Rafael Trujillo


Rafael Trujillo
Generalissimo
Rafael Trujillo
President of the Dominican Republic
In office
18 May 1942 – 16 August 1952
Preceded by Manuel Troncoso de la Concha
Succeeded by Héctor Trujillo
In office
16 August 1930 – 30 May 1938
Preceded by Horacio Vásquez
Succeeded by Jacinto Peynado
Personal details
Born 24 October 1891
San Cristóbal, Dominican Republic
Died 30 May 1961 (aged 69)
Ciudad Trujillo, Dominican Republic
Nationality Dominican
Political party Dominican Party
Spouse(s) Maria Martínez de Trujillo
Residence Santo Domingo
Profession Soldier

Rafael Leónidas Trujillo Molina (Spanish pronunciation: [rafaˈel leˈoniðas tɾuˈxiʝo]; October 24, 1891 – May 30, 1961), nicknamed El Jefe (Spanish: [el ˈxefe], The Chief or The Boss), ruled the Dominican Republic from 1930 until his assassination in 1961.[1] He officially served as president from 1930 to 1938 and again from 1942 to 1952, otherwise ruling as an unelected military strongman. His 30 years in power, to Dominicans known as the Trujillo Era (Spanish: La Era de Trujillo), is considered one of the bloodiest ever in the Americas, as well as a time of a classic personality cult, when monuments to Trujillo were in abundance. It has been estimated that Trujillo's rule was responsible for the death of more than 50,000 people, including 20,000 to 30,000 in the infamous Parsley Massacre.[2]

Contents

Early life

Rafael Leonidas Trujillo Molina was born in San Cristóbal to José Trujillo Valdez, a small retailer possibly of Canarian origin, and Altagracia Julia Molina Chevalier, later known as Mamá Julia, who was 50 percent Haitian. Trujillo later suppressed knowledge of his mother's ancestry due to his policy of ethnic cleansing of Haitian immigrants. He was born the third of eleven children. His siblings were Rosa María Julieta, Virgilio, José "Petan" Arismendy, Amable "Pipi" Romero, Aníbal Julio, Nieves.

Trujillo's childhood was uneventful. At six he was registered in the school of Juan Hilario Meriño. One year later he transferred to the school of Broughton, where he was a pupil of Eugenio María de Hostos, and remained there for the rest of his primary school.

At sixteen Trujillo got a job as a telegraph operator. He became a member of "The 42", a small gang.[3]

In 1916 Trujillo worked for two years in the sugar industry eventually as a guarda campestre.

Trujillo was killed by an 13 year old and a 9 year old.

Trujillo with his second wife Bienvenida in 1934.

On August 13, 1913, at the age of 21, Trujillo married Aminta Ledesma, a reputable young girl from his hometown of San Cristóbal. They had two daughters: Genoveva, who was born and died in 1914, and Flor de Oro Trujillo Ledesma, born in 1915 and who later married Porfirio Rubirosa. The marriage between Trujillo and Aminta Ledesma, not mentioned in later official biographies, ended in a divorce in 1925.[4]

On March 30, 1927, Trujillo married Bienvenida Ricardo, a girl from Montecristi and the daughter of Buenaventura Ricardo Heureaux. A year later he met María de los Angeles Martínez Alba "la españolita", and had an affair with her. He divorced Bienvenida in 1935 and married Martínez. A year later he had a daughter with Bienvenida, named Odette Trujillo Ricardo.

Trujillo's three children with María Martínez were Rafael Leonidas Ramfis born on June 5, 1929, María de los Angeles del Sagrado Corazón de Jesus (Angelita), born in Paris on June 10, 1939, and Leonidas Rhadamés, born on December 1, 1942. Ramfis and Rhadamés were named after characters in Giuseppe Verdi's opera Aida.

In 1937, Trujillo met Lina Lovatón Pittaluga,[5] an upper-class debutante with whom he had two children, Yolanda in 1939, and Rafael, born on June 20, 1943.

Two of Trujillo's brothers, Héctor and José Arismendy, held positions in his government. José Arismendy Trujillo oversaw the creation of "La Voz Dominicana", the main radio station and later, the television station which became the fourth in the continent.

Rise to power

Poster of Trujillo, representing the Dominican Party.

