- Timeline of hydrogen technologies
Timelineof hydrogen technologiesA timeline of the history of hydrogentechnology.
* 1625 - First description of hydrogen by Johann Baptista van Helmont. First to use the word "gas".
* 1650 - Turquet de Mayerne obtained by the action of dilute sulphuric acid on iron a gas or "inflammable air".
* 1662 -
Boyle's law(gas law relating pressure and volume)
* 1670 -
Robert Boyleproduced hydrogen by reacting metals with acid.
* 1672 - "New Experiments touching the Relation between Flame and Air" by
* 1679 -
Denis Papin- safety valve
* 1700 -
Nicolas Lemeryshowed that the gas produced in the sulfuric acid/iron reaction was explosive in air
* 1755 -
Joseph Blackconfirmed that different gases exist. / Latent heat
* 1766 -
Henry Cavendishdiscovered "dephlogisticated air" by reacting zinc metal with hydrochloric acidand isolated a gas 7 to 11 times lighter than air.
* 1774 -
Joseph Priestleyisolated and categorized hydrogen.
* 1780 -
Felice Fontanadiscovers the water gas shift reaction
* 1783 -
Antoine Lavoisiergave hydrogen its name ("Gk": hydro = water, genes = born of)
* 1783 -
Jacques Charlesmade the first flight with his hydrogen balloon "La Charlière".
* 1783 -
Antoine Lavoisierand Pierre Laplacemeasured the heat of combustion of hydrogen using an ice calorimeter.
* 1784 -
Jean-Pierre Blanchard, The first trial with a dirigible hydrogen balloon.
* 1784 - The invention of the Lavoisier Meusnier process, generating hydrogen by passing steam through the red-hot barrel of an iron cannon.
* 1785 -
Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozierbuilt the hybrid Rozière balloon.
* 1787 -
Charles's law(Gas law, relating volume and temperature)
* 1800 - William Nicholson and
Johann Ritterdecomposed waterinto hydrogenand oxygenby electrolysis.
* 1806 -
François Isaac de Rivazbuild the first internal combustion enginepowered by a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen.
* 1809 -
Thomas Fosterobserved with a theodolitethe drift of small free pilot balloons filled with "inflammable gas" [ [http://www.colby.edu/sts/st215/history_of_meteorology.pdf 1809 - Fleming, History of Metorology 25 Pag. 25] ] [ [http://www.csulb.edu/~mbrenner/history.htm 1809 - Pilot balloon resources] ]
* 1809 -
Gay-Lussac's law(Gas law, relating temperature and pressure)
* 1811 -
Amedeo Avogadro- Avogadro's lawa gas law
* 1819 -
Edward Daniel Clarkeinvented the hydrogen gas blowpipe.
* 1820 - W. Cecil wrote a letter "On the application of hydrogen gas to produce a moving power in machinery" [ [http://www.eng.cam.ac.uk/DesignOffice/projects/cecil/engine.html 1820 Cecil engine] ] [ [http://www.eng.cam.ac.uk/DesignOffice/projects/cecil/cecil.pdf 1820 Cecil the letter] ]
* 1823 -
Goldsworthy Gurneydemonstrated Limelight.
* 1823 -
Döbereiner's Lampa lighterinvented by Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner.
* 1823 -
Goldsworthy Gurneydevised an oxy-hydrogen blowpipe.
* 1824 -
Michael Faradayinvented the rubber balloon.
* 1826 -
Thomas Drummondbuilt the Drummond Light.
* 1826 - Samuel Brown tested his
internal combustion engineby using it to propel a vehicle up Shooter's Hill
* 1834 -
Michael Faradaypublished Faraday's laws of electrolysis.
* 1834 -
Benoît Paul Émile Clapeyron- Ideal gas law
* 1836 -
John Frederic Daniellinvented a primary cellin which hydrogen was eliminated in the generation of the electricity.
* 1839 -
Christian Friedrich Schönbeinpublished the principle of the fuel cellin the " Philosophical Magazine".
* 1839 -
William Robert Grovedeveloped the Grove cell.
* 1842 -
William Robert Grovedeveloped the first fuel cell (which he called the gas voltaic battery)
* 1849 -
Eugene Bourdon- Bourdon_gauge ( manometer)
* 1863 -
Etienne Lenoirmade a test drive from Paris to Joinville-le-Pont with the 1-cylinder, 2-stroke Hippomobile.
* 1866 -
August Wilhelm von Hofmanninvents the Hofmann voltameterfor the electrolysis of water.
* 1873 -
Thaddeus S. C. Lowe- Water gas, the process used the water gas shift reaction.
* 1874 -
Jules Verne- The Mysterious Island, "water will one day be employed as fuel, that hydrogen and oxygen of which it is constituted will be used" [ [http://www.online-literature.com/verne/mysteriousisland/33/ 1874 - Jules Verne, The Mysterious Island] ]
* 1884 -
Charles Renardand Arthur Constantin Krebslaunch the airshipLa France.
