Geopolitics is the study that analyzes
geography, historyand social sciencewith reference to spatial politicsand patterns at various scales (ranging from the level of the state to international). It examines the political, economic (see geoeconomics) and strategic significance of geography, where geography is defined in terms of the location, size, function, and relationships of places and resources.
The term was coined by
Rudolf Kjellén, a Swedish political scientist, at the beginning of the 20th century. Kjellén was inspired by the German geographer Friedrich Ratzel, who published his book "Politische Geographie" ( political geography) in 1897, popularized in English by American diplomat Robert Strausz-Hupé, a faculty member of the University of Pennsylvania...
The doctrine of Geopolitics gained attention largely through the work of Sir Halford Mackinder in England and his formulation of the
Heartland Theoryin 1904. The doctrine involved concepts diametrically opposed to the notion of Alfred Thayer Mahanabout the significance of navies (he coined the term "sea power") in world conflict. The Heartland theory hypothesized the possibility for a huge empire being brought into existence in the Heartland, which wouldn't need to use coastal or transoceanic transport to supply its military industrial complexbut would instead use railways, and that this empire couldn't be defeated by all the rest of the world against it.
The basic notions of Mackinder's doctrine involve considering the geography of the
Earthas being divided into two sections, the World Island, comprising Eurasiaand Africa; and the Periphery, including the Americas, the British Isles, and Oceania. Not only was the Periphery noticeably smaller than the World Island, it necessarily required much sea transport to function at the technological level of the World Island, which contained sufficient natural resources for a developed economy. Also, the industrial centers of the Periphery were necessarily located in widely separated locations. The World Island could send its navy to destroy each one of them in turn. It could locate its own industries in a region further inland than the Periphery could,so they would have a longer struggle reaching them, and would be facing a well-stocked industrial bastion. This region Mackinder termed the Heartland. It essentially comprised Ukraine, Western Russia, and Mitteleuropa. The Heartland contained the grain reserves of Ukraine, and many other natural resources. Mackinder's notion of geopolitics can be summed up in his saying "Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland. Who rules the Heartland commands the World-Island. Who rules the World-Island commands the World." His doctrine was influential during the World Warsand the Cold War, for Germanyand later Russiaeach made territorial strides toward the Heartland.
Mackinder's geopolitical theory has been criticised as being too sweeping, his interpretation of human history and geography too simple and mechanistic. In his analysis of the importance of mobility, and the move from sea to rail transport, he failed to predict the revolutionary impact of air power. Critically also he underestimated the importance of social organization in the development of power [O Tuathail (2006) page 20] . The theories of Mackinder fall into the category of geo-strategy which is no more than a single sub-component within the broader study of contemporary Geopolitics and Geopolitical change.
World War I, Kjellen's thoughts and the term were picked up and extended by a number of scientists: in Germany by Karl Haushofer, Erich Obst, Hermann Lautensachand Otto Maull; in England, Mackinder and James Fairgrieve; in France Vidal de la Blacheand Camille Vallaux. In 1923 Karl Haushofer founded the "Zeitschrift für Geopolitik" (Journal for Geopolitics), which developed as a propaganda organ for Nazi Germany. However, more recently Haushofer's influence within the Nazi Partyhas been questioned (O'Tuathail, 1996) since Haushofer failed to incorporate the Nazis' racial ideology into his work.
Following World War II, the study of Geopolitics and, by association Political Geography, was blackballed by most universities. It started to return from the 1980's onwards, firstly through the study of Critical Geopolitics, and later with the publication of an academic journal, initially known as Geopolitics and International Boundaries and published by Frank Cass, later to be taken over by Taylor & Francis (Routledge) under the name, Geopolitics [ [http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/14650045.asp] ] . This is now published as a peer reviewed quarterly journal and is edited by
David Newmanat Ben Gurion Universityin Israel, and John A Agnewat UCLAin the United States. Anton Zischkapublished "Afrika, Europas Gemeinschaftsaufgabe Nr. 1" (Africa, Complement of Europe) in 1952, where he proposed a kind of North–South Empire, from Stockholmto Johannesburg.
Since then, the word "geopolitics" has been applied to other theories, most notably the notion of the
Clash of Civilizationsby Samuel Huntington. In a peaceable world, neither sea lanes nor surface transport are threatened; hence all countries are effectively close enough to one another physically. It is in the realm of the political ideas, workings, and cultures that there are differences, and the term has shifted more towards this arena, especially in its popular usage. Traditionally, it strictly applies to geography's effect on politics.
