A "lókhos" or "lochos" (plural "lokhoi"), from the Greek λόχος, was a tactical sub unit of
Classical Greeceand of the modern Greek army. The term derived from the ancient Greek for ambushand the men carrying out the ambush, but in practice, its meaning was essentially that of "war-band", a body of armed men. This translation has been used traditionally, e.g. for the Sacred Band of Thebes. However in modern context, a more correct rendering would be "company".
ize and organisation
Evolving as it did with
ancient Greek warfarefrom that of tribal Greece to that of the Greek city-states, the "lokhos" varied in size and organisation over time and from city state to city state, ranging in size from about 100 men to about 640 men. The best surviving description of the "lokhos" is that by Xenophonin his "Anabasis", however this must be taken as being illustrative of a particular time and place, that of 5th Century BC Sparta, rather than being truly representative.
The Spartan "lokhos", according to Xenophon, consisted of 640 men, composed of 4 "pentekostyes" of 160 men, with the "pentekostyes" in turn being composed of 4 "enomotiai" of about 40 men each. The lokhos in turn formed half of a "mora" there being 6 "morai" in the
Spartan Army. The morai would normally be commanded by a Polemarch, and the "lokhos" by a " lokhagos". However the actual numbers would vary depending on the needs of a campaign. Spartan military organisation relied on dividing its citizen army into 8 age classes and full strength "enomotiai" consisted of 5 men from each of the age classes. However, it was unusual to draw men from the older age classes, so on campaign an "enomotia" would consist of 30 to 35 men with the "lokhos" and" mora" being correspondingly smaller. [cite book
authorlink =John Winthrop Hackett Junior
title =Warfare in the Ancient World
publisher =Sidgwick and Jackson ltd
isbn =0-283-99591-2] If only the first 4 or even fewer age classes were called up, than the "short" organisational "lokhos" would be grouped together to form a full strength tactical "lokhos".
Whatever the theoretical size of the "lokhos", units of about 300 men appear frequently in the classical Greek records, this being the number of the
Sacred Band of Thebes, the Spartans at Thermopylae, and the number on each side of the "Battle of the Champions" fought between Argosand Sparta in 546 BC. This number would give a frontage of about 40 shields given the traditional 8 deep phalanx, and probably represents the smallest number needed to form a useable phalanx.
The term "lokhos", along with the associated rank of "
lokhagos" and its derivatives, has been revived in the modern Greek military for a company-sized command.
*Cohort a Roman military unit of about the same size as a large lokhos
Sacred Bandfor a number of units named "Ieros Lochos" in Greek history
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Lokhagos — (Λοχαγός; abbreviated as Λγος) is used in the Greek language to mean Captain . The term has been used since the times of Ancient Greece to describe the commanding officer of a lokhos (company). The average lokhos of the time numbered a hundred… … Wikipedia
Military rank — This article is about the military use of the term rank. For other uses, see Rank (disambiguation). Warfare Military history Eras Prehistoric … Wikipedia
Sacred Band of Thebes — The Sacred Band of Thebes (ancient Greek: polytonic| τῶν Hierós Lókhos tón Thebón) was a troop of picked soldiers, numbering 150 age structured pairs, which formed the elite force of the Theban army in the 4th century BC. [Ludwig, p. 60.] It was… … Wikipedia
Bataillon Sacré — Le Bataillon sacré (en grec ancien ἱερὸς λόχος / hiéros lokhos) est un corps d élite de l armée thébaine, dans la Grèce antique. Sommaire 1 Le bataillon sacré thébain 2 Postérité et influence … Wikipédia en Français
Bataillon sacre — Bataillon sacré Le Bataillon sacré (en grec ancien ἱερὸς λόχος / hiéros lokhos) est un corps d élite de l armée thébaine, dans la Grèce antique. Sommaire 1 Le bataillon sacré thébain 2 Postérité et influence … Wikipédia en Français
Bataillon sacré — Le Bataillon sacré (en grec ancien ἱερὸς λόχος / hiéros lokhos) était un corps d élite, peut être mythique, de l armée thébaine, dans la Grèce antique. Sommaire 1 Le bataillon sacré thébain 2 Postérité et influence … Wikipédia en Français
Pederastie — Pédérastie Éraste et Éromène, coupe attique à figures rouges, Ve siècle av. J. C., musée du Louvre Le mot pédérastie (du grec ancien … Wikipédia en Français
Pédéraste — Pédérastie Éraste et Éromène, coupe attique à figures rouges, Ve siècle av. J. C., musée du Louvre Le mot pédérastie (du grec ancien … Wikipédia en Français
Pédérastie — Éraste et Éromène, coupe attique à figures rouges, Ve siècle av. J.‑C., musée du Louvre Le mot pédérastie (du grec ancien παις / paid « enfant » et … Wikipédia en Français
Batallón Sagrado de Tebas — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda El Batallón Sagrado de Tebas (en griego antiguo ἱερὸς λόχος / hieròs lókhos) era una unidad de élite griega formada por 150 parejas de amantes, todos masculinos. Según Plutarco, fue creado por el comandante tebano… … Wikipedia Español