- State recognized tribes
State recognized tribes are Native American
Indian Tribes and Heritage Groups that are recognized by individual states for their various internal government purposes.
About 20 states have found that they have purpose to recognize Native American tribes outside of federal processes. Many states do this through the legislature or through state agencies involved in cultural or Native American affairs. [Sheffield (1998) p63] Three states have processes by which Native American groups can seek to become state recognized, but have not yet recognized any groups. State Recognized Tribes may or may not require proof of Native American ancestry for tribal enrollment. Of the tribes recognized by the states which have processes in place, some have sought federal recognition and have been denied, or have been notified of "obvious deficiencies" in their application for federal recognition. The idea of State Recognized Tribes is in itself controversial. The United States Constitution is explicit in its wording that only the United States Congress has the right to recognize Native American Tribes. Consequently though some State Recognized Tribes retain documentation as to their Federal recognition loss due to past Federal policies, many other State Recognized Tribes are opined by some that they are at best Native American Heritage Groups and even that has been put into question. For example, as a fallout over the
Cherokee freedmen controversy, Cherokee Nation's traditionalists cite The Cherokee of Georgia Tribal Council, which is a state recognized tribe, does not require any proof of Native American ancestry. [ [http://taskforce.cherokee.org/Default.aspx?tabid=123 Sovereignty at Risk: Identity Theft, Revisionism, and the Creation of False Tribes] ]
List of state-recognized tribes
The following is a list of tribes recognized by various states, but not by the U.S.
Bureau of Indian Affairs. An attempt is made to note which tribes have been denied federal recognition.
*Cher-O-Creek Intertribal Indianscite web|url=http://aiac.state.al.us/Tribes,%20Chiefs%20&%20Commissioners.htm|title=Tribes Recognized by the State of Alabama|author=Alabama Indian Affairs Commission]
*Cherokees of Northeast Alabama (formerly Cherokees of Jackson County, Alabama)cite web |url=http://nearsbdc.uah.edu/procurement/tribesrecognized.htm|author=NEAR Small Business Development Center|title=Tribes Recognized by the State of Alabama|accessdate=2007-09-10] cite web|url=http://www.kstrom.net/isk/maps/tribesnonrec.html|title=U.S. Federally Non-Recognized Indian Tribes|author=Troy Johnson] cite web|url=http://www.manataka.org/page237.html|title=U.S. Federally Non-Recognized Tribes|] cite web|url=http://www.wildapache.net/NativeAmericanSite/|title=Wild Apache Native American Portal|author=Wild Apache] cite web|url=http://www.hanksville.org/sand/contacts/tribal/index.html|author=Karen M. Strom|title=A Line in the Sand: Contact Information for the Tribes of the United States and Canada|accessdate=2007-09-10] Letter of Intent to Petition 09/23/1981; certified letter returned "not known" 11/19/1997.
*Echota Cherokee Tribe of Alabama
*MaChis Lower Alabama Creek Indian Tribe Letter of Intent to Petition 06/27/1983. Declined to Acknowledge 08/18/1988 52 FR 34319,cite web|url=http://500nations.com/tribes/Tribes_Petitions.asp|author=500nations.com|title=Petitions for Federal Recognition|accessdate=2007-09-07] Denied federal recognition [Sheffield (1998) p64]
MOWA Band of Choctaw IndiansLetter of Intent to Petition 05/27/1983. Final Determination to Decline to Acknowledge pub'd 12/24/1997 62FR247:67398-67400; petitioner requested reconsideration from IBIA 3/23/1998, denied federal recognition; [Sheffield (1998) p64] decision effective 11/26/1999.LIST OF PETITIONERS BY STATE (as of February 15, 2007) (Accessible as of November 16, 2007 [http://www.doi.gov/bia/off_fed_acknowledg/petitionerxstate_021507.pdf here] )]
*Piqua Shawnee Tribe
*Star Clan of Muskogee Creek Tribe of Pike County (aka Yufala Star Clan of Lower Muscogee Creeks)
*United Cherokee Ani-Yun-Wiya Nation(formerly United Cherokee Intertribal). Letter of Intent to Petition 11/08/2001.