"The study of geopolitics has undergone a major renaissance during the past decade. Addressing a gap in the published periodical literature, this journal seeks to explore the theoretical implications of contemporary geopolitics and geopolitical change with particular reference to territorial problems and issues of state sovereignty . Multidisciplinary in its scope, Geopolitics includes all aspects of the social sciences with particular emphasis on political geography, international relations, the territorial aspects of political science and international law. The journal seeks to maintain a healthy balance between systemic and regional analysis. (Geopolitics Journal home page - http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/14650045.asp)
"In the abstract, geopolitics traditionally indicates the links and causal relationships between political power and geographic space; in concrete terms it is often seen as a body of thought assaying specific strategic prescriptions based on the relative importance of land power and sea power in world history... The geopolitical tradition had some consistent concerns, like the geopolitical correlates of power in world politics, the identification of international core areas, and the relationships between naval and terrestrial capabilities."—Oyvind Osterud, "The Uses and Abuses of Geopolitics", "
Journal of Peace Research", no. 2, 1988, p. 192
"By geopolitical, I mean an approach that pays attention to the requirements of equilibrium."
Henry Kissingerin Colin S Gray, G R Sloan. "Geopolitics, Geography, and Strategy." Portland: Frank Cass Publishers, 1999.
"Geopolitics is studying geopolitical systems. The geopolitical system is, in my opinion, the ensemble of relations between the interests of international political actors, interests focused to an area, space, geographical element or ways."—Vladimir Toncea, "Geopolitical evolution of
borders in DanubeBasin", PhD 2006.
"Geopolitics as a branch of political geography is the study of reciprocal relations between geography, politics and power and also the intractions arising from combination of them with each other. According to this definition, geopolitics is a scientific discipline and has a basic science nature.(Hafeznia, M.R. 2006. "Principles and Concepts of Geopolitics". Popoli Publications: Iran, pp 37–39.)
Institutions for geopolitics
An increasing number of (inter)national institutions exist that work on (aspects of) Geopolitics:
* International Centre for Geopolitical Studies (I.C.G.S.) located in Geneva (Switzerland):
Founded in June 2001, I.C.G.S. has the objective of reinforcing international stability and security through the promotion of a better understanding of the causes of conflicts and tensions. As such, I.C.G.S. engages in analysis and studies of world geopolitical issues in order to facilitate a more complex reading of the evolutions taking place in contemporary
international relations. It organises a successful annual Summer University Course "Geopolitical Analysis of International Relations" (two weeks in July each year).
* Institut Français de Géopolitique (I.F.G.) located in Paris (France):
Created in 1989 out of the journal 'Hérodote. Revue de Géographie et de Géopolitique', the I.F.G. is embedded within the University Paris VIII. It offers a Master in Geopolitics and a Ph.D.
* Instytut Geopolityki (Institute of Geopolitics) located in Czestochowa (Poland).
* "' [http://www.iag.ir Iranian Association of Geopolitics ] (IAG) located in Tehran (Iran)
Geostrategy in Central Asia
Natural gasand list of natural gas fieldsand
*cite book|last= Ankerl |first= Guy |title= Global communication without universal civilization |origdate= |origyear= 2000 |series= INU societal research |volume= Vol.1: Coexisting contemporary civilizations : Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western |publisher= INU Press |location= Geneva |isbn= 2-88155-004-5 |pages=
*O'Loughlin, John / Heske, Henning. "From 'Geopolitik' to 'Geopolitique': Converting a Discipline for War to a Discipline for Peace". In: Kliot, N. and Waterman, S. (ed.): "The Political Geography of Conflict and Peace". London: Belhaven Press, 1991
*cite book | author=O'Tuathail, Gearoid, et al. | title= The Geopolitics Reader| location= New York | publisher=Routledge| year= 1998| id= ISBN 0-415-16271-8
*Spang, Christian W.: “Karl Haushofer Re-examined—Geopolitics as a Factor within Japanese-German Rapprochement in the Inter-War Years?”, in: C. W. Spang, R.-H. Wippich (eds.), "Japanese-German Relations, 1895–1945". War, Diplomacy and Public Opinion, London, 2006, pp. 139–157.
*Diamond, Jared, "
Guns, Germs, and Steel" (1997)
* Amineh, Parvizi M. and Henk Houweling, "Central Eurasia in Global Politics", (London, Leiden: Brill Academic Publishing. Introduction and Chapeter 1.
* [http://www.theory-talks.org/ Theory Talks] frequently publishes interviews with geopolitics scholars]
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Look at other dictionaries:
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