In 1916, the U.S. occupied the island due to threats of defaulting on foreign debts. The occupying force soon established a Dominican army constabulary to restore order. Seeing opportunity, Trujillo impressed the recruiters and was soon promoted to the rank of general.[3]

A rebellion against President Horacio Vásquez broke out in 1930 in Santiago, and the rebels marched toward Santo Domingo. Trujillo was ordered to subdue the rebellion, but when the mutineers arrived at the capital on February 26, they encountered no resistance. Rebel leader Rafael Estrella was proclaimed as acting president when Vásquez resigned. Trujillo then became the nominee of the newly-formed Dominican Party in the 1930 presidential election. He won on May 16, officially registering 95 percent of the vote — an implausibly high total that could have been obtained only by means of massive fraud. A judge actually declared the election fraudulent, but was forced to flee.[6] It later surfaced that Trujillo received thousands more votes than there were actual voters.

On August 16, the then 38-year-old general took office, wearing a sash with the motto, "Dios y Trujillo" (God & Trujillo). He immediately assumed dictatorial powers.

Trujillo Government

Three weeks later, the destructive Hurricane San Zenon hit Santo Domingo and left more than 3,000 dead. With relief money from the American Red Cross, Trujillo rebuilt the city. On August 16, 1931, the first anniversary of his inauguration, Trujillo made the Dominican Party the sole legal political party. However, the country had effectively been a one-party state since Trujillo had been sworn in. Government employees were required to "donate" 10 percent of their salary to the national treasury,[6][7] and there was strong pressure on adult citizens to join the party. Party members were required to carry a membership card, the "palmita", and a person could be arrested for vagrancy without the card. Those who did not contribute, or join the party, did so at their own risk. Opponents of the regime were mysteriously killed. In 1934, Trujillo, who had promoted himself to generalissimo of the army, was up for re-election. Although he would have won in any case as there was virtually no organized opposition left in the country, Trujillo dispensed even with these formalities. Instead, he relied upon "civic reviews", with large crowds shouting their loyalty to the government.[6]

Personality Cult

At the suggestion of Mario Fermín Cabral, Congress voted overwhelmingly in 1936 to rename the capital from Santo Domingo to Ciudad Trujillo. The province of San Cristobal was created as "Trujillo", and the nation's highest peak, Pico Duarte, was renamed Pico Trujillo in his honor. Statues of "El Jefe" were mass-produced and erected across the Republic, and bridges and public buildings were named in his honor. The nation's newspapers now had praise for Trujillo as part of the front page, and license plates included the slogan: "Viva Trujillo!" An electric sign was erected in Ciudad Trujillo so that "Dios y Trujillo" could be seen at night as well as in the day. Eventually, even churches were required to post the slogan: "Dios en cielo, Trujillo en tierra" (God in Heaven, Trujillo on Earth). As time went on, the order of the phrases was reversed (Trujillo on Earth, God in Heaven). Trujillo was recommended for the Nobel Peace Prize by his admirers, but the committee declined the suggestion. When he received (or summoned) a visitor, his four bodyguards would have submachine guns trained upon the "guest" during the meeting.[8]

Trujillo was eligible to run again in 1938, but, citing the U.S. example of two presidential terms, he stated: "I voluntarily, and against the wishes of my people, refuse re-election to the high office."[8] The Dominican Party nominated Trujillo's handpicked successor, 71 year old vice-president Jacinto Peynado. As the government had banned all other political parties, the election of Peynado and Manuel de Jesús Troncoso was merely a formality. Meanwhile, Trujillo limited himself to being the "Generalissimo", while only nominally ceding control to President Peynado. Peynado increased the size of the electric "Dios y Trujillo" sign and died on March 7, 1940, with Troncoso serving out the rest of the term. In 1942, with President Franklin D. Roosevelt having run for a third term in the United States, Trujillo ran for president again and won overwhelmingly. He served two terms, having lengthened a presidential term to five years. In 1952, his brother, Héctor Trujillo, nominally assumed the presidency.[citation needed]

Oppression

Brutal oppression of actual or perceived members of any opposition was the key feature of Trujillo's rule right from the beginning in 1930 when his gang, "The 42", under its leader Miguel Angel Paulino, drove through the streets in their red Packard carro de la muerte (death car).[9] Imprisonments and killings were later handled by the SIM, the secret police, efficiently organized by Johnny Abbes. Some cases reached international attention such as the Galindez case and the murder of the Mirabal sisters.

