- Alcohol advertising
Scientific research around the world conducted by governments, health agencies and universities has, over decades, been able to demonstrate a causal relationship between alcohol beverage advertising and alcohol consumption. It is, however, in alcohol industry's interest to demonstrate that effective alcohol campaigns only increase a producer's market share and also brand loyalty. [ [http://www.rcplondon.ac.uk/event/ArchiveEvent/slides/4.PeterAnderson.pdfFederal Trade Commission; Fisher; Frankena "et al".; Sanders] ]
The intended audience of the alcohol
advertising campaigns have changed over the years, with some brands being specifically targeted towards a particular demographic. Some drinks are traditionally seen as a male drink, particularly beers, while others are drunk by females. Some brands have allegedly been specifically developed to appeal to people that would not normally drink that kind of beverage.
One area in which the alcohol industry have faced criticism and tightened legislation is in their alleged targeting of young people. Central to this is the development of
alcopops – sweet-tasting, brightly coloured drinks with names that may appeal to a younger audience. However, numerous government and other reports have failed to support that allegation. [(FTC Says Alcohol Type Not Aimed at Minors. Los Angeles Times, June 5, 2002; Nelson, Jon P. Alcohol advertising in magazines: Do beer, wine, and spirits ads target youth? Contemporary Economic Policy, July 2006, pp. 357-69)]
Advertising around the world
European Unionand World Health Organization(WHO) have both specified that the advertising and promotion of alcohol needs to be controlled. In September 2005, the WHO Euro Region adopted a Framework for Alcohol Policy for the Region. This has 5 ethical principles which includes "All children and adolescents have the right to grow up in an environment protected from the negative consequences of alcohol consumption and, to the extent possible, from the promotion of alcoholic beverages" [http://www.euro.who.int/document/e88335.pdf] . Cross-border television advertising within the EU is regulated by the 1989 Television without Frontiers Directive. [ [http://europa.eu/scadplus/leg/en/lvb/l24101.htm Television broadcasting activities: "Television without Frontiers" (TVWF) Directive] from europa.eu ] Article 15 of this Directive sets out the restrictions on alcohol advertising:
* "it may not be aimed specifically at minors or, in particular, depict minors consuming these beverages;
* it shall not link the consumption of alcohol to enhanced physical performance or to driving;
* it shall not create the impression that the consumption of alcohol contributes towards social or sexual success;
* it shall not claim that alcohol has therapeutic qualities or that it is a stimulant, a sedative or a means of resolving personal conflicts;
* it shall not encourage immoderate consumption of alcohol or present abstinence or moderation in a negative light;
* it shall not place emphasis on high alcoholic content as being a positive quality of the beverages."
This article on alcohol advertising restrictions is implemented in each EU country largely through the self-regulatory bodies dealing with advertising.
The EU law 'TV without Frontiers' Directive is currently being revised to broaden the scope to new media formats such as digital television. Now called the 'Audiovisual Directive', the European Parliament is voting on the new text of the legislation in December 2006.
A number of non-governmental organisations working on alcohol policy have raised questions about whether the restrictions on alcohol advertising in Article 15 are effective and being properly implemented. For the Audiovisual Directive, they are calling on Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) to vote for a ban on alcohol adverts on televisions before 9.00 p.m. [ [http://www.notbefore9.eu No alcohol adverts on television before 9.00 p.m.] /]
Some countries, such as
Kenyaand Norway, have banned all alcohol advertising on television and billboard. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/4080074.stm Kenya to outlaw alcohol adverts] from BBC News]
Ofcomand the Advertising Standards Authorityhas some control over what can and cannot appear in advertising campaigns in the United Kingdom. In January 2005 an Ofcom ruling stated that the campaigns should not imply that there is a link between the consumption of alcohol and social or sexual success, or the perception of physical attractiveness. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/4351695.stm Alcohol and sex link ban for ads] from BBC News] Lambrini, for example, were told to change their adverts in July 2005 when it depicted three women gaining the attention of an attractive man – they were told to change it to a show an unattractive man. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/merseyside/4722147.stm Drinks adverts told 'no sexy men'] from BBC News] The first billboards to be withdrawn under this ruling were those of Young's Bitter on 11 January 2006. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/4600622.stm Beer advert banned for sex link] from BBC News] Greene King, a brewer which owns over 750 pubs in the UK, decided in February 2005 to cease the sale of drinks and cocktails with undesirable connotations behind their names. Any that had an association "with sexual promiscuity, machismo, anti-social behaviour or illegal acts" were banned. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/suffolk/4270901.stm Pub crackdown on sexy drink names] from BBC News]
