Inventions in the modern Islamic world


Inventions in the modern Islamic world

[
Abdus Salam, the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physics recipient, include the electroweak interaction, electroweak symmetry breaking, magnetic photon, neutral current, preon, W and Z bosons, supergeometry, supermanifold, superspace and superfield.]

This is a list of inventions that were developed in the modern Islamic world, a geopolitical region that extends from Africa and the Balkans in the west to the Indian subcontinent and Malay Archipelago in the east. [Bernard Lewis, "What Went Wrong": quote|"There have been many civilizations in human history, almost all of which were local, in the sense that they were defined by a region and an ethnic group. This applied to all the ancient civilizations of the Middle East—Egypt, Babylon, Persia; to the great civilizations of Asia—India, China; and to the civilizations of Pre-Columbian America. There are two exceptions: Christendom and Islam. These are two civilizations defined by religion, in which religion is the primary defining force, not, as in India or China, a secondary aspect among others of an essentially regional and ethnically defined civilization. Here, again, another word of explanation is necessary."]

The inventions listed here were developed after the Islamic Golden Age, which is usually dated between the 7th and 15th centuries. For earlier inventions developed during the Islamic Golden Age, see Inventions in medieval Islam.

Architecture

*Deconstructivist and postmodern architecture: Zaha Hadid is a Pritzker Prize-winning Iraqi deconstructivist architect known for many postmodern buildings. One of her most notable is the Bridge Pavilion, the first pavilion built over a bridge, which she constructed in Zaragoza for the Expo 2008. She also built the first Dancing Towers in Dubai, as well as the Vilnius Guggenheim Hermitage Museum, Maggie's Centres, London Aquatics Centre, Riverside Museum, Nuragic and Contemporary art museum, Ordrupgaard, Phaeno Science Center, the Vitra fire station, and the Rosenthal Center for Contemporary Art.

*High-rise swimming pool: The 44th-floor sky lobby of the John Hancock Centre, constructed by the Bangladeshi engineer Fazlur Khan in 1969, features the first high-rise indoor swimming pool, which remains the highest in America. [http://www.emporis.com/en/wm/bu/?id=116876 John Hancock Center] , Emporis]

*High-rise tower house, high-rise mudbrick apartment building and tower block, and vertical construction urban planning: The 16th-century city of Shibam in Yemen is regarded as the "oldest skyscraper-city in the world" and the "Manhattan of the desert." This is the earliest example of urban planning based on the principle of vertical construction. Shibam was made up of over 500 tower houses, [http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/192 Old Walled City of Shibam] , UNESCO] each one rising 5 to 11 storeys high,citation|title=Land without shade|first=Hans|last=Helfritz|journal=Journal of The Royal Central Asian Society|volume=24|issue=2|date=April 1937|pages=201-16] with each floor having one or two apartments.citation|title=The Architecture of Mud: Construction and Repair Technology in the Hadhramaut Region ofYemen|last=Pamela Jerome, Giacomo Chiari|first=Caterina Borelli|journal=APT Bulletin|volume=30|issue=2-3|year=1999|pages=39-48 [44] ] The city had the first high-rise (which need to be at least convert|75|ft|m tall) mudbrick buildings, with some of them being over convert|100|ft|m tall. These remain the tallest high-rise mudbrick buildings in the world.citation|title=The Hadhramaut|first=J. G. T.|last=Shipman|journal=Asian Affairs|volume=15|issue=2|date=June 1984|pages=154-62] The tallest building in the city is the mudbrick minaret which stands at over convert|175|ft|m tall.

*Prefabricated home and movable structure: The first prefabricated homes and movable structures were invented in 16th century Mughal India by Akbar the Great. These structures were reported by Arif Qandahari in 1579. [Irfan Habib (1992), "Akbar and Technology", "Social Scientist" 20 (9-10), pp. 3-15 [3-4] .]

*Wind powered rotating skyscraper: The world's first rotating skyscraper is to be built at the center of the Dubailand complex in Dubai and should be completed by 2010. The building will be convert|420|m|ft high with 80 independently rotating storeys. The skyscraper will also be able to generate its own electricity from horizontal 79 wind turbines stacked between each floor. [cite web|title=World's first rotating skyscraper unveiled in Dubai|url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/dubai/2191592/World%27s-first-rotating-skyscraper-unveiled-in-Dubai.html|publisher=The Daily Telegraph|date=26 June 2008|accessdate=2008-09-04]

*Sky lobby: The first sky lobby was designed by the Bangladeshi engineer Fazlur Khan for the John Hancock Center, built in 1969. Later buildings with sky lobbies include the World Trade Center in the United States, Petronas Twin Towers in Malaysia, and Taipei 101 in Taiwan.

*Skyscrapers, tallest: The Bangladeshi engineer Fazlur Khan, considered the "Einstein of structural engineering" and "the greatest architectural engineer of the second half of the 20th century" produced designs of structural systems that remain fundamental to all high-rise skyscrapers, which he employed in his constructions for the John Hancock Center and Sears Tower. [Ali Mir (2001). "Art of the Skyscraper: the Genius of Fazlur Khan". Rizzoli International Publications. ISBN 0847823709.] The Sears Tower remained the world's tallest building up until 2007, when the Burj Dubai, currently under construction in Dubai, surpassed its height as the world's tallest building, reaching convert|585.7|m|ft in height and will be even taller when complete. [ [http://www.visitdubai.info/news/burjdubai.htm Burj Dubai surpasses the height of Sears Tower in Chicago] ] The world's tallest twin towers, the Petronas Twin Towers, was also built in Malaysia in 1998.