California has no formal policy with regard to the State Recognition of tribes. The tribes listed below have found sympathetic legislators to sponsor Assembly Joint Resolutions to urge the President to recognize their status as tribes. The tribes do not enjoy any benefits of this "recognition", nor do they receive any additional aide from State Agencies that is not also afforded to the State's other non-recognized tribes.
*Gabrielino-Tongva Tribe (a.k.a. San Gabriel Band of Mission Indians). In 1994, the State of California officially recognized the Gabrielino-Tongva Tribe in Assembly Joint Resolution 96, Resolution Chapter 146 of the Statutes of 1994. The tribe, however, has broken into several factions, some of whom are seeking federal recognition as separate tribes. The three largest and most promonent factions are: Gabrielino-Tongva Tribe [http://www.gabrielinotribe.org/] (or the San Gabriel Band of Mission Indians as it was historically referred to), Gabrieleno/Tongva Tribal Council of San Gabriel [http://tongva.com/] and Gabrieleno/Tongva Nation [http://www.tongvatribe.net/] (a.k.a. Gabrielino/Tongva Tribe of the Los Angeles Basin). In past years, bills have been introduced in the California legislature to create a Gabrielino-Tongva Reservation for the tribe and grant the tribe gaming rights; however, these bills failed to make it to the Governor's desk. In their most recent attempt, Senate Bill 1134 introduced on January 30, 2008 would have created the Gabrielino/Tongva Reservation without giving the tribe gaming rights. However, when the principal author, Senator Oropeza, found out that the tribe would use the reservation for leaverage to obtain gaming rights, she pulled her sponsorship of the bill. [ [http://www.capitolweekly.net/article.php?xid=wvon1ldiitwnl5&done=search.php%3Fsearchparams%3Da%253A5%253A%257Bs%253A9%253A%2522issuedate%2522%253BN%253Bs%253A6%253A%2522author%2522%253BN%253Bs%253A5%253A%2522title%2522%253BN%253Bs%253A4%253A%2522body%2522%253Bs%253A7%253A%2522oropeza%2522%253Bs%253A12%253A%2522article_type%2522%253BN%253B%257D&_adctlid=v%7Cjq2q43wvsl855o%7Cx1yxft3f8b4eiv "Oropeza drops Gabrielino bill after casino letter surfaces" in "Capitol Weekly"] ]
*Juaneño Band of Mission Indians, Acjachemen Nation (I). Letter of Intent to Petition 08/17/1982. Unrecognized tribe named Juaneño Band of Mission Indians, Acjachemen Nation (II) also exists. The Juaneños attempt to retrieve the former El Toro USMC Air Base in
Orange County, Californiawhich was given to the US armed forces in the 1930s.
Eastern Pequot Tribal Nationof Connecticut. Recognized by the Secretary of the Interior in 2002; recognition revoked in 2005; Eastern Pequot Tribal Nation was made by merging of two nations—Paucatuck Eastern Pequot Indians of Connecticut and Eastern Pequot Indians of Connecticut."State-Tribal Relations: Indian Tribe States," ncls.org, (2007) National Council of State Legislatures (Accessible as of April 8, 2008 [http://www.ncsl.org/programs/statetribe/tribes.htm here] )]
*Golden Hill Paugussett Tribe. Letter of Intent to Petition 04/13/1982; Declined to acknowledge 9/26/1996; petitioner requested reconsideration from IBIA 12/26/1996; decision affirmed by IBIA subject to supplemental proceeding 6/10/1998; decision affirmed by IBIA 9/8/1998 with five procedural issues remanded to the Secretary; reconsidered final determination issued 5/24/1999; Proposed finding 01/29/2003 (68 FR 4507); Declined to acknowledge 6/21/2004 (69 FR 34388); Reconsidered final determination not to acknowledge became final and effective 3/18/2005. [Sheffield (1998) p65]
*Paucatuck Eastern Pequot Indians of Connecticut. Letter of Intent to Petition 06/20/1989. Reconsidered final determination not to acknowledge became final and effective 10/14/2005.
**Schaghticoke Indian Tribe. Letter of Intent to Petition 5/11/2001.
**Schaghticoke Tribe. Letter of Intent to Petition 9/27/2001.
*Schaghticoke Tribal Nation (formerly Schaghticoke Indian Tribe). Letter of Intent to Petition 12/14/1981; Declined to acknowledge in
2002; Reconsidered final determination not to acknowledge became final and effective 10/14/2005.
