- John Lawrence Toole
name = J. L. Toole
imagesize = 220px
caption = Toole in the title role in "The Don", 1888
birthname = John Lawrence Toole
birthdate = birth date|1832|3|12|mf=y
location = St Mary Axe,
City of London
deathdate = death date and age|1906|7|30|1832|3|12|mf=y
yearsactive = 1852 – 1893
notable role =
John Lawrence (J. L.) Toole (
12 March 1830– 30 July 1906) was an English comic actorand theatrical producer. He was famous for his roles in farce and in serio-comic melodramas in a career that spanned more than four decades. He was so famous in his day that he was the first actor to have a West End theatrenamed after him.
Life and career
Toole was born in
London, the younger son of James Toole and his wife, Elizabeth. His father was a messenger for the East India Company and for some years an usher at the Old Bailey, who for many years in the 1840s acted as toastmasterin the City of London.Read, Michael. "Toole, John Lawrence (1830–1906)", "Oxford Dictionary of National Biography" (2004), Oxford University Press [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/36536 online edn, 2008] , accessed 9 June 2008 (requires subscription)] [http://www.library.rochester.edu/index.cfm?page=1169 "John Lawrence Toole Papers" – 1850-1907, University of Rochester libraries] ]
He was educated at the
City of London Schoolfrom 1841–45, and started life as a clerk in a wine merchant's office. In 1854, Toole married Susan Hale (née Caslake), a widow five years older than he. They had a son, Frank Lawrence, and a daughter, Florence Mabel, but both children died in their 20s. [http://www.gabrielleray.150m.com/ArchivePressText2003/20030503.html Clipping about the death of Toole's son in 1879] ]
Toole began his acting career by training as an amateur with the City Histrionic Club, beginning in 1850 and by performing in other amateur theatricals and in comic sketches. He earned good notices, particularly as Jacob Earwig in "Boots", and soon met
Charles Dickens, who had heard of him and came to see him act.Obituary, " The Times, 31 July 1906, p. 5] His last amateur role was as Simmons in "The Spitalfields Weaver" at the Haymarket Theatre. Encouraged by Dickens, he made his professional stage debut in 1852 at the Queen's Theatre in Dublin, under the management of Charles Dillon, and by 1853 became the principal "low comedian" at the Theatre Royale in Edinburgh. His older brother, Francis, acted as his manager throughout his early career. During the next two years, he performed widely in Ireland and Scotland, gaining a reputation for sunny extemporaneous comedy, humorous expressions and a uniquely comic voice, freedom with his texts, and an engaging rapport with audiences.
In 1854, Toole made his first professional appearance in London at the St. James's Theatre, acting as
Samuel Pepysin "The King's Rival", by Tom Taylorand Charles Reade, and Weazel in "My Friend the Major" by Selby. He returned to the provinces, but by 1856 was engaged in London at the Lyceum Theatre, including as Fanfaronade in "Belphegor" at the Lyceum Theatre(in which Marie Wilton, made her first London appearance). [http://www.arthurlloyd.co.uk/Toole.htm "Toole's Theatre-Polygraphic Hall-Charing Cross Theatre-The Folly" (Arthur Lloyd)] accessed 11 Oct 2007] Thereafter, he frequently performed with Wilton. In 1857, having had a great success in London as Paul Pryin John Poole's farce of that name, he made his first of many successful provincial summer tours. During this first tour, he met and acted together with Henry Irving, and the two remained close friends over their long careers. In 1858, he scored a notable hit creating the role of Tom Cranky in John Hollingshead's farce "The Birthplace of Podgers."
In 1858, at the suggestion of Dickens, Toole joined
Benjamin Webster's company at the Adelphi Theatreand established his popularity as a farceur, creating, among other parts, Joe Spriggins in "Ici on parle français". He remained at the Adelphi as principal low comedian for nine years, frequently partnering with Paul Bedford, whose sedate comic style complemented his own contrasting energetic style. His most successful roles there included Bob Cratchit in " A Christmas Carol" (1859) and Caleb Plummer in "Dot" (1862), by Dion Boucicault. He played a season in 1867 with the impressive new company at Queen's Theatre that included Irving, Henrietta Hodsonand Charles Wyndham, where he appeared in such works a H. J. Byron's "Dearer Than Life".
