- 1% Rule (aviation medicine)
In the field of
aviation medicine, the 1 percent rule refers to a risk threshold that is applied to the medical fitness of pilots. The basic application of this aviation "1 percent rule" is that a 1% per annum risk (See also Risk management) of medical incapacitation is the threshold between acceptable and unacceptable.
Applying this "1 percent rule" would result in an airline pilot being denied a medical certificate if their risk of a medical incapacitation (e.g. heart attack, convulsion, stroke, faint etc) was determined as being greater than 1% during the year.
This "1 percent rule" took its genesis in the late 1980s and early 1990s in a series of British and then European aviation cardiology workshops. The application of this "1 percent rule" has subsequently spread beyond the domain of aviation cardiology to all potential causes of medical incapacitation.
The reasoning that was used in the development of the original aviation medical "1 percent rule" is well described in the Mitchell & Evans (2004) reference. In that article the authors argue that changes in the underlying assumptions, that were the basis of the "1 percent rule", have been such that a "2 percent rule" may be an appropriate modern analogue.
The application of this one percent rule is controversial. The civil aviation regulatory authorities of some nations employ such numerical risk thresholds (criteria) while others do not. Of those that use numerical risk criteria there are differences in the levels of measured / calculated risk that are applied (1% per annum, 2% per annum etc). There is also debate concerning the application of population statistics to an individual (pilot) and the utility and validity of the risk screening tools that are used by the civil aviation regulatory authorities (e.g. Data from the
Framingham Heart Study).
* [http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/asma/asem/2004/00000075/00000003/art00011 Flight Safety and Medical Incapacitation Risk of Airline Pilots] . Mitchell SJ & Evans AD.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine2004; 75(3):260–8.
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6373281 Risk of a coronary heart attack in the normal population and how it might be modified in flyers] . Tunstall-Pedoe H. [http://eurheartj.oxfordjournals.org/ Eur Heart J] 1984; 5(Suppl A):43–9.
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3402499 Introduction to section 1: Acceptable cardiovascular risk in aircrew] . Tunstall-Pedoe H. [http://eurheartj.oxfordjournals.org/ Eur Heart J] 1988; 9(Suppl G):9–11.
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3402489 The concept of risk] . Tunstall-Pedoe H. [http://eurheartj.oxfordjournals.org/ Eur Heart J] 1988; 9(Suppl G):13–5.
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1493822 Cardiovascular risk and risk factors in the context of aircrew certification] . Tunstall-Pedoe H. [http://eurheartj.oxfordjournals.org/ Eur Heart J] 1992; 13(Suppl H):16–20.
* [http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=1817937 How cardiovascular risk varies with age, sex, and coronary risk factors: Do standard risk scores give an accurate perspective?] Tunstall-Pedoe H. [http://eurheartj.oxfordjournals.org/ Eur Heart J] 1999; 1(Suppl D):25–31.
* [http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/asma/asem/2005/00000076/00000001/art00010 Aeromedical Decision-Making: An Evidence-Based Risk Management Paradigm] . Watson DB.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine2004; 76(1):58-62.
1% Rule (Internet culture)
Framingham Heart Study
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Rule of Three — may refer to: *Rule of three (medicine), judgement of likelihood of harm in drug trials. *Rule of three (Wiccan), a tenet of Wicca *Rule of three (mathematics), a computation method in mathematics *Rule of three (writing), a principle of writing… … Wikipedia
Medicine — This article is about the science and art of healing. For pharmaceutical drugs, see Medication. For other uses, see Medicine (disambiguation). Statue of Asclepius, the Greek god of medicine, holding the symbolic Rod of Asclepius with its coiled… … Wikipedia
1% Rule (Internet culture) — In Internet culture, the 1 percent rule reflects a theory that more people will lurk in a virtual community than will participate. This term is often used as a euphemism for Participation inequality.The 1% Rule is a theoretical internet concept… … Wikipedia
1% Rule — may refer to:* 1% Rule (Internet culture) that describes levels of contribution in online fora * 1% Rule (aviation medicine) that describes a risk threshold for medical incapacitation … Wikipedia
1% rule — may refer to: 1% rule (Internet culture) that describes levels of contribution in online forums 1% rule (aviation medicine) that describes a risk threshold for medical incapacitation This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the… … Wikipedia
Air ambulance — A Eurocopter EC 145 of Switzerland s Rega air rescue service. An air ambulance is an aircraft used for emergency medical assistance in situations where either a traditio … Wikipedia
Mountain Wave Project — Logo Mountain Wave Project The Mountain Wave Project (MWP) pursues global scientific research of gravity waves and associated turbulence. MWP seeks to develop new scientific insights and knowledge through high altitude and record seeking glider… … Wikipedia
JAR-FCL (Discussion in Germany) — Introduction For two years now the new fitness criteria apply. As for pilots, also for flight surgeons the new rules provided plentiful displeasure, in various ways. Costs and their consequences on general aviation The Medical became clearly more … Wikipedia
Air safety — is a term encompassing the theory, investigation and categorization of flight failures, and the prevention of such failures through regulation, education and training. It can also be applied in the context of campaigns that inform the public as… … Wikipedia
RAF Coastal Command — Royal Air Force Coastal Command … Wikipedia