name = Paramushir
image caption = Paramushir Island (
image size =
map_custom = yes
native name = Парамушир
native name link = Russian language
coordinates = coord|50|20|N|155|45|E|display=inline
archipelago = Kuril Island
total islands =
major islands =
area = convert|2053|km2|sqmi
length = convert|100|km|mi
width = convert|20|km|mi
highest mount =
elevation = convert|1816|m|ft
country = Russia
country admin divisions title = Oblast
country admin divisions =
country admin divisions title 1 = District
country admin divisions 1 = Severo-Kurilsky
country admin divisions title 2 =
country admin divisions 2 =
country largest city =
country largest city population = 2592
population as of =
ethnic groups =
additional info =
Paramushir ( _ru. Парамушир) or Paramushiro, from the Ainu for "broad island") is a Russian island in the Kuril Island chain. At 100 km in length an average around 20 km across and with an area of 2,053 km², it is the largest of the Northern Group of islands and second only to
Iturupin area. It is separated from Shumshuby the very narrow second Kuril strait in the northeast (2.5 km), from Antsiferov Islandby the Luzhina strait (15 km) to the southwest, from Atlasov Islandin the northwest by 20 km, and from OnnekotanIsland in the south by the 40 km wide fourth Kuril strait. It's northern tip is 39 km from Cape Lopatkaat the southern tip of the Kamchatka peninsula.
Paramushir belongs to the
Severo-Kurilskydistrict of the Sakhalin Oblast. Severo-Kurilsk(population: 2592 in 2002 census, 5180 in the 1989 census), the administrative center of the Severo-Kurilsky district, is the only permanently populated settlement on Paramashir island. The town is the largest settlement on all the Kuril Islands, however it is followed closely by Kurilskon Iturup(pop. approxuimately 2200 in 2005). Other villages that once lined the coast of Paramushir are now mainly ghost towns. This is due in part to the crash of the formerly lucrative herringfishery, to the extremely destructive Kamchatka peninsula tsunamiof 1952, which claimed an estimated 2300 lives, and general economic hardships in the more remote reaches of Russia since the fall of the Soviet Union.
Geography and natural history
Geologically, Paramushir is a continuous chain of 23
volcanoes. At least five of them are active: Chikurachki(1,816m), Fuss Peak(1,772m), Tatarinova, Karpinsky Group(1,345m), and Ebeko(1,156m).
Chikurachki, the highest peak on Paramushir, erupted in 2003, 2003, 2005, 2007 and 2008. During the most recent eruption in August 2008, the volcanic ash reached the town of
Severo-Kurilsklocated 60km north-east [http://www.newsru.com/russia/07aug2008/vulkan.html] . The previous eruption took place on March 4, 2007, when a 1.5 km high plume of ash was emitted that trailed for several hundred kilometers into the neighboring waters.
Paramushir has a sub-actic climate strongly modulated by the cooling effects of the North Pacific
Oyashio Current. The arboreal flora of Paramushir is consequently limited to dense, stunted copses of Siberian dwarf pineand shrubby alder. The alpine tundrawhich dominates the landscape produces plentiful edible mushroomsand berries, especially lingonberry, Arctic raspberry, whortleberryand crowberry. Red fox, Arctic hareand ermineare notably abundant and hunted by the inhabitants. The island also supports a population of grizzly bears. The straits between Paramushir and Shumshu island support a notably dense population of sea ottersand harbor seals are similarly common.
Several species of
charrand Pacific salmonspawn in its rivers, notably in the Tukharka river, at 20 km the longest river on the island.
Paramushir, along with the rest of the Kuril (or Kurile) Islands, was claimed by Japan at the end of the 19th century. Paramushir was home to the northernmost Japanese military bases until the end of
World War II. These bases were subject to sporadic air raids from the the US Air Force and US Navy based in the Aleutian Islands from 1943 until the end of the war. It also hosted at least one POW camp. In August 1945, the Soviet Unioninvaded Paramushir. After the war, the Soviet Uniontook possession of Paramushir along with the rest of the Kuril Islands.
* [http://artedi.fish.washington.edu/okhotskia/ikip/Gallery/Map/North/Param/Param.htm Images of Paramushir from the International Kuril Island Project (IKIP)]
* [http://land.worldcitydb.com/sakhalinskaya_ã¢â€â™_in_russian_federation_state.html Sakhalin Oblast]
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См. также в других словарях:
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