*Tube structure: After 1965, a new structural system of framed tubes appeared in skyscraper design and construction. The Bangladeshi engineer Fazlur Khan defined the framed tube structure as "a three dimensional space structure composed of three, four, or possibly more frames, braced frames, or shear walls, joined at or near their edges to form a vertical tube-like structural system capable of resisting lateral forces in any direction by cantilevering from the foundation." [Cite web| title = Evolution of Concrete Skyscrapers| accessdate = 2007-05-14| url = http://www.civenv.unimelb.edu.au/ejse/Archives/Fulltext/200101/01/20010101.htm ] Closely spaced interconnected exterior columns form the tube. Horizontal loads, for example wind, are supported by the structure as a whole. About half the exterior surface is available for windows. Framed tubes allow fewer interior columns, and so create more usable floor space. Where larger openings like garage doors are required, the tube frame must be interrupted, with transfer girders used to maintain structural integrity. The first building to apply the tube-frame construction was in the DeWitt-Chestnut apartment building which he designed in Chicago. This laid the foundations for the tube structures used in most later skyscraper constructions, including the construction of the World Trade Center.

*X-bracing: Another innovation in skyscraper design and construction developed by Fazlur Khan was the concept of X-bracing. This concept reduced the lateral load on the building by transferring the load into the exterior columns. This allows for a reduced need for interior columns thus creating more floor space. This concept can be seen in the John Hancock Center.

Computing

*Real-time anti-fraud system: In 2000, many of the core components of PayPal, including its real-time anti-fraud system, [http://www.jawed.com/resume Jawed Karim Resume] ] was designed and implemented by Bangladeshi American software engineer Jawed Karim. [cite web|author=Omair Ali, Ani Zakarian, Valerie Enriquez|url=http://www.theculturalconnect.com/new/2007/08/10/mecca-one-radio-mideast|title=MeccaOne Media: A Voice for the Everyday Muslim|publisher="The MidEast Connect Magazine"]

*Video hosting service with web browser-embedded video player: In 2005, Jawed Karim pioneered the idea of a video hosting service with a web browser-embedded video player, and co-founded YouTube as a result. [Jim Hopkins, [http://www.usatoday.com/tech/news/2006-10-11-youtube-karim_x.htm Surprise! There's a third YouTube co-founder] , "USA Today", 10-11-2006.]

Hygiene

*Shampoo: The earliest documented evidence of shampoo dates back to the Bengali Muslim entrepeneur Sake Dean Mahomet. He opened a shampooing bath known as 'Mahomed's Indian Vapour Baths' in Brighton, England, in 1759. His baths were like Turkish baths where clients received an Indian treatment of "champi" (shampooing) or therapeutic massage. His service was appreciated; he received the high accolade of being appointed ‘Shampooing Surgeon’ to both George IV and William IV.Paul Vallely, [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_20060311/ai_n16147544 How Islamic Inventors Changed the World] , "The Independent", 11 March 2006]

Instruments

*Cartographic Qibla indicators: These were brass instruments with Mecca-centred world maps and cartographic grids engraved on them. They were invented in 17th-century Iran.David A. King, "Reflections on some new studies on applied science in Islamic societies (8th-19th centuries)", "Islam & Science", June 2004.]

*Cartographic Qibla indicator with sundial and compass: This was a Qibla instrument with a sundial and compass attached to it, [David A. King (1997). "Two Iranian World Maps for Finding the Direction and Distance to Mecca", "Imago Mundi" 49, p. 62-82 [62] .] and was invented by Muhammad Husayn in the 17th century. [Muzaffar Iqbal, "David A. King, "World-Maps for Finding the Direction and Distance to Mecca: Innovation and Tradition in Islamic Science", "Islam & Science", June 2003.]

*Framed sextant: At the Istanbul observatory of al-Din between 1577 and 1580, Taqi al-Din invented the "mushabbaha bi'l manattiq", a framed sextant with cords for the determination of the equinoxes similar to what Tycho Brahe later used.cite encyclopedia | first = Sevim | last = Tekeli | title = Taqi al-Din | year = 1997 | encyclopedia = Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures | publisher = Kluwer Academic Publishers | ISBN = 0792340663 | url = http://www.springer.com/philosophy/philosophy+of+sciences/book/978-1-4020-4425-0 ]

*Seamless globe and celestial globe: Considered one of the most remarkable feats in metallurgy, they were invented in Kashmir by Ali Kashmiri ibn Luqman in 998 AH (1589-90 CE), and twenty other such globes were later produced in Lahore and Kashmir during the Mughal Empire. Before they were rediscovered in the 1980s, it was believed by modern metallurgists to be technically impossible to produce metal globes without any seams, even with modern technology. These Mughal metallurgists pioneered the method of lost-wax casting while producing these seamless globes. [citation|first=Emilie|last=Savage-Smith|title=Islamicate Celestial Globes: Their history, Construction, and Use|publisher=Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.|year=1985]

