- Beach music
Beach music, also known as Carolina beach music, is a regional genre which developed from various musical styles of the
forties, fiftiesand sixties. These styles ranged from big bandswing instrumentals to the more raucous sounds of blues/ jump blues, jazz, doo-wop, boogie, rhythm and blues, reggae, rockabillyand old-time rock and roll. Beach music is closely associated with the style of swing danceknown as the shag, or the Carolina shag, which is also the official state dance of both North Carolinaand South Carolina. Recordings with a 4/4 "blues shuffle" rhythmic structure and moderate-to-fast tempo are the most popular music for the shag, and the vast majority of the music in this genre fits that description.
A majority of the recordings that constituted and/or influenced beach music early on were originally termed "
race music". As popular R&B tastes changed to encompass funk, reggae, disco, hip hop and gangsta rap, the predominantly white beach music enthusiasts have remained more loyal to the "old school" stylings. This has been due primarily to the beat and tempoof the music.
Historical accounts of beach music as it relates to the development of this dance are often conflicting, but most agree that the Ocean Drive section of
North Myrtle Beach, South Carolinais where the beach/shag phenomenon had its greatest impact among vacationing teenagers and college students.
Prior to the
Civil Rights Act of 1964, white youth in the Jim Crow South could not always hear the compelling music of primarily black R&B artists in their home towns. In some communities, this remained in effect even after racial integrationwas implemented in the region. However, these young people flocked to the bars and pavilions of the Carolina beaches where the shag was gaining popularity and R&B ruled the jukeboxes, and to the " beach clubs" where R&B artists performed live.
A major contributing influence upon this cross-racial musical affinity was the powerful radio station
WLACin Nashville, TN, which blanketed the Southeast with the gritty, driving sound of jump blues and other forms of R&B. Stations with similar playlists began to emerge in the Carolinas and surrounding states throughout the late fifties and the sixties, increasing the popularity of the music across racial lines and contributing to the increasing popularity of the emerging new gospel-infused R&B sound, soul music.
Artists and groups that were important to the formative years of this genre include:
Artie Shaw, Wynonie Harris, Jimmy Cavallo and The House Rockers, Ruth Brown, Little Willie John, Earl Bostic, The Drifters, Wilbert Harrison, Clyde McPhatter, Billy Ward and The Dominos, Hank Ballard, Maurice Williams and The Zodiacs, The Tams, The 5 Royales, The Coasters, Fats Domino, Jimmy McCracklin, Solomon Burke, Sam Cooke, The Platters, The Four Tops, Louis Prima, Arthur Alexander, Stick McGhee, Jackie Brenston, Willbert Harrison, Big Joe Turner, Bruce Channel, Wilson Pickett, Clarence Carter, Dinah Washington, Billy Stewart, The Temptations, The Impressions, Smokey Robinson and the Miracles, Marvin Gaye, The O'Jays, The Spinners, Otis Redding, Jackie Wilson, Etta James, The Checkers, The Clovers, Barbara Lewis, Don Covay, Jimmy Ricks and The Ravens, Mary Wells, Garnet Mimmsand The Enchanters, Ben E. King, Major Lance, Willie Teeand Ernie K-Doe.
While some of the "beach hits" by these artists appeared on the R&B and rock and roll charts nationally, a great many of them were "
b-sides" -- or even more obscure recordings that never charted at all. With this penchant for obscure R&B, especially from the sixties, beach music has much in common with the northern soulphenomenon in the UK.
Transition and renewal
The "Beach Bands"
Another wave of artists, known today as the "
beach bands" came into prominence in the mid sixties to early seventies, heavily influenced by the sound of Motownand the other prominent R&B labels of the day such as Atlantic Records, Stax, etc.. These included The Tassels, Harry Deal and the Galaxies, Gene Barbour and the Cavaliers, Calvin Lindsay and the Hysterics, The Men of Distinction (Original), The In-Men, Ltd., The Attractions, Cannonball Band, [http://www.theembersband.net The Embers] , The Monzas, The Sardams, The Catalinasand the nationally-charting groups The Pieces of Eight (Original), The Swinging Medallions, The Okaysions, and Bill Deal and the Rhondells. Many of these bands got their start backing the famous R&B/soul artists who played at The Beach Clubin Myrtle Beach, The Coachman and Fourin Bennettsville, SC, The Cellar in Charlotte, NC, The Embers Clubin Raleigh, North Carolina, Rogues Galleryand Peppermint Beach Clubin Virginia Beach, VAand other such venues.
