Daimler-Benz DB 605


Daimler-Benz DB 605
DB 605
A DB 605 Engine at the RAF Museum in London.
Type Piston V12 aircraft engine
National origin Germany
Manufacturer Daimler-Benz
First run 1940s
Major applications Messerschmitt Bf 109
Messerschmitt Bf 110
Number built 42,400
Developed from Daimler-Benz DB 601

The Daimler-Benz DB 605 is a German aircraft engine, built during World War II. Developed from the DB 601, the DB 605 was used from 1942 to 1945 in the Messerschmitt Bf 109 fighter, and the Bf 110 and Me 210C heavy fighters. The DB 610, a coupled "power system" powerplant comprising a pair of side-by-side configured examples of the DB 605, geared together in the front to turn a single output shaft, was used in Germany's only operational heavy bomber, the Heinkel He 177.

License-built versions of the DB 605 were used in the Macchi C.205, Fiat G.55, Reggiane 2005 and some other Italian aircraft. It was also initially used in the pusher-design Swedish Saab J21. Approximately 42,400 DB 605s of all kinds were built.[1]

Contents

Design and development

The primary differences between the 605 and 601 were the greater displacement, higher revolutions, higher compression ratio and a more powerful supercharger. Through careful study the engineers determined that the cylinders could be bored out to a larger diameter without seriously affecting the strength of the existing block. The difference was minimal, increasing from the 601's 150 mm cylinder bore to the 605's 154 mm, but this increased the overall displacement from 33.9 litres to 35.7. Altered valve timing increased the inlet period and improved the scavenging to give greater volumetric efficiency at higher speeds, which improved the maximum allowable RPM from 2,600 in the 601 to 2,800 in the 605. The combination of these changes improved power from 1,350 PS (1,332 hp) to 1,475 PS (1455 hp). The engine was otherwise similar, notably in size, which was identical to the 601. However, weights did increase from 700 to 756 kg.

Daimler-Benz DB 605A

In other ways the engine was essentially identical to the 601. Both used dual Bosch magnetos firing twin spark plugs for ignition. Fuel injection was powered by a pump supplying up to 90 bar and the oil system used three pumps with a separate 35 litre oil tank. The supercharger was fairly advanced for the era in that it used a barometrically controlled hydraulic clutch (fluid coupling) which allowed the system to automatically compensate for changes in altitude.

Like the 601 the 605 was designed to run on "B4" fuel with an octane rating of 87. In 1944 a series of newer engines was introduced, allowing the engine to run on the 100 octane "C3" fuel and optionally including fittings for various optional power-boosting agent dispensing systems, such as the MW50 methanol-water injection system, and GM-1 nitrous oxide injection system. The DB 605AM, running initially on C3 and MW-50, saw power improved to 1,800 PS (1775 hp) for takeoff. In mid-1944, the requirement for C3 was dropped and B4 + MW-50 was used. The DB 605AS(M) improved the maximum rated altitude by using a larger supercharger taken from the DB 603 but was otherwise similar to the A(M). The DB 605ASB's takeoff power was also rated at 1,800 PS (1,775 hp), while maintaining the high-altitude performance of the ASM. The final version of the A-series was the DB 605ASC of 1945, which improved takeoff power to 2,000 PS (1,973 hp).

As early as 1942 Daimler had also been working on an upgraded D-series engine that could run on either C2 or C3 fuel. These engines did not see service until 1944 and were quickly followed by the 1,800 PS (1,775 hp) DB 605DB (running on B4 + MW-50 or C-3 without MW-50) and 2,000 PS (1,973 hp) DB 605DC. These engines saw widespread use in the late-war Bf 109 G-10 and Bf 109 K-4.