*Telescope: A rudimentary telescope was invented by Taqi al-Din, as described in his "Book of the Light of the Pupil of Vision and the Light of the Truth of the Sights" around 1574. He describes it as an instrument that makes objects located far away appear closer to the observer. He further states that the instrument helps to see distant objects in detail by bringing them very close. He also states that he wrote another earlier treatise explaining the way this instrument is made and used, suggesting that he invented it some time before 1574. However, it is not known whether he employed the instrument for his later astronomical observations at the Istanbul observatory of al-Din from 1577.citation|first=Hüseyin Gazi|last=Topdemir|title=Takîyüddîn'in Optik Kitabi|publisher=Ministry of Culture Press, Ankara|year=1999 (cf. cite web|author=Dr. Hüseyin Gazi Topdemir|title=Taqi al-Din ibn Ma‘ruf and the Science of Optics: The Nature of Light and theMechanism of Vision|publisher=FSTC Limited|url=http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=951|date=30 June 2008|accessdate=2008-07-04)]

Mechanical technology

*5V lithium battery: Since its introduction by Sony in 1991, the lithium battery has been restricted to the cell potential of 3.6 - 3.8 V (commercially called 4 V lithium batteries) due to the limitation of Li anode potential. Construction of 5 V lithium batteries could yield higher power density batteries, and thus smaller devices. In 2004, Eftekhari fabricated an all-solid state lithium battery with 5 V potential. [A. Eftekhari (2004), "Journal of Power Sources" 132 (1-2): 240–43]

*Electrochemical nanotechnology and carbon nanotube mass-production: See Physical sciences below.

*Gas laser: Invented in 1960 by the Iranian physicist Ali Javan.

*Hydrogen-powered three-wheeled automobile: The Z.CAR, the first hydrogen-powered three-wheeled automobile, was developed by the Iraqi engineer Zaha Hadid.

*Non-glaring headlamp: This is a headlamp with a continuous long-distance illumination without glaring effects. It was invented in Turkey by Prof. Dr. Turhan Alçelik, and won the silver medal at the IENA Invention Fair at Nuremberg, [cite web|url=http://www.turkpatent.gov.tr/portal/default_en.jsp?sayfa=161&haber=360|title=Turkish Inventions Won Awards from the IENA Invention Fair|publisher=Turkish Patent Institute|date=2006-11-10|accessdate=2008-08-09] and the technical jury's first prize at the 34th International Exhibition Of Invention, New Techniques And Products, at Geneva, [cite news | title = Ödüllü far yollarda | url = http://www.radikal.com.tr/haber.php?haberno=183987&tarih=10/04/2006 | date = 2006-04-10 | accessdate= 2008-01-15 | publisher = Radikal ] in 2006.

*Six-cylinder 'Monobloc' pump: In 1559, Taqi al-Din invented a six-cylinder 'Monobloc' pump. It was a hydropowered water-raising machine incorporating valves, suction and delivery pipes, piston rods with lead weights, trip levers with pin joints, and cams on the axle of a water-driven scoop-wheel. [Donald Routledge Hill, "Engineering", p. 779, in Harv|Rashed|Morelon|1996|pp=751-95]

*Steam-powered and self-rotating spit snd smoke jack: In 1551, the Egyptian engineer Taqi al-Din described the first practical steam turbine as a prime mover for the first steam-powered and self-rotating spit and smoke jack.Ahmad Y Hassan (1976), "Taqi al-Din and Arabic Mechanical Engineering", p. 34-35. Institute for the History of Arabic Science, University of Aleppo.]

*Steam turbine, impulse: In the 1st century, Hero of Alexandria's aeolipile may have possibly been a reaction steam turbine, but it was essentially a toy with no practical applications. In 1551, Taqi al-Din invented the first impulse steam turbine and described the first practical applications for it as a prime mover for rotating a spit, predating Giovanni Branca's later impulse steam turbine from 1629. Al-Din described his invention in his book, "Al-Turuq al-saniyya fi al-alat al-ruhaniyya" ("The Sublime Methods of Spiritual Machines"), completed in 1551 AD (959 AH).

*Vertically rising ladder: This was invented in Turkey by Murat Nural and won the gold medal at the IENA Invention Fair at Nuremberg in 2007. It was designed to climb high points and facilitate suspending there. The user who inserts his/her feet on the movable climbers moves his/her feet backward and forward and climbs upward on the steps. When the user wants to suspend, he/she fixes the climber on the step. The same procedure is followed reversely while getting down. Thanks to its movable legs, it will be possible to work on it for long time without getting tired, and allows easy operation on rough grounds. It also offers the opportunity to use both hands while on the ladder and easy operation on narrow points. It is also easy to keep and transport thanks to its small body, and there is no need for someone else to hold the ladders while one climbs on higher points on the ladder. It will be easy to carry the materials thanks to its hanger, and due to the fact that its legs on the ground are parallel to the ground it is not buried into the ground, so that it can be used to pick fruits up in the gardens. It also helps the operator to work against the wall when he/she wants to hang something on the wall, and it enables easy operation at angular spaces since the legs on the ground can be curved. [cite web|url=http://www.turkpatent.gov.tr/portal/default_en.jsp?sayfa=161&haber=540|title=Turkish Inventions Exhibits in Iena Fair|publisher=Turkish Patent Institute|date=2007-10-30|accessdate=2008-08-09]

Mechanical clocks

*Mechanical alarm clock: The first mechanical alarm clock was invented by Taqi al-Din in 1559. He described the alarm clock in his book, "The Brightest Stars for the Construction of Mechanical Clocks" ("Al-Kawākib al-durriyya fī wadh' al-bankāmat al-dawriyya"), published that year. His alarm clock was capable of sounding at a specified time, which was achieved by means of placing a peg on the dial wheel to when one wants the alarm heard and by producing an automated ringing device at the specified time. [cite web|author=Salim Al-Hassani|title=The Astronomical Clock of Taqi Al-Din: Virtual Reconstruction|publisher=FSTC|url=http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=947|date=19 June 2008|accessdate=2008-07-02]