* 1885 -
Zygmunt Florenty Wróblewskipublished hydrogen's critical temperature as 33 K; critical pressure, 13.3 atmospheres; and boiling point, 23 K.
* 1889 -
Ludwig Mondand Carl Langercoined the name " fuel cell" and tried to built one running on air and Mond gas.
* 1893 -
Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwaldexperimentally determined the interconnected roles of the various components of the fuel cell.
* 1896 -
Jackson D.D.and Ellms J.W., hydrogen productionby microalgae( anabaena)
* 1896 -
Leon Teisserenc de Bortcarries out experiments with high flying instrumental weather balloons [ [http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/corporate/pressoffice/anniversary/balloon.html 1896 Weather balloon] ] .
* 1897 - Paul Sabatier facilitated the use of
hydrogenationwith the discovery of the Sabatier reaction.
* 1898 -
James Dewarliquefied hydrogen for the first time by using regenerative coolingand his invention, the vacuum flask.
* 1899 -
James Dewarcollected solid hydrogenfor the first time.
* 1900 -
Count Ferdinand von Zeppelinlaunched the first hydrogen-filled Zeppelin LZ1 airship.
* 1901 -
Wilhelm Normannintroduced the hydrogenationof fats.
* 1903 -
Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovskiipublished "The Exploration of Cosmic Space by Means of Reaction Devices" [ [http://epizodsspace.testpilot.ru/bibl/dorev-knigi/ciolkovskiy/issl-03st.html Tsiolkovsky's Исследование мировых пространств реактивными приборами - "The Exploration of Cosmic Space by Means of Reaction Devices" (Russian paper)] ]
* 1909 - Ferdinand Adolf August von Zeppelin made the first long distance flight with the
* 1910 - The first Zeppelin passenger flight with the
* 1910 -
Fritz Haberpatented the Haber process.
* 1912 - The first scheduled international Zeppelin passenger flights with the
* 1919 - The first Atlantic crossing by airship with the Beardmore HMA R34.
* 1920 -
Hydrocracking, a plant for the commercial hydrogenation of brown coal is commissioned at Leunain Germany [ [http://www.cheresources.com/refining5.shtml 1920 - Hydrocracking] ] .
* 1923 -
Steam reforming, the first synthetic methanol is produced by BASF in Leuna
* 1923 -
J. B. S. Haldaneenvisioned in Daedalus; or, Science and the Future"great power stations where during windy weather
* the surplus power will be used for the electrolytic decomposition of water into oxygen and hydrogen."
* 1926 -
Partial oxidation, Vandeveer en Parr at the University of Illinoisused oxygen in the place of air for the production of syngas.
* 1926 -
Cyril Norman Hinshelwooddescribed the phenomenon of chain reaction.
* 1926 -
Umberto Nobilemade the first flight over the north polewith the hydrogen airship Norge
* 1929 -
Paul Harteckand Karl Friedrich Bonhoefferachieve the first synthesis of pure parahydrogen.
* 1930 -
Rudolf Erren- Erren engine- GB patent GB364180 - Improvements in and relating to internal combustion engines using a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen as fuel [ [http://www.wikipatents.com/gb/0364180.html Improvements in and relating to internal combustion engines using a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen as fuel] ]
* 1935 -
Eugene Wignerand H.B. Huntingtonpredicted metallic hydrogen.
* 1937 - The Zeppelin
LZ 129 Hindenburgwas destroyed by fire.
* 1937 - The
Heinkel HeS 1experimental gaseous hydrogenfueled centrifugaljet engine is tested at Hirth in March- the first working jet engine
* 1938 - The first 240 km hydrogen pipeline
Rhine-Ruhr[ [http://www.storhy.net/train-in/PDF-TI/03_StorHy-Train-IN-Session-1_3_JToepler.pdf The Technological Steps of Hydrogen Introduction - pag 24] ] .
* 1938 -
Igor Sikorskyfrom Sikorski Aircraftproposed liquid hydrogenas a fuel.
* 1939 -
Rudolf Erren- Erren engine- US patent 2,183,674 - Internal combustion engine using hydrogen as fuel
* 1939 -
Hans Gaffrondiscovered that algaecan switch between producing oxygen and hydrogen.
* 1943 -
Liquid hydrogenis tested as rocket fuelat Ohio State University.
* 1949 -
Hydrodesulfurization( Catalytic reformingis commercialized under the name Platforming process)
* 1952 -
* 1952 - Non-
Refrigerated transport Dewar
* 1955 -
W. Thomas Grubbmodified the fuel cell design by using a sulphonated polystyrene ion-exchange membrane as the electrolyte.
* 1957 - Pratt & Whitney's model 304 jet engine using liquid hydrogen as fuel tested for the first time as part of the
Lockheed CL-400 Suntanproject. [cite book | author = Sloop, John L. | title = Liquid hydrogen as a propulsion fuel, 1945-1959.(The NASA history series) (NASA SP-4404)
url = http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/SP-4404/ch8-9.htm | pages = 154–157 | year = 1978 | publisher = National Aeronautics and Space Administration ]
* 1957 - The specifications for the U-2 a double axis liquid hydrogen semi-trailer were issued [ [http://history.nasa.gov/SP-4404/ch8-11.htm NASA-LIQUID HYDROGEN AS A PROPULSION FUEL,1945-1959] ] .
