- Karl Haushofer
Karl Ernst Haushofer (
August 27, 1869– March 10, 1946) was a German geopolitician and general. Through his student Rudolf Hess, Haushofer's ideas may have influenced the development of Adolf Hitler's expansionist strategies, although Haushofer denied direct influence on the Nazi regime.
Haushofer belonged to a family of artists and scholars. He was born in
Munichto Max Haushofer, a professor of economics, and Frau Adele Haushofer (née Fraas). On his graduation from the Munich Gymnasium (high school), Haushofer contemplated an academic career. However, service with the Bavarian army proved so interesting that he stayed to work, with great success, as an instructor in military academies and on the general staff.
In 1887, he entered the 1st Field Artillery regiment "Prinzregent Luitpold" and completed Bavarian war school ("
Kriegsschule"), artillery academy (" Artillerieschule"), and Bavarian war academy (" Kriegsakademie"). In 1896, he married Martha Mayer-Doss (1877 - 1946) who was half-Jewish. They had two sons, Albrecht and Heinz.
Haushofer continued his career as a professional soldier, serving in the army of
Imperial Germany, and rising through the Staff Corp by 1899. In 1903 he began teaching at the Bavarian Kriegsakademie.
In November 1908 the army sent him to
Tokyoto study the Japanese army and to advise it as an artilleryinstructor. He travelled with his wife via India and South East Asia and arrived in February 1909. Haushofer was received by the Japanese emperor and got to know many important people in politics and armed forces. In autumn 1909 he travelled with his wife for a month to Koreaand Manchuriaon the occasion of a railway construction. In June 1910 they returned to Germany via Russiaand arrived one month later.
Shortly afterwards he began to suffer from several severe diseases and was given a leave from the army for three years. From 1911 - 1913 Haushofer would work on his doctorate of philosophy from
Munich Universityfor a thesis on Japan entitled: "Dai Nihon, Betrachtungen über Groß-Japans Wehrkraft, Weltstellung und Zukunft". By World War Ihe had attained the rank of General, and commanded a brigade on the western front. He developed there his extra-ordinary gift of seeming precognition, being able to predict enemy shellings, coming attacks and exact numbers of casualties, and even the fall of randomly shot individual shells. What is very surprising is that most of the time, these predictions appeared to be true. He became disillusioned after Germany's loss and severe sanctioning, retiring with the rank of Major General in 1919. At this time, he forged a friendship with the young Rudolf Hesswho would become his scientific assistant.
Haushofer entered academia with the aim of restoring and regenerating Germany. Haushofer believed the Germans' lack of geographical knowledge and geopolitical awareness to be a major cause of Germany’s defeat in World War I, as Germany had found itself with a poor alignment of allies and enemies. The fields of political and geographical science thus became his areas of specialty. In 1919 Haushofer became
Privatdozentfor political geographyat Munich University and in 1933 professor.
Rumours that he was once a student of
George Gurdjieffare based on the book "Monsieur Gurdjieff" by Louis Pauwels, who later recanted many things from it. Others claim that he was a secret member of the Thule Society, which is equally dubious.
After the establishment of the Nazi regime, Haushofer remained friendly with Rudolf Hess, who protected Haushofer and his wife from the racial laws of the Nazis, which deemed her a "half-Jew". During the pre-war years Haushofer was instrumental in linking Japan to the axis powers, acting in accordance with the theories of his book "Geopolitics of the Pacific Ocean".
Haushofer's son, Albrecht (1903 - 1945), was indicted in the
July 20 Plotto assassinate Hitler and subsequently was killed by the Nazis in the Moabit prison in Berlin. After the war Karl Haushofer was interrogated by Father Edmund A. Walshon behalf of the Allied forces to determine if he should stand trial at Nuremberg for war crimes. However, he was determined by Walsh not to have committed war crimes. On March 10, 1946he and his wife committed suicide by drinking poison at Pähl/Ammersee. [ [http://members.gaponline.de/alois.schwarzmueller/ns_zeit_1944_haushofer_zahler/haushofer_zahler_06_hochlandbote.htm "Karl Haushofer beging Selbstmord" (Karl Haushofer committed suicide), Hochland-Bote, March 15, 1946] ]
Haushofer developed Geopolitik from widely varied sources, including the writings of
Oswald Spengler, Alexander Humboldt, Karl Ritter, Friedrich Ratzel, Rudolf Kjellén, and Halford J. Mackinder.
Geopolitik contributed to Nazi foreign policy chiefly in the strategy and justifications for
lebensraum. The theories contributed five ideas to German foreign policy in the interwar period:
land power/ sea power dichotomy.