*Spring-powered astronomical clock: In "The Brightest Stars for the Construction of Mechanical Clocks", Taqi al-Din invented the first astronomical clock to be powered by springs. This was also one of the first spring-powered mechanical clocks in general, developed around the same time as Peter Henlein in 1556.cite web|author=Salim Al-Hassani|title=The Astronomical Clock of Taqi Al-Din: Virtual Reconstruction|publisher=FSTC|url=http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=947|date=19 June 2008|accessdate=2008-07-02]

*Spring-powered pocket watch measured in minutes: Taqi al-Din also developed one of the first spring-powered pocket watches,cite web|author=Donald Routledge Hill and Ahmad Y Hassan|title=Engineering in Arabic-Islamic Civilization|url=http://www.history-science-technology.com/Articles/articles%2011.htm|work=History of Science and Technology in Islam|accessdate=2008-07-03] shortly after the first such watch was developed by Peter Henlein in 1524. Taqi al-Din's watch, however, was the first to measure time in minutes, by having three dials for the hours, degrees and minutes.

*Observational clock measured in seconds: Taqi al-Din invented the "observational clock", which he described as "a mechanical clock with three dials which show the hours, the minutes, and the seconds." This was the first clock to measure time in seconds, and was used for astronomical purposes, specifically for measuring the right ascension of the stars. This is considered one of the most important innovations in 16th century practical astronomy, as previous clocks were not accurate enough to be used for astronomical purposes. [Sevim Tekeli, "Taqi al-Din", in Helaine Selin (1997), "Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures", Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN 0792340663.] He further improved his observational clock, using only one dial to represent the hours, minutes and seconds, describing it as "a mechanical clock with a dial showing the hours, minutes and seconds and we divided every minute into five seconds." [citation|first=Aydin|last=Sayili|authorlink=Aydin Sayili|title=The Observatory in Islam|year=1991|pages=289-305 (cf. cite web|author=Dr. Salim Ayduz|title=Taqi al-Din Ibn Ma’ruf: A Bio-Bibliographical Essay|url=http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=949|date=26 June 2008|accessdate=2008-07-04)]

Military

*Autocannon and multi-barrel gun: Fathullah Shirazi (c. 1582), a Persian-Indian polymath and mechanical engineer who worked for Akbar the Great in the Mughal Empire, invented the autocannon, the earliest multi-shot gun. As opposed to the polybolos and repeating crossbows used earlier in ancient Greece and China, respectively, Shirazi's rapid-firing gun had multiple gun barrels that fired hand cannons loaded with gunpowder. [A. K. Bag (2005), "Fathullah Shirazi: Cannon, Multi-barrel Gun and Yarghu", "Indian Journal of History of Science" 40 (3), pp. 431-436.]

*Iron-cased and metal-cylinder rocket artillery: The first iron-cased and metal-cylinder rocket artillery were developed by Tipu Sultan, a Muslim ruler of the South Indian Kingdom of Mysore, and his father Hyder Ali, in the 1780s. He successfully used these metal-cylinder rockets against the larger forces of the British East India Company during the Anglo-Mysore Wars. The Mysore rockets of this period were much more advanced than what the British had seen, chiefly because of the use of iron tubes for holding the propellant; this enabled higher thrust and longer range for the missile (up to 2 km range). After Tipu's eventual defeat in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War and the capture of the Mysore iron rockets, they were influential in British rocket development, inspiring the Congreve rocket, which was soon put into use in the Napoleonic Wars. [Roddam Narasimha (1985). [http://nal-ir.nal.res.in/2382/01/tr_pd_du_8503_R66305.pdf Rockets in Mysore and Britain, 1750-1850 A.D.] National Aeronautical Laboratory and Indian Institute of Science.] According to Stephen Oliver Fought and John F. Guilmartin, Jr. in "Encyclopedia Britannica" (2008): "Hyder Ali, prince of Mysore, developed war rockets with an important change: the use of metal cylinders to contain the combustion powder. Although the hammered soft iron he used was crude, the bursting strength of the container of black powder was much higher than the earlier paper construction. Thus a greater internal pressure was possible, with a resultant greater thrust of the propulsive jet. The rocket body was lashed with leather thongs to a long bamboo stick. Range was perhaps up to three-quarters of a mile (more than a kilometre). Although individually these rockets were not accurate, dispersion error became less important when large numbers were fired rapidly in mass attacks. They were particularly effective against cavalry and were hurled into the air, after lighting, or skimmed along the hard dry ground. Hyder Ali's son, Tippu Sultan, continued to develop and expand the use of rocket weapons, reportedly increasing the number of rocket troops from 1,200 to a corps of 5,000. In battles at Seringapatam in 1792 and 1799 these rockets were used with considerable effect against the British.""Encyclopedia Britannica" (2008), "rocket and missile"]

*Marching band and military band: The marching band and military band both have their origins in the Ottoman military band, performed by the Janissary since the 16th century. [citation|title=The impact of Turkish military bands on European court festivals in the 17th and 18th centuries|first=Edmund A.|last=Bowles|journal=Early Music|year=2006|volume=34|issue=4|publisher=Oxford University Press|pages=533-60]

Navigational technology

Astronautics

*Human spaceflight, space dock, and space station: In the 20th century, Muslim rocket scientists from Soviet Central Asia were involved in research on astronautics and space exploration. Kerim Kerimov from Azerbaijan was one of the most important key figures in early space exploration. He was one of the founders of the Soviet space program, one of the lead architects behind the first human spaceflight (Vostok 1), and responsible for the launch of the first space docks (the Cosmos 186 and Cosmos 188) and the first space stations (the Salyut and Mir series).Peter Bond, [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_20030407/ai_n12692130 Obituary: Lt-Gen Kerim Kerimov] , "The Independent", 7 April 2003.] [Betty Blair (1995), "Behind Soviet Aeronauts", "Azerbaijan International" 3 (3).] The Mir, a consistently inhabited long-term research space station, also holds the record for the longest continuous human presence in space.