Immigration

Trujillo was known for his open-door policy, accepting Jewish refugees from Europe, Japanese migration during the 1930s, and exiles from Spain following its civil war. He developed a uniquely Dominican policy of racial discrimination, Antihaitianismo ("anti-Haitianism"), targeting the mostly-black inhabitants of his neighboring country and those within the Platano Curtain, including many darker Dominican citizens. At the 1938 Evian Conference the Dominican Republic was the only country willing to accept many Jews and offered to accept up to 100,000 refugees on generous terms.[10] In 1940 an agreement was signed and Trujillo donated 26,000 acres (110 km2) of his properties for settlements. The first settlers arrived in May 1940; eventually some 800 settlers came to Sosua and most moved later on to the United States.[10]

Refugees from Europe broadened the Dominican Republic's tax base and added more whites to the predominately mixed-race nation. The government favored Caucasian refugees over others while Dominican troops expelled illegal aliens, resulting in the 1937 Parsley Massacre of Haitian immigrants.

Environmental policy

The Trujillo regime greatly expanded the Vedado del Yaque, a nature reserve around the Yaque del Sur River. In 1934 he created the nation's first national park, banned the slash and burn method of clearing land for agriculture, set up a forest warden agency to protect the park system, and banned the logging of pine trees without his permission. In the 1950s the Trujillo regime commissioned a study on the hydroelectric potential of damming the Dominican Republic's waterways. The commission concluded that only forested waterways could support hydroelectric dams, so Trujillo banned logging in potential river watersheds. After his assassination in 1961, logging resumed in the Dominican Republic. Squatters burned down the forests for agriculture, and logging companies clear-cut parks. In 1967, President Joaquín Balaguer launched military strikes against illegal logging.[7]

Foreign policy

Trujillo's anti-communism tended toward a peaceful coexistence with the United States government. During World War II Trujillo sided with the Allies and declared war on Germany and Japan on December 11, 1941. While there was no military participation, the Dominican Republic thus became a founding member of the United Nations. Trujillo encouraged diplomatic and economic ties with the U.S., but his policies often caused friction with other nations of Latin America, especially Costa Rica and Venezuela. He maintained friendly relations with Franco of Spain, Perón of Argentina, and Somoza of Nicaragua. Towards the end of his rule, his relationship with the United States deteriorated.

Trujillo paid special attention to improving the armed forces. Military personnel received generous pay and perks under his rule, and their ranks as well as equipment inventories expanded. Trujillo maintained control over the officer corps through fear, patronage, and the frequent rotation of assignments, which inhibited the development of strong personal followings. The establishment of state monopolies over all major enterprises in the country brought riches to the Trujillos through price manipulation and embezzlement.

Hull-Trujillo Treaty

Early on, Trujillo determined that the financial affairs of the Dominican Republic needed to be put in order, and that included the termination of the role of the United States as the administrator of Dominican customs- a situation which had existed since 1905-[11] and finances — a situation that had existed since 1924.[11] Negotiations started in 1936 and lasted four years. On September 24, 1940, Trujillo and Cordell Hull signed the Hull-Trujillo Treaty whereby the United States relinquished its control of customs and finances and the Dominican Republic made arrangements to repay its debts.[12] The treaty went to effect, after the Dominican government paid off its debts to the United States, on February 15, 1941.[11]

Haiti

Haiti, the smaller but more densely populated country of the island, had invaded and occupied the Dominican Republic from 1822-44. Encroachment by Haiti was an ongoing process, and when Trujillo took over, specifically the northwest border region became more and more "Haitianized".[13] The actual border itself was poorly defined. In 1933 Trujillo met the Haitian President Stenio Vincent to settle the border issue. By 1936 a settlement was reached and signed. At the same time, Trujillo tried to plot against the Haitian government by linking up with General Calixte, Commander of the Garde d'Haiti, and Elie Lescot, at that time the Haitian ambassador in Ciudad Trujillo (Santo Domingo).[13] After the settlement, when further border incursions occurred, the Parsley Massacre was initiated by Trujillo.