Geostrategy as a
political scienceis both descriptive and analytical like Political Geography, but adds a normative element in its strategic prescriptions for national policy. [Mattern, p40-41.] While some of Haushofer's ideas stem from earlier American and British geostrategy, German geopolitik adopted an essentialist outlook toward the national interest, oversimplifying issues and representing itself as a panacea. [Walsh, p41.] As a new and essentialist ideology, geopolitik found itself in a position to prey upon the post-WWI insecurity of the populace. [Mattern, p32.]
Haushofer's position in the
University of Munichserved as a platform for the spread of his geopolitical ideas, magazine articles, and books. In 1922 he founded the Institute of Geopolitics in Munich, from which he proceeded to publicize geopolitical ideas. By 1924, as the leader of the German geopolitik school of thought, Haushofer would establish the "Zeitschrift für Geopolitik" monthly devoted to geopolitik. His ideas would reach a wider audience with the publication of "Volk ohne Raum" by Hans Grimmin 1926, popularizing his concept of lebensraum. [Dorpalen, p16-17.] Haushofer exercised influence both through his academic teachings, urging his students to think in terms of continents and emphasizing motion in international politics, and through his political activities. [Walsh, p4-5.] While Hitler's speeches would attract the masses, Haushofer's works served to bring the remaining intellectuals into the fold. [Beukema, pxiii.]
Geopolitik was in essence a consolidation and codification of older ideas, given a scientific gloss:
*Lebensraum was a revised
*Autarky a new expression of
*Strategic control of key geographic territories exhibiting the same thought behind earlier designs on the Suez and
Panama canals; i.e., a view of controlling the land in the same way as those choke points control the sea
*Pan-regions ("Panideen") based upon the
British Empire, and the American Monroe Doctrine, Pan-American Unionand hemispheric defense. [Mattern, p37.]
*Frontiers - His view of barriers between peoples not being political (i.e., borders) nor natural placements of races or ethnicities but as being fluid and determined by the will or needs of ethnic/racial groups.The key reorientation in each
dyadis that the focus is on land-based empirerather than naval imperialism.
Ostensibly based upon the geopolitical theory of American naval officer
Alfred Thayer Mahan, and British geographer Halford J. Mackinder, German geopolitik adds older German ideas. Enunciated most forcefully by Friedrich Ratzel and his Swedish student Rudolf Kjellén, they include an organic or anthropomorphized conception of the state, and the need for self-sufficiency through the top-down organization of society. ["Ibid," p32.] The root of uniquely German geopolitik rests in the writings of Karl Ritter who first developed the organic conception of the state that would later be elaborated upon by Ratzel and accepted by Hausfhofer. He justified lebensraum, even at the cost of other nations' existence because conquest was a biological necessity for a state's growth. [Walsh, p39.]
Ratzel's writings coincided with the growth of German industrialism after the
Franco-Prussian warand the subsequent search for markets that brought it into competition with Britain. His writings served as welcome justification for imperial expansion. [Mattern, p60.] Influenced by Mahan, Ratzel wrote of aspirations for German naval reach, agreeing that sea power was self-sustaining, as the profit from trade would pay for the merchant marine, unlike land power. [Dorpalen, p66-67.] Haushofer was exposed to Ratzel, who was friends with Haushofer's father, a teacher of economic geography, ["Ibid," p52.] and would integrate Ratzel's ideas on the division between sea and land powers into his theories, saying that only a country with both could overcome this conflict. ["Ibid," p68-69.]
Haushofer's geopolitik expands upon that of Ratzel and Kjellén. While the latter two conceive of geopolitik as the state as an organism in space put to the service of a leader, Haushofer's Munich school specifically studies geography as it relates to
warand designs for empire. ["Ibid," p23-24.] The behavioral rules of previous geopoliticians were thus turned into dynamic normative doctrines for action on lebensraum and world power. ["Ibid," p54.]
Haushofer defined geopolitik in 1935 as "the duty to safeguard the right to the soil, to the land in the widest sense, not only the land within the frontiers of the
Reich, but the right to the more extensive "Volk" and cultural lands." [Walsh, p48.] Culture itself was seen as the most conducive element to dynamic special expansion. It provided a guide as to the best areas for expansion, and could make expansion safe, whereas projected militaryor commercial power could not. [Dorpalen, p80.] Haushofer even held that urbanizationwas a symptom of a nation's decline, evidencing a decreasing soil mastery, birthrateand effectiveness of centralized rule. ["Ibid," p78.]