*Moon landing, training for: From 1967 to 1972, Farouk El-Baz from Egypt worked for NASA and was involved in the first Moon landings with the Apollo program, where he was secretary of the "Landing Site Selection Committee", "Principal Investigator of Visual Observations and Photography", chairman of the "Astronaut Training Group", and assisted in the planning of scientific explorations of the Moon, including the selection of landing sites for the Apollo missions and the training of astronauts in lunar observations and photography. [ [http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?c=Article_C&cid=1169545087624&pagename=Zone-English-HealthScience%2FHSELayout Farouk El-Baz: With Apollo to the Moon] , IslamOnline]

*Biomedical research in outer space: In 2007, Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor from Malaysia travelled to the International Space Station with his Expedition 16 crew aboard Soyuz TMA-11 as part of the Angkasawan program during Ramadan. He was both an astronaut and an orthopedic surgeon, and is most notable for being the first to perform biomedical research in space, mainly related to the characteristics and growth of liver cancer and leukemia cells and the crystallization of various proteins and microbes in space. [Cite web|url=http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2007/10/11/nation/19136025&sec=nation|title=Mission in space|accessyear=2007|accessmonth=October 13|publisherTheStar|year=2007|author=theStar|language=English]

*Private spaceflight research: Anousheh Ansari and Amir Ansari set up the Ansari X Prize to encourage private spaceflight research.

Aviation

*Artificial wings: Abbas Ibn Firnas' hang glider in 875 was the first to have artificial wings, though the flight was eventually unsuccessful. According to Evliya Çelebi in the early 17th century, Hezarfen Ahmet Celebi was the first aviator to have made a successful flight with artificial wings between 1630-1632.Arslan Terzioglu (2007), "The First Attempts of Flight, Automatic Machines, Submarines and Rocket Technology in Turkish History", in "The Turks" (ed. H. C. Guzel), pp. 804-810.]

*Artificially-powered aircraft and manned rocket: According to Evliya Çelebi in the early 17th century, Lagari Hasan Çelebi launched himself in the air in a seven-winged rocket, which was composed of a large cage with a conical top filled with gunpowder. The flight was accomplished as a part of celebrations performed for the birth of Ottoman Emperor Murad IV's daughter in 1633. Evliya reported that Lagari made a soft landing in the Bosporus by using the wings attached to his body as a parachute after the gunpowder was consumed, foreshadowing the sea-landing methods of astronauts with parachutes after their voyages into outer space. Lagari's flight was estimated to have lasted about twenty seconds and the maximum height reached was around convert|300|m|ft. This was the first known example of a manned rocket and an artificially-powered aircraft.

Water transport

*Naval trawler: The earliest naval trawler was the "TS Pelican", a convert|150|ft|m converted trawler employed by the Barbary pirates for naval warfare from the 16th century.

*Submarine: On October 1, 1720, the Ottoman dockyard architect Ibrahim Efendi invented a submarine called the "tahtelbahir". The Ottoman writer Seyyid Vehbi, in his "Surname-i-Humayun", compared this submarine to an alligator. He recorded that during the circumcision ceremony for Sultan Ahmed III's sons, "the alligator-like submarine slowly emerged on the water and moved slowly to the sultan, and after staying on the sea for half an hour, submerged in the sea again to the great surprise of the public; then emerged one hour later, with five people walking outside the mouth of this alligator-like submarine, with trays of rice and "zerde" (a dish of sweetened rice) on their heads." He explained the technical information concerning the submarine "submerging in the sea and the crew being able to breath through pipes while under the sea".

*Volitan: This is the first fully sustainable boat. It was invented in Turkey by Dr. Hakan Gürsu and Sözüm Doğan at the DesignNobis Studio, and won the best nautical/boat award and best transportation vehicle award at the International Design Awards in 2007. It is equipped with double layer solar cell panels, and uses both wind power and solar energy. It has a very light weight, stiff structure, its shell is made of carbon fiber and epoxy resin, and it has an ultraviolet resistant coating. It is also connected to a twin 220 HP/DC electric motor which has two suspended wings to help manoeuvre the ship, and in addition, a hydraulic/servo system located in the wings activates the Volitan's unique performance sail system. [cite web|url=http://www.designnobis.com|title=DesignNobis|accessdate=2008-08-09]

*Windward ship: The first windward ship, which could sail into the wind without slowing down, was the "TS Pelican" employed by the Barbary pirates from the 16th century. It was able to sail at nearly 10 knots at 38 degrees off the relative wind. Graham Neilson, who reconstructed the ship, wrote: “The "Pelican" can sail over 20 degrees nearer the wind than any square rigger at sea. The yards come to within 18 degrees of the centreline. It is a combination of the fore and aft and the square sails, along with the aerodynamics, that is the secret of how to move so close to the wind. I think we can get more out of her. It could really tear up the field in a tall ships race.”cite web|publisher="The Times"|date=28 February 2007|title=Pirates who got away with it by sailing closer to the wind|author=Simon de Bruxelles|url=http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/africa/article1449736.ece|accessdate=2008-09-10]

*Xebec and Polacca: The xebec and polacre sailing ships used around the Mediterranean Sea from the 16th to the 19th centuries originated from the Barbary pirates, who successfully used them for naval warfare against European ships at the time.

