- Stephen V of Hungary
Stephen V ( _hu. V. István, _hr. Stjepan VI., _sk. Štefan V) (before October 18 1239,
Buda, Hungary– August 6 1272, Csepel Island, Hungary), King of Hungaryand Croatia (1246-1272), and Duke of Styria(1258-1260).
He was the elder son of King
Béla IV of Hungaryand his queen, Maria Laskarina, a daughter of the Emperor Theodore I Lascarisof Nicaea.
In the second year following his birth, on
April 11, 1241, the Mongolian troops defeated his father's army in the Battle of Mohi. After the disastrous battle, the royal family had to escape to Trau, a well-fortified city in Dalmatia. They could only return to Hungary after the unexpected withdrawal of the Mongol forces from Europe.
Junior King of Hungary
In 1246 Stephen was crowned as junior King and his father entrusted him with the government of
Croatia, Slavoniaand Dalmatia, but the three provinces were "de facto" governed by the Ban Stephen Gut-Keled. Stephen's father, attempting to bind the powerful but pagan Cuman tribes more closely to the dynasty, arranged for Stephen's marriage, as a youth (about 1253), to Elizabeth, the daughter of a Cuman chieftain Köten.
In 1257, Stephen demanded his father to divide the kingdom between themselves and recruited an army against the senior king. Finally, in 1258, King Béla IV was obliged to cede him the government of
Duke of Styria
Stephen took part in his father's military campaign against the Styrians, who had rebelled against the rule of the
King of Hungary, in 1258. After the successful campaign, King Béla IV appointed him to Duke of Styria.
His government, however, was unpopular among his new subjects, who rebelled against him with the support of King
Otakar II of Bohemia. Stephen and his father started an attack against Otakar II's lands, but their troops were defeated on July 12, 1260in the Battle of Kroissenbrunn. Following the battle, the two Kings of Hungary ceded the Duchy of Styriato the King of Bohemiain the Peace of Pozsony(Slovak: Bratislava).
truggles with his father
Shortly after the peace, Stephen took over again the government of
Transylvania. In 1261, Stephen and his father made a joint military campaign against Bulgaria, but their relationship became more and more tense, because the senior king had been favouring his younger son, Duke Béla of Slavoniaand his daughter, Anna, the mother-in-law of the King of Bohemia.
Finally, with the mediation of Archbishops Fülöp of Esztergom and Smaragd of Kalocsa, Stephen and his father signed an agreement in the summer of 1262 in Pozsony. Based on their agreement, Stephen took over the government of the parts of the kingdom East of the
Danube. However, the two kings' reconciliation was only temporary, because their partisans were continuously inciteting them against each other. In 1264, Stephen seized his mother's and sister's estates in his domains, but his father sent troops against him. Stephen's wife and son was captured by his father's partisans, and he had to retreat to the castle of Feketehalom. However, he managed to repeal the siege and to commence a counter-attack.
In March 1265, he gained a strategic victory over his father's army in the
Battle of Isaszeg. After his victory, he concluded a peace with King Béla IV. Based on the provisions of the peace, he received back the government of the Eastern parts of the kingdom. On March 23, 1266, father and son confirmed the peace in the Convent of the Blessed Virgin on the Nyulak szigete ('Rabbits' Island'). Shortly afterwards, Stephen V lead his army to Bulgaria and forced Despot Jakov Svetoslav of Vidinto accept his overlordship.
In 1267, the "prelates and nobles" of the
Kingdom of Hungaryheld a joint assembly in Esztergom, and their decisions were confirmed by both Stephen and his father.
To secure foreign support, he formed a double matrimonial alliance with the
Angevins, chief partisans of the pope. The first of these was the marriage, in 1270, of his daughter Maria to the future King Charles II of Naples[Maria and Charles became the grandparents of King Charles I of Hungary, who ascended the throne, following a long struggle with his opponents, when the male line of the Árpád dinasty extinguished.] The second alliance was the marriage of Stephen's infant son, Ladislaus to Charles II's sister Elisabeth.
King of Hungary
After his father's death (May 3, 1270), Stephen inherited the whole
Kingdom of Hungary, although the deceased senior king had entrusted his daughter, Anna and his followers to King Otakar II of Bohemiain his last will, and they had escaped to Praguebefore Stephen arrived to Esztergom.
Before his (second) coronation, Stephen granted the
County of Esztergomto the Archbishop. In August 1270, Stephen had a meeting with his brother-in-law, Prince Bolesław V of Poland in Krakówwhere they concluded an alliance against the King of Bohemia. Stephen also had a meeting with King Otakar II on 16 Octoberon an island of the Danubenear to Pozsony where they concluded a truce for two years.
However, following smaller skirmishes on the border, the war broke out soon and the
King of Bohemialead his armies against Hungary. Stephen was defeated in two smaller battles, but finally he won a decisive victory on 21 May 1271over the Czech and Austrian troops of Otakar II. In the subsequent peace the King of Bohemiahanded back the fortresses occupied during its campaign, while Stephen renounced its claim for the Hungarian royal treasury that his sister, Anna had brought to Pragueafter their father's death.
In the summer of 1272, Stephen left for
Dalmatia, where he wanted to meet King Charles I of Sicily, when he was informed that Joachim Gut-Keledkidnapped his infant son, Ladislaus. Stephen was planning to raise an army to rescue his infant son, when he died suddenly.
Marriage and children
"# around 1253:" Elisabeth (1240 – after 1290), daughter of a chieftain of the Cuman tribes settled down in
* Elisabeth (1255 – 1313/1326), wife firstly of Záviš of Falkenštejn and secondly of King
Stefan Uroš II Milutin of Serbia
* Katarina (1255/1257 – after 1314), wife of King
Stefan Dragutin of Serbia
* Mary (c. 1257 – 25 March 1325), wife of King
Charles II of Naples
* Anna (c. 1260 – c. 1281), wife of the Emperor
Andronikos II Palaiologos
* King Ladislaus IV (August 1262 – 10 July 1290)
Andrew of Slavonia(1268 – 1278)
* Kristó, Gyula - Makk, Ferenc: "Az Árpád-ház uralkodói" (IPC Könyvek, 1996)
* "Korai Magyar Történeti Lexikon (9-14. század)", főszerkesztő: Kristó, Gyula, szerkesztők: Engel, Pál és Makk, Ferenc (Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 1994)
* "Magyarország Történeti Kronológiája I. – A kezdetektől 1526-ig", főszerkesztő: Benda, Kálmán (Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 1981)
* [http://genealogy.euweb.cz/arpad/arpad2.html A listing of descendants of Árpád dynasty, including him and his siblings]
* [http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/HUNGARY.htm#_ISTVÁN_V_1270-1272, His listing in "Medieval lands" by Charles Cawley. The project "involves extracting and analysing detailed information from primary sources, including contemporary chronicles, cartularies, necrologies and testaments."]
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