- Founders of statistics
is the theory and application ofStatistics mathematics to thescientific method including hypothesis generation,experimental design , sampling,data collection , data summarization, estimation,prediction and inference from those results to the population from which the experimental sample was drawn. This article listsstatisticians who have been instrumental in the development of theoretical andapplied statistics .**Founders of statistics***

Thomas Bayes (English, 1702–1761)

** Developed the interpretation ofprobability now known asBayes theorem [*cite web | url = http://www.economics.soton.ac.uk/staff/aldrich/Figures.htm#ba | work = Figures from the History of Probability and Statistics | title = Thomas Bayes | publisher =*]University of Southampton | accessdate=*

Carl Friedrich Gauss (German, 1777–1855)

** Inventedleast squares estimation methods*

Adolphe Quetelet (Belgian, 1796–1874)

** Pioneered the use of probability and statistics in thesocial sciences *

Francis Galton (English, 1822–1911)

** Invented the concepts ofstandard deviation ,correlation ,regression [*cite web | url = http://www.economics.soton.ac.uk/staff/aldrich/Figures.htm#gal | work = Figures from the History of Probability and Statistics | title = Francis Galton | publisher =*] [University of Southampton | accessdate=*cite web | url = http://galton.org/ | title = Sir Francis Galton F.R.S: 1822–1911 | accessdate=*]*

Karl Pearson (English, 1857–1936)

** Numerous innovations, including the development of thePearson chi-squared test and thePearson correlation [*cite web | url = http://www.amstat.org/about/statisticians/index.cfm?fuseaction=biosinfo&BioID=18 | title = Pearson, Karl | publisher =*] cite web | year = | title = Karl Pearson (1857-1936) | publisher = Department of Statistical Science -American Statistical Association | work = Statisticians in History | accessdate=University College London | url = http://www.ucl.ac.uk/stats/department/pearson.html] [*cite web | year = 2003 | title = Karl Pearson | publisher = School of Mathematics and Statistics,*] [University of St Andrews | url = http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/%7Ehistory/Biographies/Pearson.html | accessdate=*cite web | year = 2008 | title = Karl Pearson: A Reader’s Guide | author = John Aldrich | publisher =*]University of Southampton | url = http://www.economics.soton.ac.uk/staff/aldrich/kpreader.htm | accessdate=*

Charles Spearman (English, 1863–1945)

** Extended the Pearson correlation coefficient to theSpearman's rank correlation coefficient [*cite journal | year = 2003 | title = Charles Spearman: British Behavioral Scientist | journal = Human Nature Review. | volume = 3 | pages = 114–118 | url = http://human-nature.com/nibbs/03/spearman.html | author = Williams, RH, Zimmerman, DW, Zumbo, BD & Ross, D*]*

William Sealy Gosset (known as "Student") (English, 1876–1937)

** Discovered theStudent t distribution and invented theStudent's t-test [*cite web | url = http://www.economics.soton.ac.uk/staff/aldrich/Figures.htm#stu | work = Figures from the History of Probability and Statistics | title = William Sealy Gosset | publisher =*]University of Southampton | accessdate=*

Waloddi Weibull (Swedish, 1887–1979)

** Developed theWeibull distribution * Ronald A. Fisher (English, 1890–1962)

** Invented theanalysis of variance , [*cite web | url = http://www.amstat.org/about/statisticians/index.cfm?fuseaction=biosinfo&BioID=16 | title = Fisher, R.A. | publisher =*] [American Statistical Association | work = Statisticians in History |accessdate=*cite web | url = http://www.economics.soton.ac.uk/staff/aldrich/Figures.htm#fis | work = Figures from the History of Probability and Statistics | title = R.A. Fisher | publisher =*] [University of Southampton *cite web | url = http://www.economics.soton.ac.uk/staff/aldrich/fisherguide/rafreader.htm | title = A Guide to R. A. Fisher | accessdate=*] introduced the method ofmaximum likelihood , the concept ofsufficient statistic s,Fisher information , and many theoretical concepts now a standard part of the basic curriculum*

Carlo Emilio Bonferroni (Italian, 1892–1960)

** Invented theBonferroni correction formultiple comparisons *

Frank Wilcoxon (Irish, American, 1892–1965)