Parsley Massacre

In 1937, claiming that Haiti was harboring his former Dominican opponents, Trujillo ordered an attack on the border, slaughtering tens of thousands of Haitians as they tried to escape. The number of the dead is still unknown, though it is now calculated between 20,000[14] and 30,000.[15]

Trujillo hoped for a war with Haiti and control over the entire island of Hispaniola. The Haitian response was muted, but eventually called for an international investigation. Under pressure from Washington, Trujillo agreed to a reparation settlement in January 1938 that involved the payment of US$750,000. By the next year the amount had been reduced to US$525,000 (US$ 8,031,279.07 in 2011); 30 dollars per victim, of which only 2 cents were given to survivors, due to corruption in the Haitian bureaucracy.[8][16]

In 1941, Lescot, who had received financial support from Trujillo, succeeded Vincent as President of Haiti. Trujillo expected Lescot to be a puppet, but Lescot turned against him. Trujillo unsuccessfully tried to assassinate him in a 1944 plot, and then published their correspondence and discredited him.[13] Lescot was exiled after a 1946 palace coup.

Cuba

In 1947 Dominican exiles, including Juan Bosch, had concentrated in Cuba. With the approval and support of the Grau government, an expedition force was trained with the intent to invade the Dominican Republic and overthrow Trujillo. However, international pressure, including from the United States, led to the abortion of the expedition.[17] In turn, when Fulgencio Batista was in power, Trujillo initially supported anti-Batista supporters of Prio in Oriente in 1955, however weapons Trujillo sent were soon inherited by Castro's insurgents when Prio allied with Castro. After 1956, when Trujillo saw that Castro was gaining ground, he started to support Batista with money, planes, equipment, and men. Trujillo, convinced that Batista would prevail, was very surprised when he showed up as a fugitive after being ousted. Trujillo kept Batista until August 1959 as a "virtual prisoner".[18] Only after paying between three to four million dollars could Batista leave for Portugal, which had granted him a visa.[18]

Castro made threats to overthrow Trujillo, and Trujillo responded by increasing the budget for national defense. A foreign legion was formed to defend Haiti, as it was expected that Castro might invade the Haitian part of the island first and remove Duvalier as well. A Cuban plane with 56 fighting men landed near Constanza on Sunday, June 14, 1959, and six days later more invaders brought by two yachts landed at the north coast. However, the Dominican Army prevailed.[18]

In turn, in August 1959, Johnny Abbes attempted to support an anti-Castro group led by Escambray near Trinidad, Cuba. The attempt, however, was thwarted when Cuban troops surprised a plane he had sent when it was unloading its cargo.[19]

Betancourt incident

By the late 1950s, opposition to Trujillo's regime was starting to build to a fever pitch. A younger generation of Dominicans had been born who had no memory of the instability and poverty that had preceded him. Many clamored for democratization. The Trujillo regime responded with greater repression. The Military Intelligence Service (SIM) secret police, led by Johnny Abbes, remained as ubiquitous as before. Other nations ostracized the Dominican Republic, compounding the dictator's paranoia.

Trujillo began to interfere more and more into the domestic affairs of other neighboring countries. Trujillo expressed great contempt for Venezuela's president Rómulo Betancourt. An established and outspoken opponent of Trujillo, Betancourt associated with Dominicans who had plotted against the dictator. Trujillo developed an obsessive personal hatred of Betancourt and supported numerous plots of Venezuelan exiles to overthrow him. This pattern of intervention led the Venezuelan government to take its case against Trujillo to the Organization of American States (OAS). This development infuriated Trujillo, who ordered his foreign agents to plant a bomb inside Betancourt's car. The assassination attempt, carried out on Friday, June 24, 1960, injured, but did not kill, the Venezuelan president.

The Betancourt incident inflamed world opinion against Trujillo. Outraged OAS members voted unanimously to sever diplomatic relations with Trujillo's government and impose economic sanctions on the Dominican Republic. The brutal murder on November 25, 1960, of the three Mirabal sisters, Patria, María Teresa and Minerva, who opposed Trujillo's dictatorship, further increased discontent against his repressive rule. The relationship with the dictator had become an embarrassment to the United States and became fractured after the Betancourt incident.

Personal life

Trujillo's "central arch" was his instinct for power.[20] This was coupled with an intense desire for money and the realization that money was a source and support of power. Up at four in the morning, he exercised, studied the newspaper, read many reports, and completed papers prior to breakfast; at the office by nine, he continued his work, and took lunch by noon. After a walk, he continued to work until 7:30 PM. After dinner, he attended functions, held discussions, or was driven around incognito in the city "observing and remembering."[20] He was methodical, punctual, secretive, and guarded, having no true friends, only associates and acquaintances. For his associates his actions towards them were unpredictable.