This wave of primarily white R&B artists was part of a strong but nationally short-lived musical trend known as "
blue-eyed soul" which also produced The Rascals, The Box Tops, John Fred, Rare Earth, Leon Russell, Johnny Rivers, Bonnie Bramlett, Mitch Ryder and The Detroit Wheels, and The Righteous Brothers.
The revival years
In the '80s, after decades of waning popularity, Beach music enjoyed a major revival in the Carolinas, thanks largely to the formation of a loose-knit organization known as
The Society of Stranders (SOS). Originally intended as a relatively small social gathering of shag enthusiasts, "beach diggers" and former lifeguards meeting yearly in the Ocean Drive section of North Myrtle Beach, S.O.S. quickly grew to become a major Spring event.
At around the same time, a
fanzinecalled " It Will Stand" (from the rock'n'roll/R&B anthem of that name by The Showmen) began to delve deeper into the history of beach music than any publication before or since. Concurrent with the new enthusiasm for the shag, and an increased emphasis on the roots of the music came a period of revival for many of the beach bands that had come to prominence in the sixties. In addition to these groups, younger artists began to emerge, either as members of established groups, or with groups of their own. Dedicated beach music charts began to appear, tracking the musical tastes of shaggers and other aficionados of the genre. The number of regional radio stations playing beach music began to increase substantially.
In 1981, Virginia entrepreneur John Aragona sponsored the first Beach Music Awards show at the Convention Center in Myrtle Beach. He would sponsor two more shows of this type over the next several years, setting the stage for the CAMMY Awards show, first held at Salisbury, NC in 1995. The shows soon moved to Charlotte and then to Myrtle Beach, where they are still an eagerly-anticipated and well-attended annual event under their new name, The Carolina Beach Music Awards (CBMA).
The best of beach music from the early decades, from both national and regional artists, is known today as "classic beach". However, there is more to beach music than just the "
oldies". New recordings in this style are being produced regularly as part of the regional music industry in the Southeastern United States. While the terms "beach music" and "Carolina beach music" are still used, the increasing popularity of the shag has led to it sometimes being identified as "shag music". Many web sites have lately begun to refer to this music as "beach & shag".
The Current Regional "Beach & Shag" Scene
Artists Of Note
Current regional artists and groups who appear on the Beach and Shag music charts include:
The Attractions Band
Band of Oz
* Bill Pinkney's Drifters
* Billy Scott
Boys Club & A Babe
The Carousels with Tony Baker
The Coastline Band
The Craig Woolard Band
Donny and Susan Trexler
The East Coast Party Band
* The Embers
The Fantastic Shakers
* General Johnson and The Chairmen of the Board
* Heart and Soul
The Holiday Band
Lia and The Wave
The Memphis All-Stars
The Mixed Emotions
The Poor Souls
The Rickey Godfrey Band
Part Time Party Time Band
Also charting regionally are such well-known national and international artists as
Van Morrison, Ray Charles, Huey Lewis, T. Graham Brown, Simply Red, Wilson Pickett, Hall and Oates, Al Green and Delbert McClinton. In recent years, national artists of note -- such as O.C. Smith, Alabama, Jimmy Buffett, Eugene "Hideaway" Bridges, and the Carolina's own Nappy Brownand Roy Roberts -- have recorded music specifically aimed at this market.
Impact On Popular Culture
Though primarily confined to a small regional fan base, in its early days what is now known as Carolina beach music was instrumental in bringing about wider acceptance of R&B music among the white population nationwide. Thus is was a contributory factor in both the birth of rock and roll and the later development of soul music as a sub-genre of R&B.
In the years since its beginning, while the older styles of R&B have faded from popularity nationally, the Carolina shag has gained wide popularity in swing dance circles around the US. This has not generally led to increased appreciation for the music of the beach bands, however. Many of these new shag dance aficionados prefer the "R&B oldies" and/or shagging to currently popular tunes that happen to have the required beat. As more networking is being done on the Internet among shag deejays and beach music fans nationwide, however, there is a growing acceptance of the regional bands by the "new shaggers".
