAAMAAJ&q=ernesto+burzagli&dq=ernesto+burzagli&lr=&client=firefox-a&pgis=1 "Heer- und Flottenführer der Welt: Army and navy-leaders of the world. Chefs des armées et des flottes du monde."] Osnabrück: Biblio-Verlag. 10-ISBN 3-764-80666-4; 13-ISBN 978-3-764-80666-8
::* "This article also derives significantly from the content and style of the "Ernesto Burzagli" article on the [http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernesto_Burzagli Italian Wikipedia] ."
Enrico Caviglia, military attaché in Tokyo (1904-1905)
* [http://notes9.senato.it/web/senregno.NSF/1dbf7f5088956bebc125703d004d5ffb/e85245f1a9b500214125646f00596ade?OpenDocument Senato Italiano: scheda biografica di Ernesto Burzagli]
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