Trujillo and his family amassed enormous wealth. He acquired property including cattle lands on a grand scale, and went into meat and milk production, operations that soon evolved into monopolies. Other industries were salt, sugar, tobacco, lumber, and lottery where he or family members held controlling interests or monopolies. Already in 1937 Trujillo's annual income was about $1.5 million.;[21] at the time of his death the state took over 111 Trujillo companies. His love of fine and ostentatious clothing was displayed in elaborate uniforms and fine suits of which he collected almost two thousand.[20] Known to be fond of neckties, he amassed a collection of over ten thousand of them. Trujillo doused himself with perfume and liked gossip.[22] His sexual appetite was enormous, and he preferred mulatto women with full bodies, later tending more to "very young" women.[20] Women were supplied and procured by many who sought his favors, and later he had an official on his Palace staff to organize the sessions. Typically encounters lasted once or twice, but favorites were kept for longer terms. If women were unwilling to submit, Trujillo would know how to apply pressure on the family to get his way.[20]

Trujillo was such a baseball lover that he invited many black players from the US where they could not play because the teams were segregated. Leroy Robert "Satchel" Paige, a Negro League player, went to the Caribbean and Latin America, where the teams were all integrated. He pitched for a team organized by Trujillo. He was trying to gain popularity so he created the "Ciudad Trujillo Team." He paid Paige $30,000 for winning the Dominican championship. Paige fled the Dominican Republic with his teammates directly after being paid for fear of reprisals by Trujillo's enemies.

Trujillo was energetic and fit. Medically, he was quite healthy in general, but suffered from chronic lower urinary infections and, later, prostate problems. In 1934, Dr. Georges Marion was called from Paris to perform 3 urologic procedures on Trujillo.[23]

Over time Trujillo acquired numerous accommodations. His favorite place was Casa Caobas on Estancia Fundacion near San Cristóbal.[24] He used Estancia Ramfis (after 1953 it became the Foreign Office), Estancia Rhadames and a home at Playa de Najayo. Other places he owned he frequented rarely such as places in Santiago, Constanza, La Cumbre, San Jose de las Matas, and more. Further, he maintained a penthouse at the Embajador Hotel in the capital.[25]

While Trujillo was nominally a Roman Catholic, his devotion was limited to a perfunctory role in public affairs; he placed faith in local folk religion.[20]

He was popularly known as "El Jefe" ("The Chief") or "El Benefactor" ("The Benefactor"), but he was privately referred to as Chapitas ("Bottlecaps") because of his indiscriminate wearing of medals. Dominican children emulated El Jefe by constructing toy medals from bottle caps. He was also known as "el chivo" ("the goat").

Assassination

On 30 May 1961 Trujillo was shot dead when his car was ambushed on a road outside the capital.[26] His remains were interred in the Cimetière du Père Lachaise in Paris, France, and subsequently moved to the El Pardo cemetery near Madrid, Spain.[27]

Legacy

Supporters of Trujillo claim that he reorganized both the state and the economy, as well as left vast infrastructure to the country. They say his rule saw more stability and prosperity than most living Dominicans had previously known. His opponents claim that civil rights and freedoms in the Trujillo era were virtually nonexistent, and much of the country's wealth wound up in the hands of his family or close associates.

There has been talk of trying to return the remains of Trujillo to the Dominican Republic and place his body along with the national heroes. Most Dominicans are strongly opposed to this idea.[citation needed]