In Florida, the Governor's Council on Indian Affairs in 1988 adopted a policy which recommends that state officials refrain from recognizing any group not first acknowledged by the federal government. However, they have set a secondary set of recommendations for what the criteria for state recognition should be in case the state government should wish to bypass the first recommendation: "A state action should (1) create a government-to-government relationship between state and tribe, (2) set forth an explicit rendering of the state's interpretation of 'recognition,' (3) be confined only to groups descended from Seminole, Miccosukee, Creek, or a tribe located in Florida prior to May 30, 1830, and (4) meet federal criteria for recognition." [Sheffield (1998) p63-64] So far, Florida has recognized no tribes.
Per Title 44, Chapter 12, Article 7, Part 3 of the Georgia Code ( [http://www.legis.state.ga.us/cgi-bin/gl_codes_detail.pl?code=44-12-300 O.C.G.A. § 44-12-300 (2007)] ), the State of Georgia "officially recognizes as legitimate American Indian tribes of Georgia the following tribes, bands, groups, or communities" for state purposes:
*The Cherokee of Georgia Tribal Council (a.k.a Cherokee Indians of Georgia, Inc.)http://www.legis.state.ga.us/cgi-bin/gl_codes_detail.pl?code=44-12-300 O.C.G.A. § 44-12-300 (2007)] Letter of Intent to Petition 08/08/1977.
*Georgia Tribe of Eastern Cherokees, Inc. (I). Letter of Intent to Petition 01/09/1979; last submission February 2002; ready for Acknowledge review.: An Unrecognized tribe with the same name Georgia Tribe of Eastern Cherokees, Inc. (II) exists.
*Lower Muskogee Creek Tribe East of the Mississippi, Inc. Letter of Intent to Petition 02/02/1972; Declined to Acknowledge 12/21/1981 (46 FR 51652).Denied federal recognition [Sheffield (1998) p67]
*Adais Caddo Indians, Inc. Recognized by the State of Louisiana in 1993. [http://www.indianaffairs.com/tribes.htm "Louisiana Governor's Office of Indian Affairs" Retrieved on 4/8/2008] .] Letter of Intent to Petition 09/13/1993.
*Biloxi-Chitimacha Confederation of Muskogee. Separated from United Houma Nation, Inc. Letter of Intent to Petition 10/24/1995. Recognized by the State of Louisiana in 2005.
**Bayou LaFourche Band
**Grand Caillou/Dulac Band
**Isle de Jean Charles Band
*Choctaw-Apache Community of Ebarb, Inc. Recognized by the State of Louisiana in 1978. Letter of Intent to Petition 07/02/1978.
*Clifton-Choctaw Indians (aka Clifton Choctaw Reservation Inc.) Recognized by the State of Louisiana in 1978. Letter of Intent to Petition 03/22/1978.
*Four Winds Tribe, Louisiana Cherokee Confederacy [ [http://www.fourwindstribelcc.com/ "Four Winds Tribe website"] ] Recognized by the State of Louisiana in 1997.
*Point-Au-Chien Tribe. Separated from United Houma Nation, Inc.. Letter of Intent to Petition 7/22/1996. Recognized by the State of Louisiana in 2004.
*United Houma Nation, Inc. Recognized by the State of Louisiana in 1972. Letter of Intent to Petition 07/10/1979; Proposed Finding 12/22/1994, 59 FR 6618.Denied federal recognition [Sheffield (1998) p67]
The Maryland legislature (Article 83B section 5-406 [b] , Annotated Code of Maryland 05.08.06) authorizes a commission on Indian affairs to consider regulations for recognition and has issue detailed procedural requirements and criteria for attaining state recognition. Two groups claiming Piscataway ancestors have pending applications there. [Sheffield (1998) p64] However, Maryland has so far recognized no tribes.