In the United States, spirits advertising has
self-regulatory bodiesthat create standards for the ethical advertising of alcohol. The special concern is where advertising is placed. Currently, the standard is that alcohol advertisements can only be placed in media where 70% of the audience is over the legal drinking age. Alcohol advertising's creative messages should not be designed to appeal to people under the age of 21, for example, using cartoon characters as spokespeople is discouraged. Advertising cannot promote brands based on alcohol content or its effects. Advertising must not encourage irresponsible drinking. Another issue in media placement is whether media vendors will accept alcohol advertising. The decision to accept an individual ad or a category of advertising is always at the discretion of the owner or publisher of a media outlet. In the United States, there are several television networks that, although their viewers may be above the legal drinking age, do not accept "vice" advertising like alcohol advertising on principle. Currently the tobacco industry is forbidden to advertise on TV. Because of strong self-regulation, alcohol advertising has mostly avoided regulation by the federal government. The Federal Trade Commissionhas conducted investigations of possible targeting to those under the age of 21. However, its investigations and that of scholars have not found evidence of such targeting. [(FTC Says Alcohol Type Not Aimed at Minors. Los Angeles Times, June 5, 2002; Nelson, Jon P. Alcohol advertising in magazines: Do beer, wine, and spirits ads target youth? Contemporary Economic Policy, July 2006, pp. 357-69)] Concerns exist that irresponsible advertising practices or "pushing the envelope" with audience composition may lead to permanent legislation governing the advertising of beverage alcohol.
Responsible drinking campaigns
There have been various campaigns to help prevent
alcoholism, under-age drinking and drunk driving. The Portman Group, an association of leading drinks producers in the UK, are responsible for various such campaigns. These include responsible drinking, drink driving (and designated drivers), Proof of Agecards. The "Drink Aware" campaign, [ [http://drinkaware.co.uk/ Drinkaware] ] for example, aims to educate people about how to drink sensibly and avoid binge drinking. The web site address is displayed as part of all of the adverts for products made by members of the group.
Century Council, financially supported by a group of alcoholic beverage distillers in the United States, promotes responsible decision-making regarding drinking or non-drinking and works to reduce all forms of irresponsible consumption. Since its founding in 1991, it has invested over 175 million dollars in its programs.
Many campaigns by the alcoholic beverage industry that advocate responsible drinking presuppose that drinking for recreational purposes is a positive activity and reinforce this idea as an example of sensible consumption. Persons who believe alcohol can never simultaneously be used "sensibly" and recreationally would obviously disagree with the focus or direction of these campaigns.
Sponsorship in sport
sponsorship of sporting events and sportspeople is banned in many countries. For example, the primary club competition in European rugby union, the Heineken Cup, is called the "H Cup" in Francebecause of that country's restrictions on alcohol advertising. However, such sponsorship is still common in other areas, such as the United States.
Alcohol advertising is common in
motor racingcompetitions, and is particularly prominent in NASCARracing. One major example of this was the Busch Series(since renamed Nationwide Series), sponsored by a brand of beersold by Anheuser-Busch. That sponsorship, which started in the series' conversion from a national Late Model Sportsman races around the country to the present touring format in 1982, ended after 2007.
Budweiser, the best-known Anheuser-Busch brand, currently sponsors the car of
Kasey Kahne, arguably one of the most popular Sprint Cup Seriesdrivers.
Furthermore, NASCAR mandates drivers under 21 not be permitted to wear any alcohol-branded sticker on their cars. In cases with below drinking age drivers, a specialised "Coors Pole Award - 21 Means 21" sticker is placed on such drivers' cars. One team,
Petty Enterprises, refuses to participate in alcohol advertising and forfeits all alcohol monies and bonuses.