Honors and awards

Trujillo in media

Media type Title Release date Details
Book Day of the Jackal 1971 Authored by Frederick Forsyth, the book of the same title, fictitiously attributes "credit" for this assassination to its assassin, known only as, ""The Jackal".
Film The Day of the Jackal (film) 1973 Directed by Fred Zinnemann, the film, like the book of the same title, fictitiously attributes "credit" for this assassination to its assassin, known only as, "The Jackal".
Book Memorias de un Cortesano de la Era de Trujillo 1988 Authored by Joaquín Balaguer, the last puppet president of the Dominican Republic appointed by Trujillo, in 1960, and who went on to rule in his own right for most of the period 1966–1996.
Book La era de Trujillo: un estudio casuístico de dictadura hispanoamericana 1990 Manuel Vazquez Montalbán, a Catalan writer, wrote about Galíndez en 1990. The book is a fictional recreation of the life and disappearance of the diplomat.
Documentary El Poder del Jefe I 1994 Directed by René Fortunato
TV Film Soul of the Game 1996 Brief appearance during a baseball game in Santo Domingo.
Documentary El Poder del Jefe II 1996 Directed by René Fortunato
Documentary El Poder del Jefe III 1998 Directed by René Fortunato
Book The Feast of the Goat 2000 A book by Mario Vargas Llosa, set in the Dominican Republic and portraying the assassination of the Dominican dictator, and its aftermath, from two distinct standpoints a generation apart: during and immediately after the assassination itself, in May 1961; and thirty-five years later, in 1996.
TV Film In the Time of the Butterflies 2001 Directed by Mariano Barroso and Trujillo played by Edward James Olmos. Based on the novel by Julia Alvarez (1994)
Film El Misterio Galíndez - The Galindez File 2003 Gerardo Herrero directed El Misterio Galíndez, a movie about Jesús de Galíndez Suárez, activist of the PNV party and Basque diplomat who disappeared in 1956; allegedly because of his opposition to Trujillo's regime.
Film The Feast of the Goat (*) 2006 Directed by Luis Llosa and Trujillo played by Tomás Milián
Book The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao 2007 Junot Diaz, a native of Santo Domingo wrote Pulitzer Prize–winning book about a Dominican/American family. The book is a fictional account of the family's misfortunes experienced as a result of the atrocities of Trujillo's regime.
Film Code Name: Butterflies 2009 Directed by Cecilia Domeyko Film about the life and death of the Mirabal sisters with interviews with people involved, and recreations of key events.
Film Trópico de Sangre 2010 Directed by Juan Delancer and Trujillo played by Juan Fernández de Alarcon. The film focuses on Minerva Mirabal and tells the true story of how she and her sisters dared to stand up against dictator Rafael Trujillo, and were assassinated in 1960 as a result. The film further details how this crime led to the assassination of Trujillo.

Notes

  1. ^ "Rafael Trujillo y Molina". Find A Grave. 2009. http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=24863165. Retrieved 2009-05-19. 
  2. ^ Dominican Today (February 26, 2010). "Protest aborts Dominican tyrant's daughter's book debut.". http://www.dominicantoday.com/dr/local/2010/2/26/34938/Protest-aborts-Dominican-tyrants-daughters-book-debut. Retrieved December 8, 2010. 
  3. ^ a b Diederich 1978, p. 13.
  4. ^ Crassweller 1966, p. 36.
  5. ^ Derby 2000, pp. 1112–1146.
  6. ^ a b c Block 1941, pp. 870-72.
  7. ^ a b Diamond 2005, p.
  8. ^ a b c Block 1941, p. 672 .
  9. ^ Crassweller RD, ibib. page 71
  10. ^ a b Crassweller 1966, pp. 199-200.
  11. ^ a b c The Cambridge history of Latin America, Leslie Bethell, pg. 516
  12. ^ Crassweller RD, ibid, pages 182-4.
  13. ^ a b c Crassweller 1966, pp. 149-163.
  14. ^ Pack, Parini 1997, p. 78.
    On October 2, 1937, Trujillo had ordered 20,000 Haitian cane workers executed because they could not roll the "R" in perejil, the Spanish word for parsley.
  15. ^ Cambeira 1996, p. 182.
    anyone of African descent found incapable of pronouncing correctly, that is, to the complete satisfaction of the sadistic examiners, became a condemned individual. This holocaust is recorded as having a death toll reaching thirty thousand innocent souls, Haitians as well as Dominicans.
  16. ^ Bell 2008, p. 41.
  17. ^ Crassweller RD, ibid. pages 237ff
  18. ^ a b c Crassweller RD, ibid, pages 344-8
  19. ^ Crassweller RD, ibid, page 351.
  20. ^ a b c d e f Crassweller 1966, pp. 73-95.
  21. ^ Crassweller 1966, p. 127.
  22. ^ http://www.healthcare.reachinformation.com/Rafael_Trujillo.aspx
  23. ^ Crassweller 1966, p. 115.
  24. ^ Crassweller 1966, p. 144.
  25. ^ Crassweller 1966, p. 270.
  26. ^ Harris, Bruce. "Moreorless: Heroes & Killers of the 20th century". Archived from the original on 12 November 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/638oxTW2j. Retrieved 12 November 2011. 
  27. ^ Castellanos, Eddy (11 Apr 2008). "Solitaria, en cementerio poco importante, está la tumba de Trujillo" (in Spanish). Almomento.net. Archived from the original on 14 November 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/63BemmZHx. Retrieved 14 November 2011. 
  28. ^ Time, 1939
  29. ^ Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem

References

  • G. Pope Atkins (Author), Larman C. Wilson (Author). The Dominican Republic and the United States: From Imperialism to Transnationalism (January 1998 ed.). University of Georgia Press. ISBN 0820319317.  - Total pages: 288
  • Madison Smartt Bell. A Hidden Haitian World - New York Review of Books - Volume 55, Number 12 (July 17, 2008 ed.). New York Review of Books. 
  • Maxine Block (Author), E. Mary Trow (Editor). Current Biography Who's News and Why 1941 (January 1, 1941 ed.). The H. W. Wilson Company. pp. 976. ISBN 9997376676. 
  • Alan Cambeira. Quisqueya la bella (October 1996 ed.). M.E. Sharpe. p. 182. ISBN 1563249367.  - Total pages: 286
  • Robert D. Crassweller. Trujillo: The Life and Times of a Caribbean Dictator. MacMillan, New York (1966).  - Total pages: 468
  • Jared Diamond. Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed (December 27, 2005 ed.). Penguin (Non-Classics). ISBN 0143036556.  - Total pages: 575
  • Lauren Derby. The Dictator's Seduction: Gender and State Spectacle during the Trujillo Regime (2000 ed.). Callaloo v. 23 n. 3. 
  • Robert Pack, Jay Parini. Introspections (1997 ed.). University Press of New England. p. 78. ISBN 0874517737.  - Total pages: 329
  • Richard Lee Turits, Foundations of Despotism: Peasants, the Trujillo Regime, and Modernity in Dominican History, Stanford University Press 2004, ISBN 0-8047-5105-6
  • Secretaría de Estado de las Fuerzas Armandas In Spanish
  • Ignacio López-Calvo, "God and Trujillo": Literary and Cultural Representations of the Dominican Dictator, University Press of Florida, 2005, ISBN 0-8130-2823-X

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Rafael Estrella
(acting)
President of the Dominican Republic
1930–1938
Succeeded by
Jacinto Bienvenido Peynado
Preceded by
Manuel de Jesús Troncoso de la Concha
President of the Dominican Republic
1942–1952
Succeeded by
Héctor Trujillo

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  • Rafael Trujillo (disambiguation) — Rafael Trujillo is the name of:* Rafael Leónidas Trujillo (died 1961), former President of the Dominican Republic * Rafael Trujillo (born 1926), an advocate of gay rights * Rafael Trujillo (sailor), an Olympic sailor from Spain.ee also* Trujillo …   Wikipedia

  • Rafael Trujillo Villar — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Rafael Trujillo Villar (14 de diciembre de 1975 en La Línea de la Concepción, Andalucía) es un deportista español que compite en vela. Su especialidad es la clase finn (embarcación monoplaza tipo dinghy). Entrena en… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Rafael Leónida Trujillo — Rafael Trujillo mit Frau (1934) Rafael Leónidas Trujillo Molina (* 24. Oktober 1891 in San Cristóbal; † 30. Mai 1961 in Santo Domingo), war ein Diktator der Dominikanischen Republik. Trujillo wuchs in kleinbürgerlichen Verhältnissen in seiner… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Rafael Leónidas Trujillo — Rafael Trujillo mit Frau (1934) Rafael Leónidas Trujillo Molina (* 24. Oktober 1891 in San Cristóbal; † 30. Mai 1961 in Santo Domingo), war ein Diktator der Dominikanischen Republik. Trujillo wuchs in kleinbürgerlichen Verhältnissen in seiner… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Rafael Leónidas Trujillo Molina — Rafael Trujillo mit Frau (1934) Rafael Leónidas Trujillo Molina (* 24. Oktober 1891 in San Cristóbal; † 30. Mai 1961 in Santo Domingo) war ein Diktator der Dominikanischen Republik. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Jugend …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Trujillo — ist der Namen mehrerer Städte im spanischsprachigen Raum: Trujillo (Spanien), Stadt in der Extremadura Trujillo (Peru), Stadt in Peru Trujillo (Kolumbien), Gemeinde in Valle del Cauca in Kolumbien Trujillo (Venezuela), Stadt in Venezuela Trujillo …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Rafael Leónidas Trujillo Molina — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Molina et Trujillo. Rafael Leónidas Trujillo Rafael Leónidas Trujillo …   Wikipédia en Français


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