*Chaubunagungamaug Band of the Nipmuck Nation, Webster/Dudley. Letter of Intent to Petition 04/22/1980 as part of Nipmuc Nation; separate letter of intent 5/31/1996; proposed finding was in progress. Declined to acknowledge on 6/25/2004, 69 FR 35664; Reconsideration request before IBIA (not yet effective)
*"'Herring Pond Wampanoag Tribe
*Nipmuc Nation (Hassanamisco Band) Letter of Intent to Petition 04/22/1980; formerly part of Nipmuc Nation (separated May 22, 1996); Proposed finding in progress. Declined to acknowledge on 6/25/2004, 69 FR 35667; Reconsideration request before IBIA (not yet effective)
*"'Pocasset Wampanoag Tribe
*"'Seaconke Wampanoag Tribe
In addition Wampanoags unaffiliated with the Mashpee or Aquinnah and tribal members from Maine tribes [formerly under Massachusetts jurisidction till statehood in 1820] are represented by the State Commission on Indian Affairs [cite web|url=http://www.lawlib.state.ma.us/ExecOrders/eo126.txt|title=EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 126 - Massachusetts Native Americans|author=Michael S. Dukakis]
*Burt Lake Band of Ottawa and Chippewa Indianscite web|url=http://www.michigan.gov/dhs/0,1607,7-124-5452_7124_7209-21045--,00.html|title=State Historic Tribes|author=Michigan Department of Human Services]
*Grand River Bands of Ottawa Indians
*Gun Lake Band of Grand River Ottawa Indians
*Swan Creek Black River Confederated Ojibwa Tribes
*Chickamauga Cherokee Nation(I)cite web|url=http://500nations.com/500_Tribes.asp|author=500nations.com|title=Nations, Tribes, Bands|accessdate=2008-09-28]
*Northern Cherokee Nation of the Old Louisiana Territory, Letter of Intent to Petition 2/19/1992
*Nanticoke Lenni-Lenape Indians. Letter of Intent to Petition 01/03/1992.
*Powhatan-Renape Nation. Letter of Intent to Petition 04/12/1996.
*Ramapough Lenape Indian Nation (aka
Ramapo Mountain Indians). Letter of Intent to Petition 08/14/1979. Decline to Acknowledge 2/6/1996 (61 FR 4476); request for reconsideration to IBIA; decision affirmed 7/18/1997; reconsidered Final Determination 1/7/1998 (63 FR 888); in litigation; 12/11/2001, U.S. Court of Appeals affirmed the District Court’s Memorandum Opinion & Order granting summary judgment to the Department; US Supreme Court denied cert. 2002; Decision effective 1/7/1998.
In addition, New Jersey recognizes the Inter-Tribal American Indians of New Jersey, an organization created circa 1980 to meet the needs of American Indians from across North and South America who are now living in New Jersey. The organization provides social activities and support to those Indians living in New Jersey and is dedicated to educating the public about American Indian culture and history.
In New Mexico, the State Constitution authorizes the State to recognize tribes other than those with federal recognition. [Sheffield (1998) p64]
*Genízaro—Fray Agustín Morti, referring to the Genízaro Indians of Analco (a Santa Fe barrio) in 1779, gave the following precise and correct definition of them: "This name is given to the children of the captives of different [Indian] nations who have married in the province." [Fray Angelo Chavez, "Genízaros", Handbook of North American Indians (Smithsonian Institution, 1979), Vol. 9, pg. 198] In 2007,
Genízaros received New Mexico state legislative recognition as an indigenous group. [See " [http://legis.state.nm.us/Sessions/07%20Regular/firs/HM040.pdf House Memorial 40] (HM40)", "Genizaros, In Recognition" and " [http://legis.state.nm.us/Sessions/07%20Regular/firs/SM059.pdf Senate Memorial 59] (SM59)", "Genizaros, In Recognition," 2007 New Mexico State Legislature, Regular Session.] Although New Mexico's Legislative Memorial bills do not have the force of law, HM 40 and SM 59 formally acknowledge the legislative desire to recognize Genízaros as an indigenous group. [See [http://legis.state.nm.us/lcs/glossary.asp New Mexico Legistature: Glossary of Legislative Terms—General Legislative and Financial Terms] ] This is an important step in sustaining State and Federal Genízaro Indian recognition. Some American Indian law scholars have opined that state legislative memorials and/or resolutions create official state recognition. [Cohen, Felix S. "Cohen's handbook of federal Indian law". 2005 ed. Newark, NJ : LexisNexis, c2005. KF8205 .C6 2005, Sec. 3.02(9) at 171.] Of the 16 states that host state-recognized tribes, 5 have recognized tribes through the enactment of state legislative resolutions/memorials, suggesting this legislative recognition process is an appropriate means for granting formal state recognition. [Alexa Koenig and Jonathan Stein, "Federalism and the State Recognition of Native American Tribes: A survey of State-Recognized Tribes and State Recognition Processes Across the United States", University of Santa ClaraLaw Review, Vol. 48 (2008) pg. 107.]