To Haushofer, the existence of a state depended on living space, the pursuit of which must serve as the basis for all policies. Germany had a high
population density, whereas the old colonial powers had a much lower density, a virtual mandatefor German expansion into resource-rich areas. ["Ibid," p38-39.] Space was seen as military protection against initial assaults from hostile neighbors with long-range weaponry. A buffer zone of territories or insignificant states on one's borders would serve to protect Germany. ["Ibid," p94-95.] Closely linked to this need, was Haushofer's assertion that the existence of small states was evidence of political regression and disorder in the international system. The small states surrounding Germany ought to be brought into the vital German order. ["Ibid," p205-206.] These states were seen as being too small to maintain practical , even if they maintained large colonial possessions, and would be better served by protection and organization within Germany. In Europe, he saw Belgium, the Netherlands, Portugal, Denmark, Switzerland, Greeceand the "mutilated alliance" of Austro-Hungaryas supporting his assertion. ["Ibid," p207, 209.]
Haushofer's version of autarky was based on the quasi-
Malthusianidea that the earth would become saturated with people and no longer able to provide food for all. There would essentially be no increases in productivity. ["Ibid," 231.]
Haushofer and the Munich school of geopolitik would eventually expand their conception of lebensraum and autarky well past the borders of 1914 and "a place in the sun" to a New European Order, then to a New Afro-European Order, and eventually to a
Eurasian Order. [Mattern, p17.] This concept became known as a pan-region, taken from the American Monroe Doctrine, and the idea of national and continental self-sufficiency. ["Ibid," p39.] This was a forward-looking refashioning of the drive for colonies, something that geopoliticians did not see as an economic necessity, but more as a matter of prestige, and putting pressure on older colonial powers. The fundamental motivating force would not be economic, but cultural and spiritual. [Dorpalen, 235-6.] Haushofer was, what is called today, a proponent of "Eurasianism", advocating a policy of German–Russian hegemony and alliance to offset an Anglo–American power structure's potentially dominating influence in Europe.
Beyond being an economic concept, pan-regions were a strategic concept as well. Haushofer acknowledges the strategic concept of the
Heartlandput forward by the British geopolitician Halford Mackinder. ["Ibid," p218.] If Germany could control Eastern Europe and subsequently Russian territory, it could control a strategic area to which hostile seapower could be denied. [Mackinder, p78.] Allying with Italyand Japanwould further augment German strategic control of Eurasia, with those states becoming the naval arms protecting Germany's insular position. [Walsh, p9.]
Contacts with Nazi leadership
Evidence points to a disconnect between geopoliticians and the Nazi leadership, although their practical tactical goals were nearly indistinguishable. [Beukema, pxiii.]
Rudolf Hess, Hitler's secretary who would assist in the writing of " Mein Kampf", was a close student of Haushofer's. While Hess and Hitler were imprisoned after the Munich Putschin 1923, Haushofer spent six hours visiting the two, bringing along a copy of Friedrich Ratzel's "Political Geography" and Clausewitz's "Vom Kriege". [Walsh, p14-15.] After WWII, Haushofer would deny that he had taught Hitler, and claimed that the National Socialist Party perverted Hess's study of geopolitik. He viewed Hitler as a half-educated man who never correctly understood the principles of geopolitik passed onto him by Hess, and Foreign Minister Joachim Ribbentropas the principal distorter of geopolitik in Hitler's mind. ["Ibid," p15.] While Haushofer accompanied Hess on numerous propagandamissions, and participated in consultations between Nazis and Japanese leaders, he claimed that Hitler and the Nazis only seized upon half-developed ideas and catchwords. ["Ibid," p8.] Furthermore, the Nazi party and government lacked any official organ that was receptive to geopolitik, leading to selective adoption and poor interpretation of Haushofer's theories. Ultimately, Hess and Konstantin von Neurath, Nazi Minister of Foreign Affairs, were the only officials Haushofer would admit had a proper understanding of geopolitik. ["Ibid," p35-36.]
Edmund A. WalshS.J., professor of geopoliticsand dean at Georgetown University, who interviewed Haushofer after the allied victory in preparation for the Nürnberg trials, disagreed with Haushofer's assessment that geopolitik was terribly distorted by Hitler and the Nazis. ["Ibid," p41.] He cites Hitler's speeches declaring that small states have no right to exist, and the Nazi use of Haushofer's maps, language and arguments. Even if distorted somewhat, Fr. Walsh felt that was enough to implicate Haushofer's geopolitik. ["Ibid," p41, 17.]