Philosophy

*Existentialism and existence precedes essence: In the early 17th century, the Persian philosopher, Mulla Sadra, founded the school of Transcendent Theosophy and developed the concept of existence precedes essence. [Harv|Razavi|1997|pp=129-30] His work bought "a new philosophical insight in dealing with the nature of reality" and created "a major transition from essentialism to existentialism" in Islamic philosophy, several centuries before this occurred in Western philosophy. [citation|title=Mulla Sadra's Transcendent Philosophy|first=Muhammad|last=Kamal|year=2006|publisher=Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.|isbn=0754652718|pages=9 & 39]

ciences

Biomedical sciences

*Behçet's disease: Named after Hulusi Behçet (1889-1948), the Turkish dermatologist and scientist who first recognized the syndrome in one of his patients in 1924 and reported his research on the disease in "Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases" in 1936.WhoNamedIt|synd|1863] [H. Behçet. Über rezidivierende, aphtöse, durch ein Virus verursachte Geschwüre am Mund, am Auge und an den Genitalien.Dermatologische Wochenschrift, Hamburg, 1937, 105(36): 1152-1163.]

*Biomedical research in outer space: See Astronautics below.

*Chronic fatigue syndrome treatment, biopsychosocial model, medical sociology, psychosocial development, neurochemical pathology: Dr. Muhammad B. Yunus, a Muslim American physician who practices internal medicine and rheumatology, [ [http://www.healthgrades.com/directory_search/physician/profiles/dr-md-reports/Dr-Muhammad-Yunus-MD-044503D8.cfm Dr. Muhammad Yunus, MD] , HealthGrades, Inc.] made important advances in the understanding of the chronic fatigue syndromes, the biopsychosocial model, medical sociology, neurology, psychosocial development, and neurochemical pathology. [ [http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/06/070625095756.htm Further Legitimization Of Fibromyalgia As A True Medical Condition] , "Science Daily", June 25, 2007.] His "biopsychosocial perspective" of fibromyalgia and other chronic fatigue syndromes is the "only way to synthesize the disparate contributions of such variables as genes and adverse childhood experiences, life stress and distress, posttraumatic stress disorder, mood disorders, self-efficacy for pain control, catastrophizing, coping style, and social support into the evolving picture of central nervous system dysfunction vis-a-vis chronic pain and fatigue."John B. Winfield (2007), "Fibromyalgia and Related Central Sensitivity Syndromes: Twenty-five Years of Progress", "Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism" 36 (6): 335-338.]

*Extraction of compounds from Neem and Rauwolfia: See Physical sciences below.

*Fibromyalgia treatment, serotonergic and norepinephric drugs, neurohormonal mechanisms with central sensitization: In 1981, Dr. Muhammad B. Yunus, published the "first controlled study of the clinical characteristics" of the fibromyalgia syndrome, for which he is regarded as "the father of our modern view of fibromyalgia." His work was the "first controlled clinical study" of fibromyalgia "with validation of known symptoms and tender points" and he also proposed "the first data-based criteria." In 1984, he proposed the important concept that the fibromyalgia syndrome and other similar conditions are interconnected. He showed serotonergic and norepinephric drugs to be effective in 1986, published a criteria for fibromyalgia in 1990, and developed neurohormonal mechanisms with central sensitization in the 1990s. [F. Fatma Inanici and Muhammad B. Yunus (2004), "History of fibromyalgia: Past to present", 8 (5): 369-378.]

*Glycosylated hemoglobin: Iranian scientist Samuel Rahbar was a pioneer in hematology and the understanding of diabetes. In 1969, he discovered glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C), a form of hemoglobin used primarily to identify plasma glucose concentration over time. He was also the first to describe its increase in diabetes. [cite journal |author=Rahbar S, Blumenfeld O, Ranney HM |title=Studies of an unusual hemoglobin in patients with diabetes mellitus |journal=Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. |volume=36 |issue=5 |pages=838–43 |year=1969 |pmid=5808299 |doi=10.1016/0006-291X(69)90685-8]

*HIV and AIDS treatment: In virology, Yemeni scientist Sheikh Abdul Majeed al-Zindani is involved in finding a treatment for HIV and AIDS using unorthodox methods inspired by the Qur'an and Hadiths. [Gregory D. Johnsen, [http://www.jamestown.org/terrorism/news/article.php?articleid=2369951 Profile of Sheikh Abd al-Majid al-Zindani] ] In 2007, he claimed to have found a remedy for HIV and AIDS and cited the Hadiths as his inspiration. [YouTube|id=yeFr5t19aQs|Yemenite Sheik Claims to Have Found the Cure for AIDS] He gave a speech praising the quality of scientific and medical research carried out at Iman University, claiming that they had successfully treated many cases of AIDS. In twenty cases, al-Zandani said that the virus had vanished completely without any side effects and called on the UN, which "spends enormous amounts of money to fight the disease," to send "its senior scientists to review [the university's] findings.” No study of these claims have been done since 2005 when initially announced and according to doctors in Saudi Arabia, a patients who was told of being viral-free tested positive for HIV.