Toole was then engaged in 1868 at the Gaiety Theatre by Hollingshead, appearing in many pieces there including "Thespis", the first
Gilbert and Sullivancollaboration. In 1873–74, among other successes, he portrayed the Irishman Brulgruddery in "John Bull" by the younger Colman; Bob Acres in " The Rivals" by Richard Brinsley Sheridan, together with Charles James Mathewsand Samuel Phelps; and created the role of the barrister Hammond Coote in "Wig and Gown" by James Albery. Toole's fame was at its height in 1874, when he went on tour to America, but he failed to reproduce there the success he had found in England. He remained based mostly at the Gaiety until the end of 1877, when he moved to the Globe Theatre under his own management for two years. [Hollingshead, John. "Good Old Gaiety" (1903) London, p. 39]
In 1878, Toole created the role of Charles Liquorpond in "A Fool and his Money" by H. J. Byron. Liquorpond was a retired footman unexpectedly overtaken by wealth, and Toole's affectedly superior pronunciation, particularly of his own name, was a tremendous success. In his prime, Toole achieved wide popularity as a comic actor, being noted for his comic delivery of words, but he did not confine himself exclusively to comedy. He also excelled in domestic melodramas (adaptations by
Dion Boucicaultand others of Charles Dickensand similar writers), playing "tender-hearted victims of fate", where he was famously able to combine humour and pathos. " The Times" said of his performance in "Dearer than Life" by Henry James Byron, "Mr. J. L. Toole... is associated in the minds of the general public mainly with parts provoking to uproarious laughter; but it may fairly be questioned whether, like his predecessor in this also, his heart does not lie with, and he himself is not seen to more advantage in, the telling sketches from everyday life to which, for want of a better, we give the name of domestic drama. Anything more lifelike than the intensity of cold and hunger from which he may be almost said to suffer, in the garret-scene, as Michael Garner it would be difficult to conceive." ["The Times", 27 December 1871]
In 1879, Toole realized a lifelong ambition by taking over the management of the
Folly Theatrein London. This triumph was offset by the death of his son in the same year, after a football injury. He renamed the theatre "Toole's Theatre" in 1882, becoming the first actor to have a West End theatrenamed after him. He was often away in the provinces, but he produced here a number of plays:
*H. J. Byron's "A Fool and His Money" (1879) [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=1_MgAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA118&lpg=PA118&dq=%22toole's+theatre%22+london&source=web&ots=RswaSeZitb&sig=1nXzaz8MkEHRr1BPfdbu6LkOdb0 MacMichael, J. Holden. "The Story of Charing Cross and Its Immediate Neighbourhood"] (1906)Chatto & Windus, accessed 12 October 2007]
Arthur Wing Pinero's "Hester's Mystery" (1880)
*Byron's "Upper Crust and Auntie" (1880) [ [http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=990CE2D91F31EE3ABC4E51DFB266838B699FDE&oref=slogin NY Times review of "The Upper Crust and Auntie" April 26 1880] accessed 11 Oct 2007]
F. C. Burnand's "Stage Dora; or, Who Killed Cock Robin" (1883), a burlesque of Sardou's Fédora, starring Toole
*Burnand's "Paw Claudian" (1884), a burlesque of the 1883 costume (Byzantine) drama 'Claudian' by Henry Herman and W. G. Wills
*Pinero's "Girls and Boys" (1885)
*"Mr. Guffin’s Elopement" and "The Great Tay-Kin" both with words by
Arthur Lawand music by George Grossmith, starring Toole (1885) [cite book|last=Grossmith|first=George|year=1888|title=A Society Clown: Reminiscences|location=Bristol/London|publisher=Arrowsmith Chapter 8 [http://math.boisestate.edu/gas/books/grossmith/gg08.html Available online here] ]
*A revival of "
Billee Taylor" (1886)
*"The Butler", by
Herman Charles Merivale, starring Toole (1886)
*"Pepita", an operetta by
*"The Don", by Merivale, starring Toole (1888).Adams, William Davenport. "A Dictionary of the Drama (1904) 1904 Chatto & Windus, London]
*"The Bungalow", by Fred Horner (1890) [ [http://www.21citizen.org.uk/catalogues/evanion/results.asp?key=Toole's+Theatre&source=showlist.asp&type=Heading&searchtype=&id=234 Notices and posters for Toole's Theatre pieces] ]
J. M. Barrie's "Ibsen's Ghost, or, Toole up to Date", a one-act satire on London productions of Ibsen, including " Hedda Gabler", starring Irene Vanbrughand Toole (1891)
*Barrie's "Walker, London", a highly successful farce, directed by Toole (1892) [http://www.c20th.com/ppjmbarrie.htm Peter Pan exhibition site] ]
Toole began to be troubled by
goutin 1886. After his daughter died in 1888, followed by his wife in 1889, Toole was disconsolate, and his health deteriorated further. Nevertheless, he toured Australia and New Zealand in 1890. After this, his stage appearances gradually became fewer. The gout left him sometimes unable to walk, and after an 1893 illness during "Thoroughbred" by Ralph Lumley, he retired from the London stage, although he made occasional appearances in the provinces until about 1896. His theatre was demolished in 1895 for an extension of Charing Cross Hospital, and he dissolved his theatre company after an 1896 tour.
Clement Scottcalled him "one of the kindest and most genial men who ever drew breath.... No one acted with more spirit or enjoyed so thoroughly the mere pleasure of acting." Toole's genial and sympathetic nature was conspicuous off the stage as well as on it, and he was known as a great practical joker. He published his reminiscences in 1888.
Ultimately he retired to
Brighton, where after a long struggle with Bright's diseaseand a degenerative spinal illness, he died at the age of 76. He is buried at Kensal Green cemetery in London, next to his wife and children. Toole was a good businessman and left a considerable fortune of over £81,000, out of which he made a number of bequests to charity, to needy actors and to his friends.
*Toole, John Lawrence and Joseph Hatton. "Reminiscences of J. L. Toole" (1889) Hurst and Blackett, limited (2 vols.)
*"Daily Telegraph", 31 July 1906, p. 2
*"The Times", 4 August 1906, p. 12
*Goddard, A. "Players of the period", 2 vols. (1891)
*Hollingshead, John. "Gaiety Chronicles" (1898)
*Forster, J. "The life of Charles Dickens", 3 vols. (1872–4)
*C. E. Pascoe, ed., "The dramatic list", 2nd edn (1880)
*Vanbrugh, I. "To tell my story" (1948)
*Irving, L. "Henry Irving: the actor and his world" (1951)
*R. Foulkes, ed., "British theatre in the 1890s" (1992)
* [http://www.npg.org.uk/live/search/person.asp?LinkID=mp04519 Photos and other images of Toole]
NAME= Toole, J. L.
ALTERNATIVE NAMES= Toole, John Lawrence
DATE OF BIRTH= birth date|1832|3|12|mf=y
PLACE OF BIRTH= St Mary Axe,
City of London
DATE OF DEATH= death date and age|1906|7|30|1832|3|12|mf=y
PLACE OF DEATH=
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