- Social construction
A social construction or social construct is any phenomenon "invented" or "constructed" by participants in a particular
cultureor society, existing because people agree to behave as if it exists or follow certain conventional rules. One example of a social construct is social status. Another example of social construction is the use of fiat money, which is worth more than the paper it is printed on only because society has agreed to treat it as valuable. Social constructionismis a school of thought which deals with detecting and analyzing social constructions.
Emile Durkheimfirst theorized about social construction in his anthropological work on collective behavior, but did not coin the term. The first book with "social construction" in its title was Peter L. Bergerand Thomas Luckmann's " The Social Construction of Reality", first published in 1966. Since then, the term found its way into the mainstream of the social sciences.
The idea of Berger and Luckmann's Social Construction of Reality was that actors interacting together form, over time, "typifications" or mental representations of each other's actions, and that these typifications eventually become "habitualized" into reciprocal "roles" played by the actors in relation to each other. When these reciprocal roles become routinized, the typified reciprocal interactions are said to be "institutionalized". In the process of this institutionalization, "meaning" is embedded and institutionalized into individuals and society - knowledge and people's conception of (and therefore belief regarding) what reality 'is' becomes embedded into the institutional fabric and structure of society, and social reality is therefore said to be socially constructed. For further discussion of key concepts related to social construction, see
social constructionismand deconstruction.
ocial constructs and language
Pinker (2002, p. 202) writes that "some categories really are social constructions: they exist only because people tacitly agree to act as if they exist". He goes on to say, however: "But, that does not mean that "all" conceptual categories are socially constructed" (italics his). Both Hacking and Pinker agree that the sorts of objects indicated here can be described as part of what
John Searlecalls "social reality". In particular, they are, in Searle's terms, ontologically subjectivebut epistemologically objective. Informally, they require human practices to sustain their existence, but they have an effect that is (basically) universally agreed upon. The disagreement lies in whether this category should be called "socially constructed". Hacking (1997) argues that it should not.
Structure and agency
* [http://philosophy.fas.nyu.edu/docs/IO/1153/socialconstruction.pdf "What is social construction?", essay by Paul A. Boghossian]
* [http://employees.oneonta.edu/farberas/ARTH/ARTH200/gender.html A page about the social construction of gender]
* [http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/med/thorp.html The social construction of homosexuality]
* [http://books.google.com/books?id=vUU4_3GiZxYC&dq=Social+construction&pg=PP1&ots=j0dr3AG9Hb&source=citation&sig=NMldLgm2Rs9BP7kYFyzY7kZM8cg&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=13&ct=result "Social Construction in Context" by Kenneth J. Gergen]
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