*Medical technology: Iranian physician and engineer Toffy Musivand invented a variety of medical technology, including the artificial cardiac pump as treatment for heart failure, "remote power transfer for implantable medical devices, remote patient monitoring (telemedicine), biofluid dynamics to reduce/eliminate thrombosis in blood conducting devices, patient care simulation centre, detection devices and methods for detection, in situ sterilization, medical devices (failure analysis and regulatory process), and medical sensors." [ [http://www.ottawaheart.ca/UOHI/bio/Tofy_Mussivand.jsp Tofy Mussivand PhD, FRSC] , University of Ottawa Heart Institute]

*Neuro-Behcet's disease: In 1991, Saudi medical researchers discovered "neuro-Behcet's disease",Ravi Malhotra (2004), "Saudi Arabia", "Practical Neurology" 4: 184-185.] a neurological involvement in Behcet's disease, considered one of the most devastating manifestations of the disease. [S. Saleem (2005), [http://www.neurographics.org/4/2/1/4.shtml Neuro-Behcet's Disease: NBD] , "Neurographics", Vol. 4, Issue 2, Article 1.] In 1989, Saudi neurologists also discovered "neurobrucellosis", a neurological involvement in brucellosis.

Formal sciences

*Fractal geometry in textual analysis: In 2006, the Iranian scientist Ali Eftekhari was the first to utilize fractal geometry in the analysis of texts. In a seminal paper, he applied the concept of fractal geometry for analysis of William Shakespeare's works. He found that fractality of literature is a measurable factor. For the case of Shakespeare's works, the fractality can be categorized according to some factor like the manuscript length, the type of writing (e.g. tragedy, comedy, etc). This theory was demonstrated by comparing the results with similar statistical methods. This finding can provide a new opportunity for the mathematical analysis of literature. He also found that, like fractal dimension, it is possible to calculate Zipf dimension, which is a useful parameter in the analysis of texts.Ali Eftekhari (2006) Fractal geometry of texts. "Journal of Quantitative Linguistic" 13(2-3): 177 – 193.]

*Fuzzy mathematics and Fuzzy set: In 1960, the Iranian mathematician Lotfi Asker Zadeh founded fuzzy set theory as an extension of the classical notion of set and he founded the field of Fuzzy Mathematics.

*Fuzzy logic: In 1973, Lotfi Asker Zadeh founded the field of fuzzy logic.

*Supergeometry: This is the geometric basis for supersymmetry, and was discovered by Abdus Salam in 1974. [cite web|author=Lauren Caston and Rita Fioresi|date=October 30, 2007|title=Mathematical Foundations of Supersymmetry|publisher=arXiv|url=http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/arxiv/pdf/0710/0710.5742v1.pdf|url=2008-09-10]

*Supermanifold: The theory of supermanifolds was first proposed in 1974 by Abdus Salam as a geometrical framework for understanding supersymmetry. [citation|first=Frédéric|last=Hélein|title=A representation formula for maps on supermanifolds|journal=Journal of Mathematical Physics|volume=49|issue=023506|year=2008|pages=1 & 19]

*Superspace and Superfield: The notion of superspace was introduced in 1974 by Abdus Salam. He also introduced the concept of superfield, a scalar field on superspace. [cite web|author=Ugo Bruzzo and Vladimir Pestov|date=February 1, 2008|title=What is Supertopology?|publisher=arXiv|url=http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/math/pdf/9810/9810056v1.pdf|url=2008-09-10]

Physical sciences

*Electrochemical nanotechnology and carbon nanotube mass-production: In electrochemistry, the Iranian scientist Ali Eftekhari is regarded as a founder of electrochemical nanotechnology, [ [http://www.wiley-vch.de/publish/en/books/bySubjectMS00/ISBN3-527-31876-3/?sID=b769201ff074e79e9824491197364440 Nanostructured Materials in Electrochemistry] ] particularly for developing a method for the mass production of carbon nanotubes. [A. Eftekhari, et al, "Carbon", 2006, 44 (7), 1343 – 1345.] [A. Eftekhari, et al, "Chemistry Letters", 2006, 35 (1), 138 – 139.] They were previously grown using a ceramic catalyst support. There are manufacturing and waste disposal problems associated with acid treatment to remove the ceramic-based catalyst support like MgO, SiO2, alumina, etc. Eftekhari developed a method for the mass production of carbon nanotubes. Tused water-soluble catalyst support to replace common ceramic-based catalyst supports. By this action, it is possible to avoid acid treatment and reach a production yield of about 3,000%. Another advantage of this novel method could be to control the shape of the carbon nanotubes by varying the catalyst support mixture.

*Electrochemical reaction: This concept was developed by Ali Eftekhari, who showed that processes can be considered as fractals in 2006. In this theory it is possible to calculate fractal dimension for any process. Practically, he proposed a feasible technique for the estimation of the fractal dimension of electrochemical reactions. This mathematical factor can be used for the improvement of electrochemical reactions, e.g. in fuel cells. [A. Eftekhari, "Journal of the Electrochemical Society", 2004, 151 (9), E291 – E296]

*Electroweak interaction: In 1979, the Pakistani theoretical physicist Abdus Salam received the Nobel Prize in Physics for his pioneering work on the electroweak interaction theory, which is the mathematical and conceptual synthesis of the electromagnetic and weak interactions, and is now a mainstream unified field theory. He showed how the weak nuclear force and quantum electrodynamics could be merged into a single electroweak force.

*Electroweak symmetry breaking: Abdus Salam and Steven Weinberg were the first to apply the Higgs mechanism to the electroweak symmetry breaking.

*Extraction of compounds from Neem and Rauwolfia: In the 20th century, Salimuzzaman Siddiqui was a leading Pakistani scientist in natural products chemistry. He is the pioneer in extracting chemical compunds from the Neem and Rauwolfia, and is also known for isolating novel chemical compunds from various other flora in the Indian subcontinent. As the director of H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, he carried out extensive research with a team of scientists on pharmacology of various plants to extract a number of chemical substances of medicinal importance. [M. Akhtar (1996), Salimuzzaman Siddiqui, "Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society", Vol. 42, November, pp. 400-417]

*Femtochemistry: The Egyptian chemist Ahmed Zewail is awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for pioneering the field of femtochemistry. Zewail’s technique uses flashes of laser light that last for a few femtoseconds. Femtochemistry is the area of physical chemistry that addresses the short time period in which chemical reactions take place and investigates why some reactions occur but not others. Zewail’s picture-taking technique made these investigations possible.

*Fractal electrochemistry: In 2006, Ali Eftekhari carried out scientific research on the field of fractal geometry and applied it to different aspects of science, thus pioneering the concept of fractal electrochemistry. In a series of papers, he adapted the basic ideas for fractal analysis of electrochemical systems. [A. Eftekhari, "Electrochimica Acta", 2003, 48 (19), 2831 – 2839] [A. Eftekhari, et al, "Applied Surface Sciencs", 2005, 239 (3), 311 – 319] [A. Eftekhari, "Surface Review and Letters", 2006, 13 (5), 703 – 710] [A. Eftekhari, "Physica B", 2007, 387 (1-2), 92 – 97] [A. Eftekhari, et al, "Surface Review and Letters", 2006, 13 (6), 753 – 758] Based on novel approaches and correction of common mistakes in fractal analysis of electrode surfaces, he adopted a new application of fractal geometry in the realm of electrochemistry and for study of electrode surface fractality.

*F-theory and Vafa-Witten theorem: In 1997, the Iranian physicist Cumrun Vafa, one of the leading string theorists of modern times and who was awarded the 2008 Dirac Prize, developed the F-theory and proposed the Vafa-Witten theorem.

*Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation: In 2001, the Iranian physicist Mehran Kardar was awarded the Guggenheim Fellowship prize for his development of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation in theoretical physics.

*Magnetic photon: The magnetic photon was predicted in 1966 by Nobel laureate Abdus Salam. [ cite journal | author=A. Salam | title= Magnetic monopole and two photon theories of C-violation | journal=Physics Letters | volume=22 | year=1966 | pages= 683–684 | doi= 10.1016/0031-9163(66)90704-9]

*Neutral current: The weak neutral current was proposed by Abdus Salam, alongside Sheldon Glashow and Steven Weinberg, for which they were awarded the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physics. [cite web|title=The Nobel Prize in Physics 1979|url=http://www.nobel.se/physics/laureates/1979|publisher=Nobel Foundation|accessdate=2008-09-10]

*Pati-Salam model: A mainstream Grand Unification Theory proposed by Abdus Salam in collaboration with Jogesh Pati in 1974. [Abdus Salam & Jogesh Pati (1974), "Phys. Rev." D10: 275]

*Preon: These are "point-like" particles, conceived to be subcomponents of quarks and leptons. The development a pre-quark substructure date back to 1974 with a paper in "Physical Review" by Abdus Salam and Jogesh Pati, who both coined the term "preon".

*Standard Model: The electroweak interactions proposed by Abdus Salam forms the basis of the standard model in particle physics, which began with the formulation of the unification of the electromagnetic and weak interactions.

*Supermanifold: See Formal sciences above.

*Superspace and Superfield: See Formal sciences above.

*Supersymmetry in particle physics: Abdus Salam, Wess and Zumino were the first to succesfully apply supersymmetry to particle physics.

*Topological string theory and microscopic origin of black hole entropy: Topological string theory was established by Iranian physicist Cumrun Vafa. He has published numerous articles on topological string theories, and he is famous for his landmark paper about the microscopic origin of the black hole entropy.

*Ultrashort pulse: The 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Ahmed Zewail for using ultrashort pulses to observe chemical reactions on the timescales they occur on, laying the foundations for the field of femtochemistry.

*W and Z bosons: Abdus Salam's electroweak interaction theory postulated the W bosons necessary to explain beta decay and a new Z boson that had never been observed before.

ocial sciences

*Human Development Index and Human Development Report: In 1990, the Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq developed the Human Development Index. He also founded the Human Development Report that same year.

*Microcredit and Microfinance: Bangladeshi economist Muhammad Yunus, founder of Grameen Bank, was the first to successfully apply the concept of microcredit to the first microfinance banking system. In 2006, he and his bank received the Nobel Peace Prize for their pioneering work on microcredit and microfinance banking.

ports

*Doosra, Teesra, Chootha: In cricket, the Doosra delivery, and its follow-ups, the Teesra and Chootha, were invented by the Pakistani cricketer Saqlain Mushtaq in the 1990s. [http://content-uk.cricinfo.com/ci/content/story/236908.html Saqlain signs for Ireland] : Cricinfo.com Retrieved 26 April 2007.]

*Reverse swing: The reverse swing bowling technique in cricket was invented by Pakistani fast bowlers. Former Pakistan international Sarfraz Nawaz was the founder of reverse swing during the late 1970s, and he passed his knowledge on to former team-mate Imran Khan. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/cricket/england/4155734.stm Cricket - England - What is reverse swing?] , "BBC Sport"]

References

ee also

*Inventions in medieval Islam


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