For distilled spirits, teams must run a responsible drinking sticker clearly visible on the car. For
Jack Daniel's, the theme is "Pace Yourself, Drink Responsibly", and includes on NASCAR's Web site a waving yellow flag warning drinkers. For Crown Royal, the television ads feature the car with the slogan "Be a champion, Drink Responsibly" and it acting as a pace car to drivers, warning them of responsibility. Jim Beam has radio ads and NASCAR mandated statements about alcohol control. None of the three, however, is a full-time sponsor, as they alternate sponsorship with other products unrelated to their firm on the car. (Jim Beam's parent, Fortune Brands, sometimes has its Moen Faucets replace Jim Beam on the car in selected races.)
tobaccocompanies have been the main source of financial backing in Formula One, some alcohol brands have also been associated with the sport. For example, Budweiser appears on the WilliamsF1car and the Foster's Group(with the Foster's Lagerbrand) sponsor numerous circuits around the world, most notably Fosters Australian Grand Prix in Albert Park, Melbourne, Australia. Beckshad been Jaguar's sponsor. Johnnie Walkerhas sponsored McLarensince 2006.
Anheuser-Busch, being a conglomerate with non-alcoholic properties, complies with the French alcohol advertising ban in Formula One by placing their Busch Entertainment theme park logos (mostly Sea World) where their Budweiser logo would appear on the
WilliamsF1car at races where alcohol advertising is banned and in Middle Eastern countries, where alcohol advertising is discouraged. Few companies, however, added responsible drinking campaigns with their sponsorship, notably the 1989-90 BTCCFord Sierra RS500 of Tim Harveyand Lawrence Bristow, which was sponsored by Labatt. Throughout the two seasons, the car bore a "Please Don't Drink and Drive" message.
Some stadiums, particularly in the U.S., bear the names of breweries or beer brands via
naming rightsarrangements, such as Busch Stadium, Coors Field, and Miller Park; those three venues are all in or near the cities of their headquarters. Diageoare a major sponsor of many sporting events through their various brands. For example, Johnnie Walkersponsor the Championship at Gleneagles and Classic golftournaments along with the Team McLarenFormula One car. Cricketis a sport with a large amount of alcohol sponsorship. The 2005 Ashes, for example, featured sponsorship hoardings by brands such as Red Stripe, Thwaites Lancaster Bomber and Wolf Blass wines. Rugby unionalso has a substantial amount of alcohol sponsorship. The All Blacksfeature Steinlagersponsorship prominently. The Scotland national team has a long-established relationship with The Famous Grouse, a brand of Scotch whisky. Wales has a more recent relationship with the Brains brewery, and the Springboks of South Africaagreed for South African Breweriesto put the Castle Lager brand on their shirt until 2004. Magnersis the title sponsor of the Magners League, the top competition in Ireland, Scotlandand Wales, Guinnessis the title sponsor of the Guinness Premiership, the top competition in England, and the beer brand Tooheys Newwas the Australian sponsor of the Southern Hemisphere Super 14competition through the 2006 season. Bundaberg Rumis one of the sponsors of the Australia national rugby union team. Rugby Leaguein Australiais sponsored by Foster's Lagerand Bundaberg Rum. [ [http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,20867,21475237-23289,00.html The Australian newspaper, March 31, 2007 Story: "The time has come to end glamourising alcohol sponsorship"] ] ash
Famous campaigns include:
Real Men of Genius(Budweiser)
Spuds MacKenzie( Bud Light)
* Tastes Great — Less Filling (Miller Lite)
Swedish Bikini Team( Old Milwaukee)
Hamm's Beer bear( Hamm's)
* "I Am Canadian!" (
Hooray Beer!" ( Red Stripe)
Guinness' iconic stature can be attributed in part to its advertising campaigns. One of the most notable and recognizable series of adverts was created by Benson's advertising, primarily John Gilroy, in the 1930s and 40s. Gilroy was responsible for creating posters which included such phrases such as "Guinness for Strength", "It's a Lovely Day for a Guinness", and, most famously, "Guinness is Good For You". The posters featured Gilroy's distinctive artwork and more often than not featured animals such as a kangaroo, ostrich, seal, lion, and notably a toucan, which has become as much a symbol of Guinness as the Trinity College Harp. Another famous campaign more recently is the surfer ad on the television. Regarded by many as the most successful and amazingly produced TV ad of all time, it's cinematography and underlying message of the fact that patience is a good thing (good things come to those who wait) contribute to the imagination and creativity of the ad. Guinness advertising paraphernalia attracts high prices on the collectible market.Fact|date=February 2008
In a campaign reminiscent of
viral marketingtechniques, one advert quickly appeared as a screensaverdistributed over the Internet. It was a simple concept, featuring Dublinactor Joe McKinney dancing around the drink while it was given time to settle. The accompanying music (mambo tune "Guaglione" by Pérez Prado) was released as a single and reached number one on the Irish charts and number two on the UK charts in May 1995.
Malaysia, Singapore, and Hong Kong, Guinness launched a $8 million advertising campaign using the fictional character of Adam Kingto promote the embodiment of Guinness as a man could be incredibly powerful. The advertising campaign was handled by notable advertising firm, Saatchi & Saatchi. [ [http://www.josh.com.my/whoisadamking.com/ Who is Adam King?] ]
Africa, the character of Michael Power has been used since 1999 to boost sales.
Today, Guinness' principal television campaign in North America consists of
limited animationcommercials featuring two eccentric scientists in 19th century dress complimenting one another's ideas as "brilliant!"
Absolutvodka is made in Swedenand was introduced to the United States in the year 1979. Its launch was a true challenge due to a variety of factors: Sweden was not perceived as a vodka-producing country, the bottle was very awkward for bartenders to use, and vodka was perceived as a cheap, tasteless drink. Absolut's advertising campaign by TBWAexploited the shape of the bottle to create clever advertisements that caused people to become involved in the advertising, and the brand took off. Before Absolut, there were very few distinctions in the vodka category. Today there are regular, premium, and superpremium vodkas each at different price points and qualities. Flavored vodkas have become ubiquitous and may be found commonly at regular and premium price points.Fact|date=February 2008
* Two articles among many are Effects of Alcohol Advertising Exposure on Drinking Among Youth, Snyder et al, Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med/ Vol 160, Jan 2006 pg. 18-24 and Exposure to Television Ads and Subsequent Adolescent Alcohol Use, Stacy et al, American Journal of Health Behavior, Nov-Dec 2004, pg. 498-509. To view the literature go to pubmed.gov and search for alcohol advertising and adolescent behavior or some iteration of this.
27 July 2005. " [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/merseyside/4722147.stm Drinks adverts told 'no sexy men'] " at BBC News. Accessed 27 July 2005.
*Federal Trade Commission. "Alcohol Marketing and Advertising: A Report to Congress". Washington, DC: Federal Trade Commission, 2003.
*Fisher, Joseph C. "Advertising, Alcohol Consumption, and Abuse: A Worldwide Survey". Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993, p. 150.
*Frankena, M., Cohen, M., Daniel, T., Ehrlich, L., Greenspun, N., and Kelman, D. Alcohol Advertising, Consumption and Abuse. In: Federal Trade Commission. "Recommendations of the Staff of the Federal Trade Commission: Omnibus Petition for Regulation of Unfair and Deceptive Alcoholic Beverage Marketing Practices", Docket No. 209-46. Washington, DC: Federal Trade Commission, 1985.
*Sanders, James. Alcohol Advertisements Do Not Encourage Alcohol Abuse Among Teens. In: Wekesser, Carol (ed.) "Alcoholism". San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 1994. Pp. 132-135, p. 133.
* [http://www.beermatmania.com/ Beermat Mania - Interactive gallery of British Brewery Beermats]
* " [http://www.dsica.com.au/sections/issues/index.html Issues] " at the Distilled Spirits Industry Council of Australia Inc. site
* " [http://www.discus.org/industry/code/code.htm Code Of Responsible Practices for Beverage Alcohol Advertising and Marketing] " at the Distilled Spirits Council of the United States site
* [http://www.asa.co.nz/liquor_advertising_review/ABAC.htm The Alcohol Beverages Advertising Code (ABAC)] at ASA.co.nz
* [http://www.media-awareness.ca/english/resources/codes_guidelines/marketing_advertising/code_advert_ov.cfm Canadian Advertising Codes and Guidelines – Overview] at the Media Awareness Network
* " [http://www.alcoholconcern.org.uk/servlets/doc/772 Advertising Alcohol] " at Alcohol Concern
* " [http://www.ftc.gov/speeches/starek/aba97web.htm Advertising Alcohol and the First Amendment] " at the Federal Trade Commission site
* [http://camy.org/factsheets/index.php?FactsheetID=1 The Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth]
* " [http://www.guinness.com/gb_en/ads/ The Ads] " at the Guinness web site
* " [http://www.marininstitute.org Alcohol Advertising] "
* [http://graphic-design.tjs-labs.com/gallery-view?keyword=ALCOHOL&span=50 Gallery of American print alcohol advertising]
* " [http://www.sponsorship.org/freePapers/alcoSpons06.pdf "White Paper: alcohol sponsorship] ", European Sponsorship Association
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