Loa


Loa

The Loa (also "Lwa" or "L'wha") are the spirits of the Vodou religion practiced in Haiti, and other parts of the world. They are also referred to as the Mystères and the Invisibles. They are somewhat akin to saints or angels in Western religions in that they are intermediaries between Bondye (Bon Dieu, or good god)—the Creator, who is distant from the world—and humanity. Unlike saints or angels however, they are not simply prayed to, they are served. They are each distinct beings with their own personal likes and dislikes, distinct sacred rhythms, songs, dances, ritual symbols, and special modes of service. Contrary to popular belief, the loa are not deities in and of themselves; they are intermediaries for a distant Bondye.

yncretism

As a way to keep their European masters from interfering, and to appease the authorities who prevented them from practising their own religions, the African slaves in Haiti syncretised the Loa with the Roman Catholic saints - so Vodoun altars will frequently have images of Catholic figures displayed. For example, Papa Legba is alternately St. Peter or St. Lazarus, Ayizan is Saint Clare, and so on. Syncretism also works the other way in Haitian Vodou and many catholic saints have become Loa in their own right, most notably St Philomena, St Michael the Archangel and St John the Baptist.

Rituals

In a ritual the Loa are summoned by the Houngan (Priest) Mambo (Priestess) or Bokor (Sorcerers) to take part in the service, receive offerings, and grant requests. The Loa arrive in the peristyle (ritual space) by mounting (possessing) a horse (ritualist) - who is said to be "ridden." This can be quite a violent occurrence as the participant can flail about or convulse before falling to the ground, but some Loa will mount their horses very quietly - Ayizan is one such Loa.

Certain Loa display very distinctive behaviour by which they can be recognised, specific phrases, and specific actions. As soon as a Loa is recognised, the symbols appropriate to them will be given to them. For example Erzulie Freda will be given a mirror and a comb, fine cloth or jewellery; Legba will be given his cane, straw hat and pipe; Baron Samedi will be given his top hat, sunglasses and a cigar.

Once the Loa has arrived, fed, been served, and possibly given help or advice, they leave the peristyle. Contrary to the Western perception of possession, a Loa has no need to remain in the horse (possessed ritualist). Certain Loa can become obstinate, for example the Ghede are notorious for wanting just one more smoke, or one more drink, but it is the job of the Houngan or Mambo to keep the spirits in line while ensuring they are adequately provided for.

Nanchons of lwa

There are many families or "nanchons" (nations) of Loa - Rada (also Radha), Petro (also Pethro, Petwo), Nago, Kongo and Ghede (Also Guede, or Gede)to name but a few.

Rada lwa

The Rada Loa are generally the older, more beneficent spirits. They include Legba, Loko, Ayizan, Dhamballah Wedo and Ayida-Weddo, Erzulie Freda, La Sirène, and Agwe. Their traditional colour is white (as opposed to the specific colours of individual Loa).

Petro lwa

The Petro Loa are generally the more fiery, occasionally aggressive and warlike Loa. They include Ezili Dantor, Marinette, Ogoun, and Kalfu (Carrefour). Their traditional colour is red.

Kongo lwa

Originating from the Congo region of Africa, these spirits include the many Simbi loa, it also includes the much dreaded Marinette, a fierce and much feared female loa.

Nago

Originating from Nigeria (specifically the Yoruba speaking tribes) this nanchon includes many of the Ogun spirits.

Ghede lwa

The Ghede are the spirits of the dead. They are traditionally led by the Barons (La Croix, Samedi, Cimitière, Kriminel), and Maman Brigitte. The Ghede as a family are loud, rude (although rarely to the point of real insult), sexual, and usually a lot of fun. As those who have lived already, they have nothing to fear, and frequently will display how far past consequence and feeling they are when they come through in a service - eating glass, raw chillis, and anointing their sensitive areas with chilli rum for example. Their traditional colours are black and purple.

List of Lwa

A selection of Loa follows:

ee also

*Haitian mythology
*Paket kongo

External links

* [http://www.webster.edu/~corbetre/haiti/voodoo/biglist.htm Webster list of loa]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Loa — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Loa (homonymie) …   Wikipédia en Français

  • LOA — bezeichnet: in der Wodu Religion verehrte Wesenheiten, siehe Loa; parasitische Fadenwürmer, siehe Loa loa; den Ort Loa im US Bundesstaat Utah; den Fluss Loa in Chile; die amerikanische Rockband Life of Agony; den Vulkan Mauna Loa. eine bestimmte… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Loa — bezeichnet: Loa loa, parasitische Fadenwürmer Loa (Voodoo), in der Voodoo Religion verehrte Wesenheiten Loa (spanische Literaturwissenschaft), Form des Prologs in der spanischen Literaturwissenschaft: Loa, geographisch: Loa (Utah), County Seat… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • LOA — could stand for:*Library of America, an American publisher*Leave of Absence. This is common in the work force, if a patient becomes sick and takes a leave of absence.*Length Over All, commonly used to indicate maximum hull length of a vessel. LOA …   Wikipedia

  • LOA — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. {{{image}}}   Sigles d une seule lettre   Sigles de deux lettres > Sigles de trois lettres …   Wikipédia en Français

  • LOA — LOA,   Lead out Area. * * * Loa, die; , s [span. loa = Lob, zu: loar < lat. laudare = loben] (Literaturw.): mit einem Lob des Autors verbundenes ↑Vorspiel (1 b) im älteren spanischen ↑Drama (1 a) …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Loa — Loa, UT U.S. town in Utah Population (2000): 525 Housing Units (2000): 203 Land area (2000): 0.881599 sq. miles (2.283330 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.881599 sq. miles (2.283330 sq. km) FIPS …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Loa, UT — U.S. town in Utah Population (2000): 525 Housing Units (2000): 203 Land area (2000): 0.881599 sq. miles (2.283330 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.881599 sq. miles (2.283330 sq. km) FIPS code:… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • loa — n. m. (Haïti) Divinité, puissance surnaturelle dans le culte vaudou. être possédé par un loa …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Loa — die; , s <aus span. loa »Lob« zu loar »loben«, dies aus gleichbed. lat. laudare>: 1. [mit einem Lob des Autors, des Publikums o. Ä.] verbundenes Vorspiel, kurze dramatische Dichtung vor dem eigentlichen Schauspiel in älteren spanischen… …   Das große Fremdwörterbuch

  • Loa [1] — Loa (span.), ein den Inhalt des Stückes ankündigender Prolog des spanischen Schauspiels; beim geistlichen Schauspiel L. sacramental …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon