- Inventions in the modern Islamic world
Abdus Salam, the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physicsrecipient, include the electroweak interaction, electroweak symmetry breaking, magnetic photon, neutral current, preon, W and Z bosons, supergeometry, supermanifold, superspaceand superfield.]
This is a list of
inventions that were developed in the modern Islamic world, a geopoliticalregion that extends from Africaand the Balkansin the west to the Indian subcontinentand Malay Archipelagoin the east. [ Bernard Lewis, " What Went Wrong": quote|"There have been many civilizations in human history, almost all of which were local, in the sense that they were defined by a region and an ethnic group. This applied to all the ancient civilizations of the Middle East—Egypt, Babylon, Persia; to the great civilizations of Asia—India, China; and to the civilizations of Pre-Columbian America. There are two exceptions: Christendomand Islam. These are two civilizations defined by religion, in which religion is the primary defining force, not, as in India or China, a secondary aspect among others of an essentially regional and ethnically defined civilization. Here, again, another word of explanation is necessary."]
The inventions listed here were developed after the
Islamic Golden Age, which is usually dated between the 7th and 15th centuries. For earlier inventions developed during the Islamic Golden Age, see Inventions in medieval Islam.
Deconstructivistand postmodern architecture: Zaha Hadidis a Pritzker Prize-winning Iraqi deconstructivist architectknown for many postmodern buildings. One of her most notable is the Bridge Pavilion, the first pavilion built over a bridge, which she constructed in Zaragozafor the Expo 2008. She also built the first Dancing Towers in Dubai, as well as the Vilnius Guggenheim Hermitage Museum, Maggie's Centres, London Aquatics Centre, Riverside Museum, Nuragic and Contemporary art museum, Ordrupgaard, Phaeno Science Center, the Vitrafire station, and the Rosenthal Center for Contemporary Art.
High-rise swimming pool: The 44th-floor sky lobbyof the John Hancock Centre, constructed by the Bangladeshi engineer Fazlur Khanin 1969, features the first high-rise indoor swimming pool, which remains the highest in America. [http://www.emporis.com/en/wm/bu/?id=116876 John Hancock Center] , Emporis]
High-rise tower house, high-rise mudbrick apartment buildingand tower block, and vertical construction urban planning: The 16th-century city of Shibamin Yemenis regarded as the "oldest skyscraper-city in the world" and the " Manhattanof the desert." This is the earliest example of urban planning based on the principle of vertical construction. Shibam was made up of over 500 tower houses, [http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/192 Old Walled City of Shibam] , UNESCO] each one rising 5 to 11 storeys high,citation|title=Land without shade|first=Hans|last=Helfritz|journal=Journal of The Royal Central Asian Society|volume=24|issue=2|date=April 1937|pages=201-16] with each floor having one or two apartments.citation|title=The Architecture of Mud: Construction and Repair Technology in the Hadhramaut Region ofYemen|last=Pamela Jerome, Giacomo Chiari|first=Caterina Borelli|journal=APT Bulletin|volume=30|issue=2-3|year=1999|pages=39-48  ] The city had the first high-rise (which need to be at least convert|75|ft|m tall) mudbrick buildings, with some of them being over convert|100|ft|m tall. These remain the tallest high-rise mudbrick buildings in the world.citation|title=The Hadhramaut|first=J. G. T.|last=Shipman|journal=Asian Affairs|volume=15|issue=2|date=June 1984|pages=154-62] The tallest building in the city is the mudbrick minaretwhich stands at over convert|175|ft|m tall.
Prefabricated homeand movable structure: The first prefabricated homes and movable structures were invented in 16th century Mughal India by Akbar the Great. These structures were reported by Arif Qandahari in 1579. [Irfan Habib (1992), "Akbar and Technology", "Social Scientist" 20 (9-10), pp. 3-15 [3-4] .]
Wind powered rotating skyscraper: The world's first rotating skyscraper is to be built at the center of the Dubailand complex in Dubaiand should be completed by 2010. The building will be convert|420|m|ft high with 80 independently rotating storeys. The skyscraper will also be able to generate its own electricityfrom horizontal 79 wind turbines stacked between each floor. [cite web|title=World's first rotating skyscraper unveiled in Dubai|url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/dubai/2191592/World%27s-first-rotating-skyscraper-unveiled-in-Dubai.html|publisher= The Daily Telegraph|date=26 June 2008|accessdate=2008-09-04]
Sky lobby: The first sky lobby was designed by the Bangladeshi engineer Fazlur Khanfor the John Hancock Center, built in 1969. Later buildings with sky lobbies include the World Trade Centerin the United States, Petronas Twin Towersin Malaysia, and Taipei 101in Taiwan.
Skyscrapers, tallest: The Bangladeshi engineer Fazlur Khan, considered the " Einsteinof structural engineering" and "the greatest architectural engineerof the second half of the 20th century" produced designs of structural systems that remain fundamental to all high-rise skyscrapers, which he employed in his constructions for the John Hancock Centerand Sears Tower. [Ali Mir (2001). "Art of the Skyscraper: the Genius of Fazlur Khan". Rizzoli International Publications. ISBN 0847823709.] The Sears Tower remained the world's tallest building up until 2007, when the Burj Dubai, currently under construction in Dubai, surpassed its height as the world's tallest building, reaching convert|585.7|m|ft in height and will be even taller when complete. [ [http://www.visitdubai.info/news/burjdubai.htm Burj Dubai surpasses the height of Sears Tower in Chicago] ] The world's tallest twin towers, the Petronas Twin Towers, was also built in Malaysiain 1998.
*Tube structure: After 1965, a new structural system of framed tubes appeared in
skyscraper design and construction. The Bangladeshi engineer Fazlur Khandefined the framed tube structure as "a three dimensional space structure composed of three, four, or possibly more frames, braced frames, or shear walls, joined at or near their edges to form a vertical tube-like structural system capable of resisting lateral forces in any direction by cantilevering from the foundation." [Cite web| title = Evolution of Concrete Skyscrapers| accessdate = 2007-05-14| url = http://www.civenv.unimelb.edu.au/ejse/Archives/Fulltext/200101/01/20010101.htm ] Closely spaced interconnected exterior columns form the tube. Horizontal loads, for example wind, are supported by the structure as a whole. About half the exterior surface is available for windows. Framed tubes allow fewer interior columns, and so create more usable floor space. Where larger openings like garage doors are required, the tube frame must be interrupted, with transfer girders used to maintain structural integrity. The first building to apply the tube-frame construction was in the DeWitt-Chestnut apartment building which he designed in Chicago. This laid the foundations for the tube structures used in most later skyscraper constructions, including the construction of the World Trade Center.
*X-bracing: Another innovation in
skyscraper design and constructiondeveloped by Fazlur Khanwas the concept of X-bracing. This concept reduced the lateral load on the building by transferring the load into the exterior columns. This allows for a reduced need for interior columns thus creating more floor space. This concept can be seen in the John Hancock Center.
*Real-time anti-fraud system: In 2000, many of the core components of
PayPal, including its real-time anti- fraudsystem, [http://www.jawed.com/resume Jawed Karim Resume] ] was designed and implemented by Bangladeshi Americansoftware engineer Jawed Karim. [cite web|author=Omair Ali, Ani Zakarian, Valerie Enriquez|url=http://www.theculturalconnect.com/new/2007/08/10/mecca-one-radio-mideast|title=MeccaOne Media: A Voice for the Everyday Muslim|publisher="The MidEast Connect Magazine"]
Video hosting servicewith web browser-embedded video player: In 2005, Jawed Karimpioneered the idea of a video hosting service with a web browser-embedded video player, and co-founded YouTubeas a result. [Jim Hopkins, [http://www.usatoday.com/tech/news/2006-10-11-youtube-karim_x.htm Surprise! There's a third YouTube co-founder] , " USA Today", 10-11-2006.]
Shampoo: The earliest documented evidence of shampoo dates back to the Bengali Muslim entrepeneur Sake Dean Mahomet. He opened a shampooing bath known as 'Mahomed's Indian Vapour Baths' in Brighton, England, in 1759. His baths were like Turkish baths where clients received an Indian treatment of "champi" (shampooing) or therapeutic massage. His service was appreciated; he received the high accolade of being appointed ‘Shampooing Surgeon’ to both George IV and William IV.Paul Vallely, [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_20060311/ai_n16147544 How Islamic Inventors Changed the World] , " The Independent", 11 March 2006]
Qiblaindicators: These were brassinstruments with Mecca-centred world maps and cartographic grids engraved on them. They were invented in 17th-century Iran.David A. King, "Reflections on some new studies on applied science in Islamic societies (8th-19th centuries)", "Islam & Science", June 2004.]
*Cartographic Qibla indicator with
sundialand compass: This was a Qibla instrument with a sundial and compass attached to it, [David A. King (1997). "Two Iranian World Maps for Finding the Direction and Distance to Mecca", "Imago Mundi" 49, p. 62-82  .] and was invented by Muhammad Husayn in the 17th century. [Muzaffar Iqbal, "David A. King, "World-Maps for Finding the Direction and Distance to Mecca: Innovation and Tradition in Islamic Science", "Islam & Science", June 2003.]
*Framed sextant: At the
Istanbul observatory of al-Dinbetween 1577 and 1580, Taqi al-Dininvented the "mushabbaha bi'l manattiq", a framed sextant with cords for the determination of the equinoxes similar to what Tycho Brahelater used.cite encyclopedia | first = Sevim | last = Tekeli | title = Taqi al-Din | year = 1997 | encyclopedia = Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures | publisher = Kluwer Academic Publishers| ISBN = 0792340663 | url = http://www.springer.com/philosophy/philosophy+of+sciences/book/978-1-4020-4425-0 ]
globeand celestial globe: Considered one of the most remarkable feats in metallurgy, they were invented in Kashmirby Ali Kashmiri ibn Luqman in 998 AH (1589-90 CE), and twenty other such globes were later produced in Lahoreand Kashmir during the Mughal Empire. Before they were rediscovered in the 1980s, it was believed by modern metallurgiststo be technically impossible to produce metal globes without any seams, even with modern technology. These Mughal metallurgists pioneered the method of lost-wax castingwhile producing these seamless globes. [citation|first=Emilie|last=Savage-Smith|title=Islamicate Celestial Globes: Their history, Construction, and Use|publisher=Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.|year=1985]
Telescope: A rudimentary telescope was invented by Taqi al-Din, as described in his "Book of the Light of the Pupil of Vision and the Light of the Truth of the Sights" around 1574. He describes it as an instrument that makes objects located far away appear closer to the observer. He further states that the instrument helps to see distant objects in detail by bringing them very close. He also states that he wrote another earlier treatise explaining the way this instrument is made and used, suggesting that he invented it some time before 1574. However, it is not known whether he employed the instrument for his later astronomical observations at the Istanbul observatory of al-Din from 1577.citation|first=Hüseyin Gazi|last=Topdemir|title=Takîyüddîn'in Optik Kitabi|publisher=Ministry of Culture Press, Ankara|year=1999 ( cf.cite web|author=Dr. Hüseyin Gazi Topdemir|title=Taqi al-Din ibn Ma‘ruf and the Science of Optics: The Nature of Light and theMechanism of Vision|publisher=FSTC Limited|url=http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=951|date=30 June 2008|accessdate=2008-07-04)]
lithium battery: Since its introduction by Sonyin 1991, the lithium battery has been restricted to the cell potential of 3.6 - 3.8 V (commercially called 4 V lithium batteries) due to the limitation of Li anodepotential. Construction of 5 V lithium batteries could yield higher power density batteries, and thus smaller devices. In 2004, Eftekhari fabricated an all-solid state lithium battery with 5 V potential. [A. Eftekhari (2004), "Journal of Power Sources" 132 (1-2): 240–43]
nanotechnologyand carbon nanotubemass-production: See Physical sciences below.
Gas laser: Invented in 1960 by the Iranian physicist Ali Javan.
automobile: The Z.CAR, the first hydrogen-powered three-wheeled automobile, was developed by the Iraqi engineer Zaha Hadid.
Non-glaring headlamp: This is a headlampwith a continuous long-distance illuminationwithout glaring effects. It was invented in Turkeyby Prof. Dr. Turhan Alçelik, and won the silver medal at the IENA Invention Fair at Nuremberg, [cite web|url=http://www.turkpatent.gov.tr/portal/default_en.jsp?sayfa=161&haber=360|title=Turkish Inventions Won Awards from the IENA Invention Fair|publisher=Turkish Patent Institute|date=2006-11-10|accessdate=2008-08-09] and the technical jury's first prize at the 34th International Exhibition Of Invention, New Techniques And Products, at Geneva, [cite news | title = Ödüllü far yollarda | url = http://www.radikal.com.tr/haber.php?haberno=183987&tarih=10/04/2006 | date = 2006-04-10 | accessdate= 2008-01-15 | publisher = Radikal] in 2006.
pump: In 1559, Taqi al-Dininvented a six-cylinder 'Monobloc' pump. It was a hydropowered water-raising machineincorporating valves, suctionand delivery pipes, pistonrods with leadweights, trip levers with pin joints, and cams on the axleof a water-driven scoop-wheel. [ Donald Routledge Hill, "Engineering", p. 779, in Harv|Rashed|Morelon|1996|pp=751-95]
Steam-powered and self-rotating spit snd smoke jack: In 1551, the Egyptian engineer Taqi al-Dindescribed the first practical steam turbineas a prime mover for the first steam-powered and self-rotating spit and smoke jack. Ahmad Y Hassan(1976), "Taqi al-Din and Arabic Mechanical Engineering", p. 34-35. Institute for the History of Arabic Science, University of Aleppo.]
Steam turbine, impulse: In the 1st century, Hero of Alexandria's aeolipilemay have possibly been a reaction steam turbine, but it was essentially a toy with no practical applications. In 1551, Taqi al-Dininvented the first impulse steam turbine and described the first practical applications for it as a prime mover for rotating a spit, predating Giovanni Branca's later impulse steam turbine from 1629. Al-Din described his invention in his book, "Al-Turuq al-saniyya fi al-alat al-ruhaniyya" ("The Sublime Methods of Spiritual Machines"), completed in 1551 AD (959 AH).
Vertically rising ladder: This was invented in Turkeyby Murat Nural and won the gold medal at the IENA Invention Fair at Nurembergin 2007. It was designed to climb high points and facilitate suspending there. The user who inserts his/her feet on the movable climbers moves his/her feet backward and forward and climbs upward on the steps. When the user wants to suspend, he/she fixes the climber on the step. The same procedure is followed reversely while getting down. Thanks to its movable legs, it will be possible to work on it for long time without getting tired, and allows easy operation on rough grounds. It also offers the opportunity to use both hands while on the ladder and easy operation on narrow points. It is also easy to keep and transport thanks to its small body, and there is no need for someone else to hold the ladders while one climbs on higher points on the ladder. It will be easy to carry the materials thanks to its hanger, and due to the fact that its legs on the ground are parallel to the ground it is not buried into the ground, so that it can be used to pick fruits up in the gardens. It also helps the operator to work against the wall when he/she wants to hang something on the wall, and it enables easy operation at angular spaces since the legs on the ground can be curved. [cite web|url=http://www.turkpatent.gov.tr/portal/default_en.jsp?sayfa=161&haber=540|title=Turkish Inventions Exhibits in Iena Fair|publisher=Turkish Patent Institute|date=2007-10-30|accessdate=2008-08-09]
alarm clock: The first mechanical alarm clock was invented by Taqi al-Dinin 1559. He described the alarm clock in his book, "The Brightest Stars for the Construction of Mechanical Clocks" ("Al-Kawākib al-durriyya fī wadh' al-bankāmat al-dawriyya"), published that year. His alarm clock was capable of sounding at a specified time, which was achieved by means of placing a peg on the dial wheel to when one wants the alarm heard and by producing an automated ringing device at the specified time. [cite web|author= Salim Al-Hassani|title=The Astronomical Clock of Taqi Al-Din: Virtual Reconstruction|publisher=FSTC|url=http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=947|date=19 June 2008|accessdate=2008-07-02]
astronomical clock: In "The Brightest Stars for the Construction of Mechanical Clocks", Taqi al-Dininvented the first astronomical clockto be powered by springs. This was also one of the first spring-powered mechanical clocks in general, developed around the same time as Peter Henleinin 1556.cite web|author= Salim Al-Hassani|title=The Astronomical Clock of Taqi Al-Din: Virtual Reconstruction|publisher=FSTC|url=http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=947|date=19 June 2008|accessdate=2008-07-02]
pocket watchmeasured in minutes: Taqi al-Dinalso developed one of the first spring-powered pocket watches,cite web|author= Donald Routledge Hilland Ahmad Y Hassan|title=Engineering in Arabic-Islamic Civilization|url=http://www.history-science-technology.com/Articles/articles%2011.htm|work=History of Science and Technology in Islam|accessdate=2008-07-03] shortly after the first such watchwas developed by Peter Henlein in 1524. Taqi al-Din's watch, however, was the first to measure time in minutes, by having three dials for the hours, degrees and minutes.
clockmeasured in seconds: Taqi al-Dininvented the "observational clock", which he described as "a mechanical clock with three dials which show the hours, the minutes, and the seconds." This was the first clockto measure time in seconds, and was used for astronomical purposes, specifically for measuring the right ascensionof the stars. This is considered one of the most important innovations in 16th century practical astronomy, as previous clocks were not accurate enough to be used for astronomical purposes. [Sevim Tekeli, "Taqi al-Din", in Helaine Selin (1997), "Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures", Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN 0792340663.] He further improved his observational clock, using only one dial to represent the hours, minutes and seconds, describing it as "a mechanical clock with a dial showing the hours, minutes and seconds and we divided every minute into five seconds." [citation|first=Aydin|last=Sayili|authorlink=Aydin Sayili|title=The Observatory in Islam|year=1991|pages=289-305 ( cf.cite web|author=Dr. Salim Ayduz|title=Taqi al-Din Ibn Ma’ruf: A Bio-Bibliographical Essay|url=http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=949|date=26 June 2008|accessdate=2008-07-04)]
Autocannonand multi-barrel gun: Fathullah Shirazi(c. 1582), a Persian-Indian polymathand mechanical engineer who worked for Akbar the Greatin the Mughal Empire, invented the autocannon, the earliest multi-shot gun. As opposed to the polybolosand repeating crossbows used earlier in ancient Greeceand China, respectively, Shirazi's rapid-firing gun had multiple gun barrels that fired hand cannons loaded with gunpowder. [A. K. Bag (2005), "Fathullah Shirazi: Cannon, Multi-barrel Gun and Yarghu", "Indian Journal of History of Science" 40 (3), pp. 431-436.]
Iron-cased and metal-cylinder rocket artillery: The first iron-cased and metal-cylinder rocketartillery were developed by Tipu Sultan, a Muslim ruler of the South Indian Kingdom of Mysore, and his father Hyder Ali, in the 1780s. He successfully used these metal-cylinder rockets against the larger forces of the British East India Companyduring the Anglo-Mysore Wars. The Mysorerockets of this period were much more advanced than what the British had seen, chiefly because of the use of iron tubes for holding the propellant; this enabled higher thrust and longer range for the missile (up to 2 km range). After Tipu's eventual defeat in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore Warand the capture of the Mysore iron rockets, they were influential in British rocket development, inspiring the Congreve rocket, which was soon put into use in the Napoleonic Wars. [Roddam Narasimha (1985). [http://nal-ir.nal.res.in/2382/01/tr_pd_du_8503_R66305.pdf Rockets in Mysore and Britain, 1750-1850 A.D.] National Aeronautical Laboratory and Indian Institute of Science.] According to Stephen Oliver Fought and John F. Guilmartin, Jr. in " Encyclopedia Britannica" (2008): " Hyder Ali, prince of Mysore, developed war rockets with an important change: the use of metal cylinders to contain the combustionpowder. Although the hammered soft iron he used was crude, the bursting strength of the container of black powder was much higher than the earlier paper construction. Thus a greater internal pressure was possible, with a resultant greater thrust of the propulsive jet. The rocket body was lashed with leather thongs to a long bamboo stick. Range was perhaps up to three-quarters of a mile (more than a kilometre). Although individually these rockets were not accurate, dispersion error became less important when large numbers were fired rapidly in mass attacks. They were particularly effective against cavalry and were hurled into the air, after lighting, or skimmed along the hard dry ground. Hyder Ali's son, Tippu Sultan, continued to develop and expand the use of rocket weapons, reportedly increasing the number of rocket troops from 1,200 to a corps of 5,000. In battles at Seringapatamin 1792 and 1799 these rockets were used with considerable effect against the British."" Encyclopedia Britannica" (2008), "rocket and missile"]
Marching bandand military band: The marching band and military band both have their origins in the Ottoman military band, performed by the Janissarysince the 16th century. [citation|title=The impact of Turkish military bands on European court festivals in the 17th and 18th centuries|first=Edmund A.|last=Bowles|journal=Early Music|year=2006|volume=34|issue=4|publisher= Oxford University Press|pages=533-60]
Human spaceflight, space dock, and space station: In the 20th century, Muslim rocket scientists from Soviet Central Asiawere involved in research on astronauticsand space exploration. Kerim Kerimovfrom Azerbaijanwas one of the most important key figures in early space exploration. He was one of the founders of the Soviet space program, one of the lead architects behind the first human spaceflight ( Vostok 1), and responsible for the launch of the first space docks (the Cosmos 186and Cosmos 188) and the first space stations (the Salyutand Mirseries).Peter Bond, [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_20030407/ai_n12692130 Obituary: Lt-Gen Kerim Kerimov] , " The Independent", 7 April 2003.] [Betty Blair (1995), "Behind Soviet Aeronauts", " Azerbaijan International" 3 (3).] The Mir, a consistently inhabited long-term research space station, also holds the record for the longest continuous human presence in space.
Moon landing, training for: From 1967 to 1972, Farouk El-Bazfrom Egyptworked for NASAand was involved in the first Moon landings with the Apollo program, where he was secretary of the "Landing Site Selection Committee", "Principal Investigator of Visual Observations and Photography", chairman of the "Astronaut Training Group", and assisted in the planning of scientific explorations of the Moon, including the selection of landing sites for the Apollo missions and the training of astronauts in lunar observations and photography. [ [http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?c=Article_C&cid=1169545087624&pagename=Zone-English-HealthScience%2FHSELayout Farouk El-Baz: With Apollo to the Moon] , IslamOnline]
Biomedical researchin outer space: In 2007, Sheikh Muszaphar Shukorfrom Malaysiatravelled to the International Space Stationwith his Expedition 16crew aboard Soyuz TMA-11as part of the Angkasawan programduring Ramadan. He was both an astronaut and an orthopedic surgeon, and is most notable for being the first to perform biomedical researchin space, mainly related to the characteristics and growth of liver cancerand leukemiacells and the crystallizationof various proteins and microbes in space. [Cite web|url=http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2007/10/11/nation/19136025&sec=nation|title=Mission in space|accessyear=2007|accessmonth=October 13|publisherTheStar|year=2007|author=theStar|language=English]
spaceflightresearch: Anousheh Ansariand Amir Ansariset up the Ansari X Prizeto encourage private spaceflight research.
wings: Abbas Ibn Firnas' hang gliderin 875 was the first to have artificial wings, though the flight was eventually unsuccessful. According to Evliya Çelebiin the early 17th century, Hezarfen Ahmet Celebiwas the first aviatorto have made a successful flight with artificial wings between 1630-1632.Arslan Terzioglu (2007), "The First Attempts of Flight, Automatic Machines, Submarines and Rocket Technology in Turkish History", in "The Turks" (ed. H. C. Guzel), pp. 804-810.]
aircraftand manned rocket: According to Evliya Çelebiin the early 17th century, Lagari Hasan Çelebilaunched himself in the air in a seven- winged rocket, which was composed of a large cage with a conical top filled with gunpowder. The flight was accomplished as a part of celebrations performed for the birth of Ottoman Emperor Murad IV's daughter in 1633. Evliya reported that Lagari made a soft landing in the Bosporusby using the wings attached to his body as a parachuteafter the gunpowder was consumed, foreshadowing the sea-landing methods of astronauts with parachutes after their voyages into outer space. Lagari's flight was estimated to have lasted about twenty seconds and the maximum height reached was around convert|300|m|ft. This was the first known example of a manned rocket and an artificially-powered aircraft.
Naval trawler: The earliest naval trawler was the "TS Pelican", a convert|150|ft|m converted trawler employed by the Barbary pirates for naval warfarefrom the 16th century.
Submarine: On October 1, 1720, the Ottomandockyard architect Ibrahim Efendi invented a submarine called the "tahtelbahir". The Ottoman writer Seyyid Vehbi, in his "Surname-i-Humayun", compared this submarine to an alligator. He recorded that during the circumcision ceremony for Sultan Ahmed III's sons, "the alligator-like submarine slowly emerged on the water and moved slowly to the sultan, and after staying on the sea for half an hour, submerged in the sea again to the great surprise of the public; then emerged one hour later, with five people walking outside the mouth of this alligator-like submarine, with trays of rice and "zerde" (a dish of sweetened rice) on their heads." He explained the technical information concerning the submarine "submerging in the sea and the crew being able to breath through pipes while under the sea".
Volitan: This is the first fully sustainable boat. It was invented in Turkeyby Dr. Hakan Gürsu and Sözüm Doğan at the DesignNobis Studio, and won the best nautical/boat award and best transportation vehicle award at the International Design Awards in 2007. It is equipped with double layer solar cellpanels, and uses both wind powerand solar energy. It has a very light weight, stiff structure, its shell is made of carbon fiberand epoxyresin, and it has an ultraviolet resistant coating. It is also connected to a twin 220 HP/DC electric motorwhich has two suspended wings to help manoeuvre the ship, and in addition, a hydraulic/servo system located in the wings activates the Volitan's unique performance sailsystem. [cite web|url=http://www.designnobis.com|title=DesignNobis|accessdate=2008-08-09]
*Windward ship: The first windward ship, which could
sailinto the wind without slowing down, was the "TS Pelican" employed by the Barbary pirates from the 16th century. It was able to sail at nearly 10 knots at 38 degrees off the relative wind. Graham Neilson, who reconstructed the ship, wrote: “The "Pelican" can sail over 20 degrees nearer the wind than any square rigger at sea. The yards come to within 18 degrees of the centreline. It is a combination of the fore and aft and the square sails, along with the aerodynamics, that is the secret of how to move so close to the wind. I think we can get more out of her. It could really tear up the field in a tall ships race.”cite web|publisher=" The Times"|date=28 February 2007|title=Pirates who got away with it by sailing closer to the wind|author=Simon de Bruxelles|url=http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/africa/article1449736.ece|accessdate=2008-09-10]
Xebecand Polacca: The xebec and polacre sailing ships used around the Mediterranean Seafrom the 16th to the 19th centuries originated from the Barbary pirates, who successfully used them for naval warfareagainst European ships at the time.
Existentialismand existence precedes essence: In the early 17th century, the Persian philosopher, Mulla Sadra, founded the school of Transcendent Theosophyand developed the concept of existence precedes essence. [Harv|Razavi|1997|pp=129-30] His work bought "a new philosophical insight in dealing with the nature of reality" and created "a major transition from essentialismto existentialism" in Islamic philosophy, several centuries before this occurred in Western philosophy. [citation|title=Mulla Sadra's Transcendent Philosophy|first=Muhammad|last=Kamal|year=2006|publisher=Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.|isbn=0754652718|pages=9 & 39]
Behçet's disease: Named after Hulusi Behçet(1889-1948), the Turkish dermatologistand scientistwho first recognized the syndrome in one of his patients in 1924 and reported his research on the disease in "Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases" in 1936.WhoNamedIt|synd|1863] [H. Behçet. Über rezidivierende, aphtöse, durch ein Virus verursachte Geschwüre am Mund, am Auge und an den Genitalien.Dermatologische Wochenschrift, Hamburg, 1937, 105(36): 1152-1163.]
Biomedical researchin outer space: See Astronautics below.
Chronic fatigue syndrometreatment, biopsychosocial model, medical sociology, psychosocialdevelopment, neurochemical pathology: Dr. Muhammad B. Yunus, a Muslim American physician who practices internal medicineand rheumatology, [ [http://www.healthgrades.com/directory_search/physician/profiles/dr-md-reports/Dr-Muhammad-Yunus-MD-044503D8.cfm Dr. Muhammad Yunus, MD] , HealthGrades, Inc.] made important advances in the understanding of the chronic fatigue syndromes, the biopsychosocial model, medical sociology, neurology, psychosocial development, and neurochemical pathology. [ [http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/06/070625095756.htm Further Legitimization Of Fibromyalgia As A True Medical Condition] , " Science Daily", June 25, 2007.] His "biopsychosocial perspective" of fibromyalgiaand other chronic fatigue syndromes is the "only way to synthesize the disparate contributions of such variables as genes and adverse childhood experiences, life stress and distress, posttraumatic stress disorder, mood disorders, self-efficacy for pain control, catastrophizing, coping style, and social support into the evolving picture of central nervous system dysfunction vis-a-vis chronic pain and fatigue."John B. Winfield (2007), "Fibromyalgia and Related Central Sensitivity Syndromes: Twenty-five Years of Progress", "Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism" 36 (6): 335-338.]
*Extraction of compounds from
Neemand Rauwolfia: See Physical sciences below.
Fibromyalgiatreatment, serotonergicand norepinephric drugs, neurohormonal mechanisms with central sensitization: In 1981, Dr. Muhammad B. Yunus, published the "first controlled study of the clinical characteristics" of the fibromyalgiasyndrome, for which he is regarded as "the father of our modern view of fibromyalgia." His work was the "first controlled clinical study" of fibromyalgia "with validation of known symptoms and tender points" and he also proposed "the first data-based criteria." In 1984, he proposed the important concept that the fibromyalgia syndrome and other similar conditions are interconnected. He showed serotonergic and norepinephric drugs to be effective in 1986, published a criteria for fibromyalgia in 1990, and developed neurohormonal mechanisms with central sensitization in the 1990s. [F. Fatma Inanici and Muhammad B. Yunus (2004), "History of fibromyalgia: Past to present", 8 (5): 369-378.]
Glycosylated hemoglobin: Iranian scientist Samuel Rahbarwas a pioneer in hematologyand the understanding of diabetes. In 1969, he discovered glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C), a form of hemoglobinused primarily to identify plasma glucose concentrationover time. He was also the first to describe its increase in diabetes. [cite journal |author=Rahbar S, Blumenfeld O, Ranney HM |title=Studies of an unusual hemoglobin in patients with diabetes mellitus |journal=Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. |volume=36 |issue=5 |pages=838–43 |year=1969 |pmid=5808299 |doi=10.1016/0006-291X(69)90685-8]
HIVand AIDStreatment: In virology, Yemeni scientist Sheikh Abdul Majeed al-Zindaniis involved in finding a treatment for HIV and AIDS using unorthodox methods inspired by the Qur'anand Hadiths. [Gregory D. Johnsen, [http://www.jamestown.org/terrorism/news/article.php?articleid=2369951 Profile of Sheikh Abd al-Majid al-Zindani] ] In 2007, he claimed to have found a remedy for HIV and AIDS and cited the Hadiths as his inspiration. [YouTube|id=yeFr5t19aQs|Yemenite Sheik Claims to Have Found the Cure for AIDS] He gave a speech praising the quality of scientific and medical research carried out at Iman University, claiming that they had successfully treated many cases of AIDS. In twenty cases, al-Zandani said that the virus had vanished completely without any side effects and called on the UN, which "spends enormous amounts of money to fight the disease," to send "its senior scientists to review [the university's] findings.” No study of these claims have been done since 2005 when initially announced and according to doctors in Saudi Arabia, a patients who was told of being viral-free tested positive for HIV.
Medical technology: Iranian physician and engineer Toffy Musivandinvented a variety of medical technology, including the artificial cardiac pump as treatment for heart failure, "remote power transfer for implantable medical devices, remote patient monitoring ( telemedicine), biofluid dynamics to reduce/eliminate thrombosisin blood conducting devices, patient care simulation centre, detectiondevices and methods for detection, in situsterilization, medical devices ( failure analysisand regulatory process), and medical sensors." [ [http://www.ottawaheart.ca/UOHI/bio/Tofy_Mussivand.jsp Tofy Mussivand PhD, FRSC] , University of Ottawa Heart Institute]
*Neuro-Behcet's disease: In 1991, Saudi medical researchers discovered "neuro-Behcet's disease",Ravi Malhotra (2004), "Saudi Arabia", "Practical Neurology" 4: 184-185.] a
neurologicalinvolvement in Behcet's disease, considered one of the most devastating manifestations of the disease. [S. Saleem (2005), [http://www.neurographics.org/4/2/1/4.shtml Neuro-Behcet's Disease: NBD] , "Neurographics", Vol. 4, Issue 2, Article 1.] In 1989, Saudi neurologists also discovered "neurobrucellosis", a neurological involvement in brucellosis.
Fractalgeometry in textual analysis: In 2006, the Iranian scientist Ali Eftekhari was the first to utilize fractal geometry in the analysis of texts. In a seminal paper, he applied the concept of fractal geometry for analysis of William Shakespeare's works. He found that fractality of literature is a measurable factor. For the case of Shakespeare's works, the fractality can be categorized according to some factor like the manuscript length, the type of writing (e.g. tragedy, comedy, etc). This theory was demonstrated by comparing the results with similar statistical methods. This finding can provide a new opportunity for the mathematical analysisof literature. He also found that, like fractal dimension, it is possible to calculate Zipf dimension, which is a useful parameter in the analysis of texts.Ali Eftekhari (2006) Fractal geometry of texts. "Journal of Quantitative Linguistic" 13(2-3): 177 – 193.]
Fuzzy mathematicsand Fuzzy set: In 1960, the Iranian mathematician Lotfi Asker Zadehfounded fuzzy settheory as an extension of the classical notion of set and he founded the field of Fuzzy Mathematics.
Fuzzy logic: In 1973, Lotfi Asker Zadehfounded the field of fuzzy logic.
*Supergeometry: This is the geometric basis for
supersymmetry, and was discovered by Abdus Salamin 1974. [cite web|author=Lauren Caston and Rita Fioresi|date=October 30, 2007|title=Mathematical Foundations of Supersymmetry|publisher= arXiv|url=http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/arxiv/pdf/0710/0710.5742v1.pdf|url=2008-09-10]
Supermanifold: The theory of supermanifolds was first proposed in 1974 by Abdus Salamas a geometrical framework for understanding supersymmetry. [citation|first=Frédéric|last=Hélein|title=A representation formula for maps on supermanifolds|journal=Journal of Mathematical Physics|volume=49|issue=023506|year=2008|pages=1 & 19]
Superspaceand Superfield: The notion of superspace was introduced in 1974 by Abdus Salam. He also introduced the concept of superfield, a scalar fieldon superspace. [cite web|author=Ugo Bruzzo and Vladimir Pestov|date=February 1, 2008|title=What is Supertopology?|publisher= arXiv|url=http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/math/pdf/9810/9810056v1.pdf|url=2008-09-10]
nanotechnologyand carbon nanotubemass-production: In electrochemistry, the Iranian scientist Ali Eftekhari is regarded as a founder of electrochemical nanotechnology, [ [http://www.wiley-vch.de/publish/en/books/bySubjectMS00/ISBN3-527-31876-3/?sID=b769201ff074e79e9824491197364440 Nanostructured Materials in Electrochemistry] ] particularly for developing a method for the mass production of carbon nanotubes. [A. Eftekhari, et al, "Carbon", 2006, 44 (7), 1343 – 1345.] [A. Eftekhari, et al, "Chemistry Letters", 2006, 35 (1), 138 – 139.] They were previously grown using a ceramic catalyst support. There are manufacturing and waste disposal problems associated with acid treatment to remove the ceramic-based catalyst support like MgO, SiO2, alumina, etc. Eftekhari developed a method for the mass production of carbon nanotubes. Tused water-soluble catalyst support to replace common ceramic-based catalyst supports. By this action, it is possible to avoid acid treatment and reach a production yield of about 3,000%. Another advantage of this novel method could be to control the shape of the carbon nanotubes by varying the catalyst support mixture.
Electrochemical reaction: This concept was developed by Ali Eftekhari, who showed that processes can be considered as fractals in 2006. In this theory it is possible to calculate fractal dimension for any process. Practically, he proposed a feasible technique for the estimation of the fractal dimension of electrochemical reactions. This mathematical factor can be used for the improvement of electrochemical reactions, e.g. in fuel cells. [A. Eftekhari, "Journal of the Electrochemical Society", 2004, 151 (9), E291 – E296]
Electroweak interaction: In 1979, the Pakistani theoretical physicist Abdus Salamreceived the Nobel Prize in Physicsfor his pioneering work on the electroweak interaction theory, which is the mathematical and conceptual synthesis of the electromagneticand weak interactions, and is now a mainstream unified field theory. He showed how the weak nuclear force and quantum electrodynamicscould be merged into a single electroweak force.
Electroweak symmetry breaking: Abdus Salamand Steven Weinbergwere the first to apply the Higgs mechanismto the electroweak symmetry breaking.
*Extraction of compounds from
Neemand Rauwolfia: In the 20th century, Salimuzzaman Siddiquiwas a leading Pakistani scientist in natural products chemistry. He is the pioneer in extracting chemical compunds from the Neem and Rauwolfia, and is also known for isolating novel chemical compunds from various other florain the Indian subcontinent. As the director of H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, he carried out extensive research with a team of scientists on pharmacologyof various plants to extract a number of chemical substances of medicinalimportance. [M. Akhtar (1996), Salimuzzaman Siddiqui, "Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society", Vol. 42, November, pp. 400-417]
Femtochemistry: The Egyptian chemist Ahmed Zewailis awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistryfor pioneering the field of femtochemistry. Zewail’s technique uses flashes of laserlight that last for a few femtoseconds. Femtochemistry is the area of physical chemistrythat addresses the short time period in which chemical reactions take place and investigates why some reactions occur but not others. Zewail’s picture-taking technique made these investigations possible.
Fractal electrochemistry: In 2006, Ali Eftekhari carried out scientific research on the field of fractal geometryand applied it to different aspects of science, thus pioneering the concept of fractal electrochemistry. In a series of papers, he adapted the basic ideas for fractal analysis of electrochemical systems. [A. Eftekhari, "Electrochimica Acta", 2003, 48 (19), 2831 – 2839] [A. Eftekhari, et al, "Applied Surface Sciencs", 2005, 239 (3), 311 – 319] [A. Eftekhari, "Surface Review and Letters", 2006, 13 (5), 703 – 710] [A. Eftekhari, "Physica B", 2007, 387 (1-2), 92 – 97] [A. Eftekhari, et al, "Surface Review and Letters", 2006, 13 (6), 753 – 758] Based on novel approaches and correction of common mistakes in fractal analysis of electrode surfaces, he adopted a new application of fractal geometry in the realm of electrochemistry and for study of electrode surface fractality.
F-theoryand Vafa-Witten theorem: In 1997, the Iranian physicist Cumrun Vafa, one of the leading string theoristsof modern times and who was awarded the 2008 Dirac Prize, developed the F-theory and proposed the Vafa-Witten theorem.
*Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation: In 2001, the Iranian physicist
Mehran Kardarwas awarded the Guggenheim Fellowshipprize for his development of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation in theoretical physics.
Magnetic photon: The magnetic photon was predicted in 1966 by Nobel laureate Abdus Salam. [ cite journal | author=A. Salam | title= Magnetic monopole and two photon theories of C-violation | journal=Physics Letters | volume=22 | year=1966 | pages= 683–684 | doi= 10.1016/0031-9163(66)90704-9]
Neutral current: The weak neutral current was proposed by Abdus Salam, alongside Sheldon Glashowand Steven Weinberg, for which they were awarded the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physics. [cite web|title=The Nobel Prize in Physics 1979|url=http://www.nobel.se/physics/laureates/1979|publisher= Nobel Foundation|accessdate=2008-09-10]
Pati-Salam model: A mainstream Grand Unification Theoryproposed by Abdus Salamin collaboration with Jogesh Patiin 1974. [ Abdus Salam& Jogesh Pati(1974), "Phys. Rev." D10: 275]
Preon: These are "point-like" particles, conceived to be subcomponents of quarks and leptons. The development a pre- quarksubstructure date back to 1974 with a paper in " Physical Review" by Abdus Salamand Jogesh Pati, who both coined the term "preon".
Standard Model: The electroweak interactions proposed by Abdus Salamforms the basis of the standard model in particle physics, which began with the formulation of the unification of the electromagnetic and weak interactions.
Supermanifold: See Formal sciences above.
Superspaceand Superfield: See Formal sciences above.
Supersymmetryin particle physics: Abdus Salam, Wess and Zumino were the first to succesfully apply supersymmetry to particle physics.
Topological string theoryand microscopicorigin of black hole entropy: Topological string theory was established by Iranian physicist Cumrun Vafa. He has published numerous articles on topological string theories, and he is famous for his landmark paper about the microscopic origin of the black hole entropy.
Ultrashort pulse: The 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistrywas awarded to Ahmed Zewailfor using ultrashort pulses to observe chemical reactions on the timescales they occur on, laying the foundations for the field of femtochemistry.
W and Z bosons: Abdus Salam's electroweak interactiontheory postulated the W bosons necessary to explain beta decayand a new Z boson that had never been observed before.
Human Development Indexand Human Development Report: In 1990, the Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haqdeveloped the Human Development Index. He also founded the Human Development Report that same year.
Microcreditand Microfinance: Bangladeshi economist Muhammad Yunus, founder of Grameen Bank, was the first to successfully apply the concept of microcredit to the first microfinance banking system. In 2006, he and his bank received the Nobel Peace Prizefor their pioneering work on microcredit and microfinance banking.
Doosra, Teesra, Chootha: In cricket, the Doosra delivery, and its follow-ups, the Teesra and Chootha, were invented by the Pakistani cricketer Saqlain Mushtaqin the 1990s. [http://content-uk.cricinfo.com/ci/content/story/236908.html Saqlain signs for Ireland] : Cricinfo.com Retrieved 26 April 2007.]
Reverse swing: The reverse swing bowling technique in cricketwas invented by Pakistani fast bowlers. Former Pakistan international Sarfraz Nawazwas the founder of reverse swing during the late 1970s, and he passed his knowledge on to former team-mate Imran Khan. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/cricket/england/4155734.stm Cricket - England - What is reverse swing?] , " BBC Sport"]
Inventions in medieval Islam
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