Variants

Production versions
DB 610
  • DB 605 A(M) Standard fighter engine, up to 1475 PS, 605 AM with MW-50 system up to 1800 PS
  • DB 605 AS(M) Altitude optimized version of 605 A using the larger DB 603 supercharger, up to 1435 PS, ASM with MW-50 system and up to 1800 PS
    • DB 605 ASB(M) Altitude optimized late-war version of 605 AS using B4 fuel, ASBM with MW-50 system and up to 1800 PS
    • DB 605 ASC(M) Altitude optimized late-war version of 605 AS using C3 fuel, ASCM with MW-50 system and up to 2000 PS
  • DB 605 DM First DB 605 D version, standard MW-50 equipment, up to 1700 PS
    • DB 605 DB Improved 605 DM, standard MW-50 equipment, first version up to 1850 PS, later reduced to 1800 PS [2], B4 fuel
    • DB 605 DC Improved 605 DM, standard MW-50 equipment, up to 2000 PS, C3 fuel
  • DB 610 Two DB 605 "coupled" (geared together), as a "power system", to work on a single propeller shaft for use in Heinkel He 177, up to 2950 PS (71.53L / 4364.8in3).


Prototype/pre-production versions
  • DB 605 BS proposed version for twin-engined aircraft, derived from DB 605 AS
  • DB 605 E proposed version for twin-engined aircraft, derived from DB 605 D
  • DB 605 L Similar to 605 D but with two-stage supercharger, 2000+ PS
  • DB 616
A development of the DB 605.
  • DB 620 Coupled DB628 engines.
  • DB 621 A projected two stage supercharged DB605
  • DB 625 A turbocharged DB605
  • DB 628 The DB 605, fitted with a two-stage supercharger, abandoned in March 1944.


Note: All power ratings in PS (metric horsepower). Unless otherwise noted takeoff/emergency power at sea level.

Survivors

A Hispano Aviación HA-1112 a license-built Messerschmitt Bf 109 G-2 has been rebuilt by EADS/Messerschmitt Foundation in Germany with a Daimler-Benz DB 605 engine.[3]

Applications

Engines on display

A preserved DB 605 engine is on display at the Royal Air Force Museum, London.

Specifications (DB 605AM)

Partially sectioned DB 605

Data from Jane's[4]

General characteristics

  • Type: 12-cylinder liquid-cooled supercharged 60° inverted Vee aircraft piston engine
  • Bore: 154 mm (6.06 in)
  • Stroke: 160 mm (6.30 in)
  • Displacement: 35.7 L (2,176 in³)
  • Length: 2,158 mm (85 in)
  • Width: 760 mm (30 in)
  • Height: 1,037 mm (41 in)
  • Dry weight: 756 kg (1,667 lb)

Components

Performance

  • Power output:
    • 1,324 kW (1,800 PS - 1,775 hp) at 2,800 rpm for takeoff with MW-50 injection
    • 1,250 kW (1,700 PS - 1,677 hp) at 2,800 rpm at 4,000 m (13,120 ft) for maximum power with MW-50 injection
    • 794 kW (1,080 PS - 1,065 hp) at 2,300 rpm at 5,500 m (18,000 ft) for max continuous
  • Specific power: 35.0 kW/L (0.77 hp/in³)
  • Compression ratio: 7.5/7.3:1 with 87-octane fuel; 8.5/8.3:1 with 100-octane fuel
  • Power-to-weight ratio: 1.68 kW/kg (1.02 hp/lb)

See also

Related development

Comparable engines
Related lists

References

Notes

  1. ^ Page 349, Messerschmitt BF 110/Me 210/Me 410, by Heinz Mankau/Peter Petrick.
  2. ^ Daimler-Benz A.G. Niederschrift Nr. 6730. von 20.1.45.
  3. ^ EADS - Messerschmitt museum Retrieved: 1 September 2009
  4. ^ Jane's 1998, p. 291.

Bibliography

  • Gunston, Bill. World Encyclopedia of Aero Engines. Cambridge, England. Patrick Stephens Limited, 1989. ISBN 1-85260-163-9
  • Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II. London. Studio Editions Ltd, 1989. ISBN 0-517-67964-7
  • Neil Gregor Daimler-Benz in the Third Reich. Yale University Press, 1998

External links


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