Haushofer also denied assisting Hitler in writing "Mein Kampf", saying that he only knew of it once it was in print, and never read it. ["Ibid," p36.] Fr. Walsh found that even if Haushofer did not directly assist Hitler, discernible new elements appeared in "Mein Kampf", as compared to previous speeches made by Hitler. Geopolitical ideas of lebensraum, space for depth of defense, appeals for
natural frontiers, balancing land and seapower, and geographic analysis of military strategyentered Hitler's thought between his imprisonment and publishing of "Mein Kampf". ["Ibid," p41.] Chapter XIV, on German policy in Eastern Europe, in particular displays the influence of the materials Haushofer brought Hitler and Hess while they were imprisoned. ["Ibid," p42.]
Haushofer was never a member of the Nazi Party, and did voice disagreements with the party, leading to his brief imprisonment. Haushofer came under suspicion because of his contacts with left wing socialist figures within the Nazi movement (led by
Gregor Strasser) and his advocacy of essentially a German–Russian alliance. This Nazi left wing had some connections to the Communist Party of Germanyand some of its leaders, especially those who were influenced by the National Bolshevist philosophy of a German–Russian revolutionary alliance, as advocated by Ernst Niekisch, Julius Evola, Ernst Jünger, Hielscher and other figures of the "conservative revolution." He did profess loyalty to the Führerand make anti-Semitic remarks on occasion. However, his emphasis was always on space over race, believing in environmental (Social Darwinism) rather than racial determinism. [Mattern, p20.] He refused to associate himself with anti-Semitism as a policy, especially because his wife was half-Jewish. [Walsh, p40, 35.] Haushofer admits that after 1933 much of what he wrote was distorted under duress: his wife had to be protected by Hess's influence (who managed to have her awarded 'honorary German' status); his son was implicated in the July 20plot to assassinate Hitler and was executed by the Gestapo; he himself was imprisoned in Dachau concentration campfor eight months; and his son and grandson were imprisoned for two-and-a-half months. ["Ibid," p16.]
The notion of a contact between Haushofer and the Nazi establishment has been stressed by several authors. [References for that section were given as: Michael FitzGerald, "Storm Troopers of Satan" (Robert Hale, 1990); Michael FitzGerald, "Adolf Hitler: A Portrait" (Spellmount, 2006); Michael FitzGerald, "Storm Troopers of Satan" (Robert Hale, 1990);James Webb, "The Occult Establishment" (Richard Drew, 1981); Dusty Sklar, "The Nazis and the Occult" (Dorset Press, 1977) ] [ See also: [http://www.berzinarchives.com/kalachakra/nazi_connection_shambhala_tibet.html The Nazi Connection with Shambhala and Tibet] ] These authors have expanded Haushofer's contact with Hitler to a close collaboration while Hitler was writing "
Mein Kampf" and made him one of the 'future Chancellor's many mentors'. Haushofer may have been a short-term student of Gurdjieff, that he had studied Zen Buddhism, and that he had been initiated at the hands of Tibetan lamas, although these notions appear to be disconnected from reality.
* "English Translation and Analysis of Major General Karl Ernst Haushofer's Geopolitics of the Pacific Ocean: Studies on the Relationship between Geography and History" ISBN 0-7734-7122-7
* "Geopolitik des Pazifischen Ozeans". (1925)
* "Bausteine zur Geopolitik". (1928)
* "Weltpolitik von heute". (1934)
Haushofer is portrayed as a minor villain in the animated movie "'.
*Beukema, Col. Herman. "Introduction." "The World of General Haushofer." Farrar & Rinehart, Inc., New York: 1984.
*Dorpalen, Andreas. "The World of General Haushofer." Farrar & Rinehart, Inc., New York: 1984.
*Jacobsen, Hans-Adolf. "Karl Haushofer: Leben und Werk". 2 vols. (= "Schriften des Bundesarchivs "24) Harald Boldt Verlag, Boppard 1979.
*Mattern, Johannes. "Geopolitik: Doctrine of National Self-Sufficiency and Empire." The Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore: 1942.
*Walsh, S.J., Edmund A. "Total Power: A Footnote to History." Doubleday & Company, Inc., Garden City, New York: 1949.
*Ravenscroft, Trevor. "The Spear of Destiny" Weiser Books, London: 1983
* Dorpalen, Andreas."World of General Haushofer: Geopolitics in Action", 1942, ISBN 0-8046-0112-7
* Heske, Henning: "Karl Haushofer: his role in German politics and in Nazi politics." In: Political Geography 6 (1987), p. 135-144.