In a related trend, since the year 2000 there has been a steady increase in the popularity of Southern Soul, led by such R&B labels as Ecko and Malako. These labels feature both original and new artists of "the old school", and sometimes turn out recordings aimed specifically at the beach/shag market. An example of this is "In A Beach Music Mood" by
Rick Lawson. In addition, at least one dedicated Beach act, General Johnson and the Chairmen of The Board, has begun to chart both nationally and internationally with their brand of Southern Soul -- sometimes with songs that are not aimed more at the beach and shag market, such as "Three Women". Jimmy Buffettcites beach music as a major influence. His CD "Beach House On The Moon" was intended as an homage to the genre. Though it featured The Tams, and for a while they toured with him as vocalists, the CD did not yield any tunes that were big hits with beach music fans. However, it may have been influential in popular country music. Since that release, there have been others by artists associated with Buffett that have had that "perfect shag beat" and a beach music feel to them. Some have become hits with shaggers, including "Drift Away" and "Follow Me" by Uncle Kracker, "Some Beach" by Blake Sheltonand "When The Sun Goes Down" by Kenny Chesney. Just as was the case with "Dancing, Shagging On The Boulevard" by Alabama in the nineties, these country-flavored songs went over well on the dance floor regionally but did not please the more R&B oriented beach music fans. They did, however, impact the growing national shag dance scene to some degree.
In addition to these country and pop connections for the music, the pure R&B aspects of it have led to a kind of cultural cross-fertilization of beach and shag music with the northern soul scene in the UK and elsewhere. This has been due in large part to communication between
DJs of the respective genres on the Internet. 'Fessa John Hook's Endless Summer Network, streamed on the Internet, has a weekly program featuring noted northern soul deejay Kev Roberts, and there are plans for its programming to also be carried on satellite radioin Europe. Other noted djs streaming online include Charlie Brown, Pat Gwinn, Willie C., Butch Halpin, Kyle Beam, "The Right Reverend of Beach Music" and others.
Carolina beach music was featured on the sound track of "Shag", a 1989 film starring
Bridget Fondaand Phoebe Cates, filmed in part at the Myrtle Beach Pavilion and other Grand Strand locations. Though not a wholly accurate portrayal, it is an agreeable and entertaining "coming of age" movie, with a good soundtrack and some excellent shagging. Not widely popular in its initial release, Shag has gone on to become something of a cult film. No doubt it has helped to foster and maintain some interest beyond the Carolinas for beach and shag music.
In what is undoubtedly the most internationally famous example of its influence, "Beach Music" by
South Carolinaauthor Pat Conroytakes its title from this regional genre of music. The novel's protagonist, Jack McCall, seeks to get his daughter more in touch with her Southern roots. He does this by introducing her to the shag and to classic beach music. He describes The Drifters' immortal song, "Save the Last Dance For Me" in this way:
"This is your Mama's and my favorite song. We fell in love dancing to it."
Then: "Carolina beach music," her uncle Dupree tells her, "is the holiest sound on earth."
* [http://www.949thesurf.com/ The Carolina's Official Beach Music Station]
* [http://www.trianglebeach.com/ Triangle Beach Music Festival]
* [http://beachfest.dvwinery.com/ Davis Valley Winery Beachfest - Beach Music Festival]
* [http://www.cammy.org/ Beach Music Awards - Official Site]
* [http://www.bmai.net/ Beach Music Association International (BMAI)]
* [http://www.oldies.about.com/cs/theculture/a/aa052603.htm?terms=%22beach+music%22 Be Young, Be Foolish, Be Happy: The enduring legacy of shag music]
* [http://www.people.cornell.edu/pages/kpl5/Shag_rap.html Carolina Shag History ]
* [http://www.vghf.com/Vocal Group Hall of Fame]
* [http://www.heybabydays.com/ The Heeey Baby Days of Beach Music]
* [http://shagdance.com/ Shagdance.com -- The Official Site of SOS/ACSC ]
* [http://www.odshag.com/ ODShag.Com Spring and Fall SOS]
* [http://www.theembersband.net/ The Embers Official Site]
* [http://www.grandstrandshow.com/ The Official Site of Grand Strand Syndicated Radio Show]
* [http://www.patgwinn.com Pat Gwinn At The Beach Syndicated Radio Show
* [http://sfrancish.blogspot.com/ Clifford Curry-She Shot A Hole In My Soul]
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