Abdication


Abdication

Abdication (from the Latin "abdicatio", disowning, renouncing, from "ab", away from, and "dicare", to declare, to proclaim as not belonging to one) is the act of renouncing and resigning from a formal office, especially from the supreme office of state. In Roman law the term was also applied to the disowning of a family member, as the disinheriting of a son. The term commonly applies to monarchs, or those who have been formally crowned. A similar term for an elected or appointed official is resignation.

Abdications in western classical antiquity

Among the most memorable abdications of antiquity were those of Lucius Cornelius Sulla the Dictator in 79 BC, Emperor Diocletian in AD 305, and Emperor Romulus Augustulus in AD 476.

The British Crown

Probably the most famous abdication in recent memory is that of King Edward VIII of the United Kingdom in 1936. Edward abdicated the British throne in order to marry American divorcée Wallis Simpson, over the objections of the British establishment, the governments of the Commonwealth, the royal family and the Church of England. ("See" Abdication Crisis of Edward VIII.) This was also the first time in history that the British crown was surrendered entirely voluntarily. Richard II of England, for example, was forced to abdicate after the throne was seized by his cousin, Henry Bolingbroke, while Richard was out of the country.

When James II of England, after throwing the Great Seal of the Realm into the Thames, fled to France in 1688, he did not formally resign the crown, and the question was discussed in Parliament whether he had forfeited the throne or had abdicated. The latter designation was agreed upon, for, in a full assembly of the Lords and Commons, it was resolved in spite of James's protest "that King James II having endeavoured to subvert the constitution of the kingdom, by breaking the original contract between king and people, and, by the advice of Jesuits and other wicked persons, having violated the fundamental laws, and having withdrawn himself out of this kingdom, has abdicated the government, and that the throne is thereby vacant." The Scottish parliament pronounced a decree of forfeiture and deposition.

Because the title to the Crown depends upon statute, particularly the Act of Settlement 1701, a Royal Abdication can only be effected by an Act of Parliament; under the terms of the Statute of Westminster 1931, such an act must be passed by the parliament of all sixteen Commonwealth realms. To give legal effect to the abdication of King Edward VIII of the United Kingdom, His Majesty's Declaration of Abdication Act 1936 was passed.

Modern abdications

Historically, if a monarch abdicated it was seen as a profound and shocking abandonment of royal duty. As a result, abdications usually only occurred in the most extreme circumstances of political turmoil or violence. This has changed in a small number of countries: the monarchs of the Netherlands, Luxembourg and Cambodia have abdicated as a result of old age. Prince Hans-Adam II of Liechtenstein recently made his son regent, an act which amounted to an abdication in fact if not in law.

List

The following is a list of important abdications:

Notes

1Charles abdicated as lord of the Netherlands (October 25, 1555) and king of Spain (January 16, 1556), in favor of his son Philip II of Spain. Also in 1556 he separately voluntarily abdicated his German possessions and the title of Holy Roman Emperor.
²Pedro IV of Portugal and Pedro I of Brazil were the same person. He was already Emperor of Brazil when he succeeded to the throne of Portugal in 1826, but abdicated it at once in favour of his daughter Maria II of Portugal. Later he abdicated the throne of Brazil in favor of his son Pedro II.
³Hans-Adam II made his son Alois regent, effectively abdicating; however, he still remains the formal Head of State.

ee also

*Lists of incumbents
*List of monarchs who lost their thrones or abdicated in the 20th century
*Papal abdication
*The Great Abdication

References

* Public domain 1911 edition of "The New Century Book of Facts" published by the King-Richardson Company, Springfield, Massachusetts.


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  • abdication — [ abdikasjɔ̃ ] n. f. • 1406; lat. abdicatio 1 ♦ Action d abdiquer, de renoncer à qqch. ⇒ abandon, renonciation. L abdication de sa volonté, de ses ambitions. « Tout plutôt que l abdication de la raison, de la justice devant la force brutale »… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Abdication — • Ecclesiastically considered, is the resignation of a benefice or clerical dignity Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Abdication     Abdication      …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • abdication — I noun abandonment, abdicatio, abjuration, demission, departure, deposition, dethronement, eiuratio, leaving, quitting, relinquishment, renunciation, resignation, surrender, surrender of control, uncrowning, vacating, vacation, withdrawal foreign …   Law dictionary

  • abdication — Abdication. s. f. v. Action par laquelle on abdique. L abdication de Dioclétien, l abdication de Charles Quint. Il se prend aussi passivement, & se dit par rapport à la chose abdiquée. L abdication de l Empire …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie française

  • Abdication — Ab di*ca tion, n. [L. abdicatio: cf. F. abdication.] The act of abdicating; the renunciation of a high office, dignity, or trust, by its holder; commonly the voluntary renunciation of sovereign power; as, abdication of the throne, government,… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • abdication — (n.) 1550s, a disowning, from L. abdicationem (nom. abdicatio) renunciation, abdication, noun of action from pp. stem of abdicare (see ABDICATE (Cf. abdicate)); sense of resignation of sovereignty is from 1680s …   Etymology dictionary

  • Abdication — (v. lat., Absagung), 1) (Abdicatioliberorum), Verstoßung des Sohnes aus der väterlichen Gewalt; 2) (Abdicatioatutela), Ablösung einer beschwerlichen Obliegenheit, bes. der Vormundschaft; 3) (Abdicatio juris), freiwillige Entäußerung eines Rechts; …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Abdication — Abdication, 1. Verzicht, Ablehnung, Abdankung; 2. Verstoßung unwürdiger Kinder; factisch wohl, aber rechtlich nicht können sich die Eltern ihrer Pflichten entbinden …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Abdication — L abdication (du latin abdicatio, renier, renoncer ; ab de, et dicare, déclarer, proclamer comme n appartenant pas à quelqu un) est l acte selon lequel une personne renonce et cède d elle même sa fonction avant l expiration du temps… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • ABDICATION — s. f. Action par laquelle on renonce volontairement à une dignité souveraine dont on est revêtu. Il se dit en parlant De celui qui abdique, et De la chose abdiquée. L abdication de Dioclétien. L abdication de Christine, reine de Suède. Charles… …   Dictionnaire de l'Academie Francaise, 7eme edition (1835)


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