* "Dreamer of the Day: Francis Parker Yockey and the postwar fascist international" by Kevin Coogan, Autonomedia, Brooklyn, NY 1998 ISBN 1-57027-039-2
*"Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890" edited by Philip Rees, 1991, ISBN 0-13-089301-3
*cite book | author=Tuathail, Gearoid, etal. | title= The Geopolitics Reader| location= New York | publisher=Routledge| year= 1998| id= ISBN 0-415-16271-8
* Spang, Christian W., "Karl Haushofer Re-examined – Geopolitics as a Factor within Japanese-German Rapprochement in the Inter-War Years?" C. W. Spang, R.-H. Wippich (eds.), "Japanese-German Relations, 1895-1945. War, Diplomacy and Public Opinion." Routledge, London/New York: 2006, pp. 139-157.
* [http://www.dhm.de/lemo/html/biografien/HaushoferKarl/ Deutsches Historisches Museum: Biography of Karl Haushofer] (German)
Encyclopædia Britannica[http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?eu=40378 entry]
* [http://www.bartleby.com/65/ha/Haushofe.html The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition entry on Karl Haushofer]
* [http://web.archive.org/web/20050512003735/http://motlc.wiesenthal.com/text/x09/xm0987.html "Who's Who in Nazi Germany", by Wiederfield and Nicolsa, Haushofer entry]
* [http://www.algonet.se/~jman/bertil/geous.html Geopolitics, the United States, the Eurasian Continental Bloc, and China by Bertil Haggman]
* [http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=5884109027449931530 "The Last Days of World War II - Last Secrets of the Axis" - An online documentary by History Channel about Karl Haushofer and his role on Eurasia alliance]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
См. также в других словарях:
Karl Haushofer — Naissance 27 août 1869 Munich Décès 10 mars 1946 Pähl Origine Allemagne Grade … Wikipédia en Français
Karl Haushofer — Karl Haushofer. El general Haushofer, a la izquierda, al lado de Rudo … Wikipedia Español
Karl Haushofer — Karl Haushofer, Político, militar e historiador alemán, uno de los principales ideologos del Lebensraum. Nació en Múnich el 27 de agosto de 1869. En 1887, inicia la carrera militar en Escuela de Guerra de Baviera, y tres años después, ingresa… … Enciclopedia Universal
Karl Haushofer — General Haushofer und Rudolf Heß, um 1920 Karl Ernst Haushofer (* 27. August 1869 in München; † 10. März 1946 auf dem Hartschimmel Hof bei Pähl/Ammersee) war ein deutscher General und ein Geograf der geopolitischen Richtung … Deutsch Wikipedia
Karl Haushofer (Mineraloge) — Karl (von) Haushofer (* 28. April 1839 in München; † 8. Januar 1895 in München) war ein deutscher Mineraloge und Hochschullehrer in München. Leben Karl Haushofer war Sohn des Landschaftsmalers Max Haushofer und älterer Bruder des Nationalökonomen … Deutsch Wikipedia
Karl Ernst Haushofer — Karl Haushofer, um 1910 Karl Ernst Haushofer (* 27. August 1869 in München; † 10. März 1946 auf dem Hartschimmel Hof bei Pähl/Ammersee) war ein deutscher General, Geograf und Geopolitiker. Inhaltsverzeichnis … Deutsch Wikipedia
Karl Springenschmid — (* 19. März 1897 in Innsbruck; † 5. März 1981 in Salzburg, Pseudonyme: Christian Kreuzhakler, Beatus Streitter), war ein nationalsozialistischer österreichischer Schriftsteller und Lehrer. Er war der Hauptverantwortliche für die Salzburger… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Karl August Wittfogel — (* 6. September 1896 in Woltersdorf, heute Landkreis Lüchow Dannenberg; † 25. Mai 1988 in New York, USA) war ein deutscher Soziologe und Sinologe. Er erhielt 1941 die US amerikanische Staatsbürgerschaft. Einige seiner wichtigsten Bücher sind die… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Haushofer — Den Namen Haushofer trugen folgende Personen: Albrecht Haushofer (1903 1945), deutscher Schriftsteller und Geograph Heinz Haushofer (16. Juni 1906 1988), Agrarwissenschaftler Karl Haushofer (Mineraloge) (1839 1895), Mineraloge Karl Haushofer… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Karl Klingler — um 1900 Karl Klingler (* 7. Dezember 1879 in Straßburg, damals Deutsches Kaiserreich; † 18. März 1971 in München) war ein deutscher Geigenvirtuose, Konzertmeister, Komponist, Musikpädagoge und Hochschullehrer … Deutsch Wikipedia