CoharieIntra-tribal Councilcite web|url=http://www.doa.state.nc.us/cia/tribes.pdf|title=North Carolina American Indian Tribes and Organizations|date=February, 2007|author=North Carolina Department of Administration] Letter of Intent to Petition 3/13/1981.
Haliwa-SaponiIndian Tribe Letter of Intent to Petition 1/27/1979. Notified of "obvious deficiencies" in federal recognition application [Sheffield (1998) p68-70]
LumbeeTribe of Cheraw Indians (a.k.a. Lumbee Regional Development Association Inc. and Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina). Letter of Intent to Petition 01/07/1980; determined ineligible to petition (SOL opinion of 10/23/1989).
MeherrinIndian Tribe (I). Letter of Intent to Petition 8/2/1990.:There is also an Unrecognized tribe with the same name, Meherrin Indian Tribe (II).
Occaneechi Band of the Saponi Nation. Letter of Intent to Petition 01/06/1995.
*Sappony Tribe (formerly known as Indians of Person County, North Carolina). For more than two centuries, the Sappony have lived in the central Piedmont area straddling the North Carolina-Virginia border. The Tribe of 850 members descend from the Sappony (
Saponi) Nation that stayed behind when the rest of the tribe moved north to join the Cayuga in in New York in 1753 and south to join the Catawba in South Carolina. The tribe established an Indian church in the 1830s and an Indian school, High Plains School, that was in use from 1888 until 1962.:Another group was recognized by the state in 1913 as the Indians of Person County [Sheffield (1998) p68-70]
Waccamaw SiouanDevelopment Association Letter of Intent to Petition 06/27/1983; determined ineligible to petition (SOL opinion of 10/23/1989). Letter of Intent to Petition 10/16/1992; determined eligible to petition (SOL letter of 6/29/1995).
* United Remnant Band of the
ShawneeNation (aka Shawnee Nation United Remnant Band). State recognized 1979. ["Joint Resolution to recognize the Shawnee Nation United Remnant Band" / as adopted by the [Ohio] Senate, 113th General Assembly, Regular Session, Am. Sub. H.J.R. No. 8, 1979- 1980] Letter of Intent to Petition 03/13/1979. Located in Champaign and Logan Counties, near Urbana and Bellefontaine.
Section 1 31 40(A)(10), South Carolina Code of Laws (Annotated) provides that “The South Carolina Commission for Minority Affairs shall promulgate regulations as may be necessary regarding State Recognition of Native American Indian entities in the State of South Carolina.” These rules and regulations shall be applicable to all entities seeking Native American Indian State Recognition as a: A. Native American Indian Tribe; B. Native American Indian Group; C. Native American Special Interest Organization.
*Beaver Creek Band of Pee Dee Indians. Letter of Intent to Petition 01/26/1998. State recognized tribe in 2006.cite web|url=http://www.state.sc.us/cma/pdfs/s_c_tribes_and_groups.pdf|title=SC tribes and groups|author=South Carolina Commission for Minority Affairs] cite web|url=http://southcarolinaindianaffairs.com/members.html|title=Members|author=South Carolina Indian Affairs Commission] cite web|url=http://scindigenousgallery.com|title=Visitors Center|author=South Carolina Indigenous Gallery]
*Pee Dee Nation of Upper South Carolina. Letter of Intent to Petition 12/14/2005. State recognized tribe in 2005.
*Pee Dee Tribe of South Carolina, state recognized tribe in 2006.
*Santee Indian Organization (formerly White Oak Indian Community). Letter of Intent to Petition 06/04/1979. State recognized tribe in 2006.
*Waccamaw Indian People, state recognized tribe in 2005.
State-recognized tribal Groups:
*Chaloklowa Chickasaw Indian People. Letter of Intent to Petition 08/14/2002. Receipt of Petition 08/14/2002. [http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2003/03-6659.htm Receipt of Petitions for Federal Acknowledgment of Existence as an Indian Tribe (68 FR 13724)] ] State recognized tribal group in 2005.
