- Joseph Butler
:"You might also be looking for
Joseph G. Butler, Jr., a philanthropist and historian or Joseph Campbell Butler, founding member of The Lovin' Spoonful"
birth_date=May 18, 1692
death_date=June 16, 1752
region = Western Philosophy
color = #B0C4DE
name = Joseph Butler
May 18, 1692O.S. in Wantage, Berkshire, England
British Empiricism, Christian philosophy, egoism
Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Francis Hutcheson
Adam Smith, William Paley, Jeremy Bentham, David Seabury, C. S. Lewis, John Warwick Montgomery
Joseph Butler (
May 18, 1692O.S. – June 16, 1752) was an English bishop, theologian, apologist, and philosopher. He was born in Wantagein the English county of Berkshire(now Oxfordshire). He is known, among other things, for his critique of Thomas Hobbes's egoismand John Locke's theory of personal identity. During his life and after his death, Butler influenced many philosophers, including David Hume, Thomas Reid, and Adam Smith. [White (2006), §8.]
The son of a
presbyterianlinen-draper, he was destined for the ministry of that church, and—along with future archbishop Thomas Secker—entered Samuel Jones's dissenting academy at Gloucester (later Tewkesbury) for that purpose. Whilst there, he entered into a secret correspondence with the conformist controversialist Samuel Clarke; his letters were taken to Gloucester post office by Secker, who also collected Clarke's responses from there. Clarke later published this correspondence. In 1714, Butler decided to enter the Church of England, and went to Oriel College, Oxford. After holding various other preferments, he became rectorof the rich living of Stanhope.
In 1736 he was made the head chaplain of King George II's wife Caroline, on the advice of
Lancelot Blackburne. In 1738 he was appointed bishop of Bristol. He is said (apocryphally) to have declined an offer to become the archbishop of Canterburyin 1747. He became Bishop of Durhamin 1750.
He is most famous for his "Fifteen Sermons Preached at the Rolls Chapel" (1726) and "Analogy of Religion, Natural and Revealed" (1736). The "Analogy" is an important work of Christian
apologeticsin the history of the controversies over Deism. Butler's apologetic concentrated on "the general analogy between the principles of divine government, as set forth by the biblical revelation, and those observable in the course of nature, [an analogy which] leads us to the warrantable conclusion that there is one Author of both." ["Butler, Joseph." "Encyclopedia Britannica", 1911 ed.] Butler's arguments combined a cumulative case for faith using probabilistic reasoning to persuade Deists and others to reconsider orthodox faith. Aspects of his apologetic reasoning are reflected in the writings of twentieth century Christian apologists such as C. S. Lewisand John Warwick Montgomery.
The "Sermons on Human Nature" is commonly studied as an answer to
Hobbes' philosophy of ethical egoism. These two books are considered by his proponents to be among the most powerful and original contributions to ethics, apologetics and theology which have ever been made. They depend for their effect entirely upon the force of their reasoning, for they have no graces of style.
Today, he is commonly cited for the blunt epigram, "Every thing is what it is, and not another thing."."
Butler died in 1752 in Bath,
Somerset. His admirers praise him as an excellent man, and a diligent and conscientious churchman. Though indifferent to general literature, he had some taste in the fine arts, especially architecture.
In the calendars of the Anglican communion his feast day is
*"Several letters to the Reverend Dr. Clarke", 1716, 1719, 1725
*"Fifteen sermons preached at the Rolls Chapel", 1726, 1729, 1736, 1749, 1759, 1765, 1769, 1774, 1792
*"The analogy of religion", 1736, 1740, 1750, 1754, 1764, 1765, 1771, 1775, 1785, 1788, 1791, 1793, 1796, 1798
*"A sermon preached before the Incorporated Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts", 1739
*"A sermon preached before the Right Honourable the Lord-Mayor", 1740
*"A sermon preached before the House of Lords", 1741, 1747
*"A sermon preached in the parish-church of Christ-Church", London, 1745
*"A sermon, preached before His Grace Charles Duke of Richmond, Lenox, and Aubigny, president", 1748, 1751
*"Six sermons preached upon publick occasions", 1749
*"A catalogue of the libraries [...] ", 1753
*"A charge delivered to the clergy at the primary visitation of the diocese of Durham", 1751, 1786
* [http://www.iep.utm.edu/b/butler.htm Joseph Butler] - entry of "The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy".