* 1958 -
Leonard Niedrachdevised a way of depositing platinum onto the membrane, this became known as the Grubb-Niedrach fuel cell
* 1958 -
Allis-Chalmersdemonstrated the D 12, the first 15 kW fuel cell tractor[ [http://www.fuelcelltoday.com/media/pdf/archive/Article_1152_Fuel%20Cell%20History%20part%202%20with%20illustrations.pdf 1958 D 12 - Pag. 7] ] .
* 1959 -
Francis Thomas Baconbuilt the Bacon Cell, the first practical 5 kW hydrogen-air fuel cell to power a welding machine.
* 1960 -
Allis-Chalmersbuilds the first fuel cell forklift[ [http://www.hydrogenassociation.org/general/fleet_Module7.pdf 1960 -Fleet module Pag.3] ]
* 1961 -
RL-10liquid hydrogen fuelled rocket enginefirst flight
* 1964 -
Allis-Chalmersbuilt a 750-watt fuel cell to power a one-man underwater research vessel [ [http://www.aesc-inc.com/download/Ishii_Fuel_Cell_Paper.pdf 1964 Allis Chalmers Pag.1] ] .
* 1965 - The first commercial use of a fuel cell in
* 1965 -
Allis-Chalmersbuilds the first fuel cell golf carts.
* 1966 -
* 1966 -
J-2 (rocket engine)liquid hydrogen rocket engine flies
* 1967 -
Akira Fujishimadiscovers the Honda-Fujishima effect which is used for hydrolysisin the photoelectrochemical cell.
* 1970 -
John Bockriscoined the term " hydrogen economy" [ [http://www.getenergysmart.org/Files/Schools/Hydrogen/3HistoryofHydrogen.pdf History of Hydrogen] ]
* 1973 - The 30 km hydrogen pipeline in
* 1975 - John Bockris -
Energy The Solar-Hydrogen Alternative- ISBN 0470084294
* 1979 -
* 1981 -
Space Shuttle main enginefirst flight
* 1990 - The first solar-powered hydrogen production plant
* 1996 - Vulcain rocket engine
* 1997 -
Anastasios Melisdiscovered that the deprivation of sulfurwill cause algaeto switch from producing oxygen to producing hydrogen
Timeline of low-temperature technology
List of timelines
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Hydrogen pipeline transport — is a transportation of hydrogen through a pipe as part of the hydrogen infrastructure.EconomicsHydrogen pipeline transport is used to connect the point of hydrogen production or delivery of hydrogen with the point of demand, pipeline transport… … Wikipedia
Hydrogen economy — The hydrogen economy is a proposed system of delivering energy using hydrogen. The term hydrogen economy was coined by John Bockris during a talk he gave in 1970 at General Motors (GM) Technical Center. Hydrogen advocates promote hydrogen as… … Wikipedia
Hydrogen — This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. For the physics of atomic hydrogen, see Hydrogen atom. For other meanings, see Hydrogen (disambiguation). ← hydrogen → helium … Wikipedia
Hydrogen maser — A Hydrogen maser, also known as hydrogen frequency standard, is a specific type of maser that uses the intrinsic properties of the hydrogen atom to serve as a precision frequency reference.Both the proton and electron of a hydrogen atom have… … Wikipedia
Timeline of jet power — This article outlines some of the important developments in the early history of the development of the jet engine. Although the most common type, the gas turbine powered jet engine, was certainly a 20th century invention, many of the needed… … Wikipedia
Nickel–hydrogen battery — A nickel–hydrogen battery (NiH2 or Ni–H2) is a rechargeable electrochemical power source based on nickel and hydrogen. It differs from a nickel–metal hydride (NIMH) battery by the use of hydrogen in … Wikipedia
Compressed hydrogen — IUPAC Compressed hydrogen Other names Hydrogen under pressure, CGH2, CGH2 UN number 1049, Class 2 … Wikipedia
Metallic hydrogen — Some gas giants have metallic hydrogen in their centers Metallic hydrogen is a state of hydrogen which results when it is sufficiently compressed and undergoes a phase transition; it is an example of degenerate matter. Solid metallic hydrogen is… … Wikipedia
Biological hydrogen production — is done in a bioreactor based on the production of hydrogen by algae. Algae produce hydrogen under certain conditions. In the late 1990s it was discovered that if algaeclarifyme are deprived of sulfur they will switch from the production of… … Wikipedia
Slush hydrogen — is a combination of liquid hydrogen and solid hydrogen at the triple point with a lower temperature and a higher density than liquid hydrogen. It is formed by bringing liquid hydrogen down to nearly the melting point increasing density by 16 20%… … Wikipedia