** Invented two statistical tests:Wilcoxon rank-sum test and theWilcoxon signed-rank test *

Jerzy Neyman (Polish, American, 1894–1981)

** Discovered theconfidence interval and co-developed theNeyman-Pearson lemma [*cite web | url = http://www.amstat.org/about/statisticians/index.cfm?fuseaction=biosinfo&BioID=11 | title = Neyman, Jerzy | publisher =*]American Statistical Association | work = Statisticians in History | accessdate=*

W. Edwards Deming (American, 1900–1993)

** Developed methods for statisticalquality control [*cite web | url = http://www.amstat.org/about/statisticians/index.cfm?fuseaction=biosinfo&BioID=4 | title = Deming, W. Edwards| publisher =*]American Statistical Association | work = Statisticians in History | accessdate=*

Egon Pearson (English, 1895–1980)

** Co-developed the Neyman-Pearson lemma of statistical hypothesis testing [*cite web | url = http://www.amstat.org/about/statisticians/index.cfm?fuseaction=biosinfo&BioID=24 | title = Pearson, Egon S.| publisher =*]American Statistical Association | work = Statisticians in History | accessdate=*

Maurice Kendall (English, 1907–1983)

** Co-developed methods for assessingstatistical randomness ; inventedKendall tau rank correlation coefficient * John Wilder Tukey (American, 1915–2000)

** Jointly popularizedFast Fourier transform ation, pioneer ofexploratory data analysis and graphical presentation of data, developed thejackknife for variance estimation, invented thebox plot . [*cite journal | doi = 10.1098/rsbm.2003.0032 | url = http://journals.royalsociety.org/content/541x625k2vx6837v/fulltext.pdf | format = pdf | title = John Wilder Tukey. 16 June 1915 - 26 July 2000 | year = 2003 | author = Mccullagh, Peter | journal = Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society (1955-2000) | volume = 49 | pages = 537*]*

Calyampudi Radhakrishna Rao (Indian, 1920–)

**Co-developedCramér-Rao bound andRao-Blackwell theorem , inventedMINQUE method of variance component estimation. [*cite journal | doi = 10.1214/ss/1177013438 | title = A Conversation with C. R. Rao | year = 1987 | author = Degroot, Morris H. | journal = Statistical Science | volume = 2 | pages = 53*] [*citation | url = http://www.amstat.org/about/statisticians/index.cfm?fuseaction=biosinfo&BioID=13 | title = Rao, Calyampudi R| publisher =*]American Statistical Association |work = Statisticians in History | accessdate=*David Cox (English, 1924–)

** Developed theproportional hazards model for the analysis of survival data [*cite book | author = Wermuth, Nanny; Anthony C. Davison; Dodge, Yadolah | title = Celebrating Statistics: Papers in honour of Sir David Cox on his 80th birthday (Oxford Statistical Science Series) | publisher = Oxford University Press | year = 2005 | isbn = 0-19-856654-9 | oclc = 185035518 228140765 60837753 62088309*]*

Bradley Efron (American, 1938–)

**Invented the bootstrap resampling technique for deriving an empirical distribution of an estimate of a model parameter [*cite journal | doi = 10.1214/ss/1063994967 | title = Introduction to the Silver Anniversary of the Bootstrap | year = 2003 | author = Casella, George | journal = Statistical Science | volume = 18 | pages = 133*]**Founders of Departments of Statistics****See also***

List of statisticians

*History of statistics

*Timeline of probability and statistics

*Fathers of scientific fields **References****External links***cite web | url = http://www.amstat.org/about/statisticians/index.cfm | title = Statisticians in History| publisher =

American Statistical Association

*cite web | url = http://www.york.ac.uk/depts/maths/histstat/lifework.htm | title = Life and Work of Statisticians | publisher = Department of Mathematics,University of York

*cite web | url = http://www.economics.soton.ac.uk/staff/aldrich/Figures.htm | title = Figures from the History of Probability and Statistics | author = John Aldrich | publisher =University of Southampton

*cite web | url = http://www.AgnesScott.edu/lriddle/women/women.htm | title = Biographies of Women Mathematicians | author = Lawrence H. Riddle | publisher =Agnes Scott College

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