Amoeba


Amoeba

Taxobox
name = "Amoeba"


image_width = 250px
domain = Eukaryota
regnum = Amoebozoa
phylum = Tubulinea
ordo = Tubulinida
familia = Amoebidae
genus = "Amoeba"
genus_authority = Bory de Saint-Vincent, 1822
subdivision_ranks = Species
subdivision = "Amoeba proteus"
"Amoeba dubia"

"Amoeba" (sometimes "amœba" or "ameba", plural "amoebae") is a genus of protozoa that moves by means of pseudopods, and is well-known as a representative unicellular organism. The word amoeba or ameba is variously used to refer to it and its close relatives, now grouped as the Amoebozoa, or to all protozoa that move using pseudopods, otherwise termed amoeboids.

History

The amoeba was first discovered by August Johann Rösel von Rosenhof in 1757. [cite journal | last = Leidy | first = Joseph | title = Amoeba proteus | journal = The American Naturalist | volume = 12 | issue = 4 | year = 1878 | pages = 235–238 | url = http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-0147%28187804%2912%3A4%3C235%3AAP%3E2.0.CO%3B2-7 | accessdate = 2007-06-20 | doi = 10.1086/272082] Early naturalists referred to "Amoeba" as the "Proteus animalcule" after the Greek god Proteus who could change his shape. The name "amibe" was given to it by Bory de Saint-Vincent [http://books.google.com/books?id=1I8DAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA158&lpg=PA158&dq=%22bory+de+saint+vincent+jean+baptiste+genevieve+marcellin%22+amibe&source=web&ots=SCcqmYPPSy&sig=vje4JuVmdQzWrFqpXTw2UjRsgx8#PPA5,M1] , from the Greek "amoibè" (αμοιβή), meaning change.cite book | first = Kimberley | last = McGrath | coauthors = Blachford, Stacey (eds.) | title = Gale Encyclopedia of Science Vol. 1: Aardvark-Catalyst (2nd ed.) | year = 2001 | isbn = 078764370X | publisher = Gale Group | oclc = 45477032 46337140 46337175 46337200 46337225 46337244 46337266]

Anatomy

(bacteria) reproduce. In cases where the amoeba are forcibly divided, the portion that retains the nucleus will survive and form a new cell and cytoplasm, while the other portion dies. Amoebas also have no definite shape.cite web | url = http://www.scienceclarified.com/Al-As/Amoeba.html | format = html | publisher = Scienceclarified.com | title = Amoeba]

Reaction to stimuli

Hypertonic and hypotonic solutions

Like most cells, amoebae are adversely affected by excessive osmotic pressure caused by extremely saline or dilute water. Amoebae will prevent the influx of salt in saline water, resulting in a net loss of water as the cell becomes isotonic with the environment, causing the cell to shrink. Placed into fresh water, amoebae will also attempt to match the concentration of the surrounding water, causing the cell to swell and sometimes burst.cite journal | author = Patterson, D.J. | year = 1981 | title = Contractile vacuole complex behaviour as a diagnostic character for free living amoebae | journal = Protistologica | volume = 17 | pages = 243–248]

Amoebic cysts

In environments which are potentially lethal to the cell, an amoeba may become dormant by forming itself into a ball and secreting a protective membrane to become a microbial cyst. The cell remains in this state until it encounters more favourable conditions. While in cyst form the amoeba will not replicate and may die if unable to emerge for a lengthy period of time.

Marine amoeba

Marine amoeba lack contractile vacuoles and their enzymes and organelles are not damaged by the salt water found in seas, oceans, salt swamps, salty rivers and ponds.

Pathogenic interactions with other organisms

Some species of amoeba can infect other organisms pathogenically (causing disease):

*Entamoeba histolytica is the cause of amoebiasis, or "amoebic dystentery"
*Naegleria fowleri (the "brain-eating amoeba") is a fresh-water-native species that can be fatal to humans if introduced through the nose.
*Acanthamoeba can cause amoebic keratitis and encephalitis in humans.
*Balamuthia mandrillaris is the cause of (often fatal) primary amoebic meningoencephalitis

References

External links

* [http://tolweb.org/notes/?note_id=51 Amoebae: Protists Which Move and Feed Using Pseudopodia, David Patterson (Tree of Life)]
* [http://wikibooks.org/wiki/Biology_Cell_biology_Introduction_Cell_size Wikibooks: compare size of cells]
* [http://www.bairbrepaws.com/psneeley/FwrPLA.htm Joseph Leidy's Amoeba Plates]


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  • Amoeba — Разработчик Эндрю Таненбаум Последняя версия 5.3 12 февраля 2001 Тип ядра Микроядро Лицензия MIT Состояние Остановлен Веб сайт …   Википедия

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  • Amoeba — bezeichnet eine Gattung der Amöben, siehe Amoeba (Gattung) ein Betriebssystem, siehe Amoeba (Betriebssystem) Diese Seite ist eine Begriffsklärung zur Unterscheidung mehrerer mit demselben Wort bezeichneter Begriffe …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Amoeba — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Amibe Amoeba : Système d exploitation distribué développé en 1981 à l Université libre d Amsterdam par Andrew Tanenbaum. Ce document provient de «… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • amoeba — [ə mē′bə] n. pl. amoebas or amoebae [ə mē′bē] [ModL < Gr amoibē, change < ameibein, to change] 1. a one celled, microscopic organism belonging to any of several families of rhizopods that move and feed using pseudopodia and reproduce by… …   English World dictionary

  • Amoeba — A*moe ba, Amoeba A*m[oe] ba, n.; pl. L. {Am[oe]b[ae]}; E. {Am[oe]bas}. [NL., fr. Gr. ? change.] (Zo[ o]l.) A rhizopod common in fresh water, capable of undergoing many changes of form at will. Same as {ameba}. See {Rhizopoda}. [1913 Webster] || …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Amoeba — A*moe ba, Amoeba A*m[oe] ba, n.; pl. L. {Am[oe]b[ae]}; E. {Am[oe]bas}. [NL., fr. Gr. ? change.] (Zo[ o]l.) A rhizopod common in fresh water, capable of undergoing many changes of form at will. Same as {ameba}. See {Rhizopoda}. [1913 Webster] || …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • amoeba — см. Приложение 1 (Amoeba). (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • amoeba — (n.) 1855, from Mod.L. Amoeba, genus name (1841), from Gk. amoibe change, related to ameibein to change, exchange, from PIE *e meigw , extended form of root *mei to change, go, move (see MUTABLE (Cf. mutable)). So called for its constantly… …   Etymology dictionary

  • amoeba — amoeba. См. амебы. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • amoebă — s.f. v. amibă. Trimis de LauraGellner, 13.09.2007. Sursa: DN …   Dicționar Român


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