References and Further Reading
* "Butler, Joseph." "Encyclopedia Britannica", 1911 ed.
* Brown, Colin (1984). "Miracles and the Critical Mind", Paternoster, Exeter UK/William B. Eerdmans, Grand Rapids.
* Craig, William Lane (1985). "The Historical Argument for the Resurrection of Jesus During the Deist Controversy", Texts and Studies in Religion, Volume 23. Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston, New York & Queenston, Ontario.
* Dulles, Avery (1999). "A History of Apologetics", Wipf & Stock, Eugene, Oregon.
* Ramm, Bernard (1962). "Joseph Butler," "Varieties of Christian Apologetics: An Introduction to the Christian Philosophy of Religion", Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, pp. 107-124.
* Rurak, James (1980). "Butler's "Analogy": A Still Interesting Synthesis of Reason and Revelation," "Anglican Theological Review" 62 (October) pp. 365-381.
* White, David E. (2006). " [http://www.iep.utm.edu/b/butler.htm Joseph Butler] ," "The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy", J. Fieser & B. Dowden (eds.).
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Joseph Butler — (18 de mayo de 1692 en Wantage, Berkshire 16 de junio de 1752), fue un filósofo y teólogo inglés. Se le considera como el crítico más importante de las teorías del egoísmo psicológico en el siglo XVIII. Butler afirmaba que lo que hay que lamentar … Wikipedia Español
Joseph Butler — (* 18. Mai 1692 in Wantage; † 16. Juni 1752 in Bath) war ein englischer Bischof der anglikanischen Kirche in Durham und Bristol … Deutsch Wikipedia
Joseph Butler — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Butler. Joseph Butler (18 mai 1692 à Wantage, Berkshire 16 juin 1752), est un philosophe et théologien britannique. Biographie Joseph Butler se fit connaître dès l âge de 21 ans par des objections adressées à… … Wikipédia en Français
Joseph Butler — Butler, Joseph … Philosophy dictionary
Mary Joseph Butler — (December 1641 – 22 December 1723) was the first Irish Abbess of the Irish Benedictine Abbey of Our Lady of Grace, at Ypres, Flanders. She was born at Callan, County Kilkenny, Ireland. Sent to be educated under the care of her aunt, Lady Abbess… … Wikipedia
James Joseph Butler — (1902) James Joseph Butler (* 29. August 1862 in St. Louis, Missouri; † 31. Mai 1917 ebenda) war ein US amerikanischer Politiker. Zwischen 1901 und 1905 vertrat er zwei Mal den Bundesstaat Missouri im US Repräsen … Deutsch Wikipedia
Mary Joseph Butler — Mary Joseph Butler † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Mary Joseph Butler First Irish Abbess of the Irish Benedictine Abbey of Our Lady of Grace, at Ypres, Flanders, b. at Callan, County Kilkenny, Ireland, in Dec., 1641; d. at Ypres, 22 Dec.,… … Catholic encyclopedia
James Joseph Butler — (August 29, 1862 May 31, 1917) was a U.S. Representative from Missouri.Born in St. Louis, Missouri, Butler attended the public schools.He served an apprenticeship as a blacksmith, and worked at that trade for several years.He was graduated from… … Wikipedia
Butler (surname) — Butler is a surname that has been associated with many different places and people. It can be either: * an English occupational name that originally denoted a servant in charge of the wine cellar, from the Norman French word butuiller . It… … Wikipedia
Butler (Familienname) — Butler ist ein Familienname. Bekannte Namensträger Inhaltsverzeichnis A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z … Deutsch Wikipedia