*Eastern Cherokee, Southern Iroquois & United Tribes of South Carolina, Inc. (aka Cherokee Indian Tribe of South Carolina or ECSIUT), state recognized tribal group in 2005.
*Natchez Indian Tribe, state recognized tribal group in 2007.
*Pee Dee Indian Nation of Beaver Creek. Letter of Intent to Petition 6/16/1999. State recognized tribal group in 2007.
*Piedmont American Indian Association of South Carolina (or Piedmont American Indian Association - Lower Eastern Cherokee Nation of South Carolina) Letter of Intent to Petition 8/20/1998. State recognized tribal group in 2006.
*Wassamasaw Tribe of Varnertown Indians, state recognized tribal group in 2005.
Tennessee Code authorized the state Commission of Indian Affairs from 1983 to 2000 and from 2003 to today (TCA 4-34-103 §6) to develop recognition criteria and to recognize tribes other than those with federal recognition. The recognition rule, TNCIA Rule 0785-1 (2007), modeled on federal recognition criteria ( [http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/cfr_2001/aprqtr/25cfr83.7.htm 25 CFR 83.7] ), has been currently suspended by the Commission pending legislative review of the rule.
To date, Tennessee has not recognized any tribes using this process. One group was recognized in 1978 by the governor, but the state Attorney General's opinion of 5 December 1991 contends that such authority rests exclusively with the state legislature and does not consider the gubernatorial proclamation as legally valid.
In 2004 a Native American-related organization began soliciting recognition of itself as a clan on the county level, and has received some such recognition by county government resolution.
Currently, Vermont law only recognizes
Abenakis as Native American Indians, "not the tribes or bands".
*Chickahominy Indian Tribe. Letter of Intent to Petition 03/19/1996.. State recognized 1983; in Charles City County.cite web|url=http://indians.vipnet.org/tribes/index.cfm|title=Virginia Tribes|author=Virginia Council on Indians]
*Chickahominy Indians, Eastern Division (aka Eastern Chickahominy Indian Tribe). Letter of Intent to Petition 9/6/2001. State recognized, 1983; in New Kent County.
MattaponiTribe (aka Mattaponi Indian Reservation). Letter of Intent to Petition 04/04/1995. State recognized 1983; in Banks of the Mattaponi River, King William County. The Mattaponi and Pamunkey have reservations based in colonial-era treaties ratified by the Commonwealth in 1658. Pamunkey Tribe's attorney told Congress in 1991 that the tribes state reservation originated in a treaty with the crown in the 1600s and has been occupied by Pamunkey since that time under strict requirements and following the treaty obligation to provide to the Crown a deer every year, and they've done that (replacing Crown with Governor of Commonwealth since Viginia became a Commonwealth) [Sheffield (1998) p71-73]
*Monacan Indian Nation (formerly Monacan Indian Tribe of Virginia). Letter of Intent to Petition 07/11/1995. State recognized 1989; in Bear Mountain, Amherst County.
*Nansemond Indian Tribal Association, Letter of Intent to Petition 9/20/2001. State recognized 1985; in Cities of Suffolk and Chesapeake.
*Pamunkey Nation, recognized 1983; in Banks of the Pamunkey River, King William County.
*Rappahannock Indian Tribe (I) (formerly United Rappahannock Tribe). Letter of Intent to Petition 11/16/1979. State recognized 1983; in Indian Neck, King & Queen County.. Shares a name with an unrecognized tribe Rappahannock Indian Tribe (II).
*The Upper Mattaponi Indian Tribe (formerly Upper Mattaponi Indian Tribal Association). Letter of Intent to Petition 11/26/1979. State recognized 1983; in King William County.
* Koenig, Alexa and Jonathan Stein (2008) Federalism and the State Recognition of Native American Tribes: A survey of State-Recognized Tribes and State Recognition Processes Across the United States. University of Santa Clara Law Review, Vol. 48
* Sheffield, Gail (1998) Arbitrary Indian: The Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990. University of Oklahoma Press ISBN 0806129697
* [http://www.usconstitution.net/const.html Constitution] of the
Federally recognized tribes
Classification of Native Americans
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.